Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 82 in total

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  1. Nur Azlina MF, Qodriyah HMS, Chua KH, Kamisah Y
    World J. Gastroenterol., 2017 Aug 28;23(32):5887-5894.
    PMID: 28932080 DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v23.i32.5887
    AIM: To investigate and compare the effects of tocotrienol and omeprazole on gastric growth factors in rats exposed to water-immersion restraint stress (WIRS).

    METHODS: Twenty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups of seven rats. The two control groups were administered vitamin-free palm oil (vehicle) and the two treatment groups were given omeprazole (20 mg/kg) or tocotrienol (60 mg/kg) by oral gavage. After 28 d of treatment, rats from one control group and both treated groups were subjected to WIRS one time for 3.5 h. Gastric lesions were measured and gastric tissues were obtained to measure vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-α) mRNA expression.

    RESULTS: Rats exposed to WIRS for 3.5 h demonstrated the presence of considerable ulcers in the form of gastric erosion. The lesion index in the stressed control (S) group was increased (P < 0.001) compared to the tocotrienol treated and omeprazole treated groups. Stress led to a decrease in gastric VEGF (P < 0.001), bFGF (P < 0.001) and TGF-α (P < 0.001) mRNA levels and caused an increase in EGF mRNA (P < 0.001) that was statistically significant compared to the non-stressed control group. Although both treatment agents exerted similar ulcer reducing ability, only treatment with tocotrienol led to increased expression of VEGF (P = 0.008), bFGF (P = 0.001) and TGF-α (P = 0.002) mRNA.

    CONCLUSION: Tocotrienol provides gastroprotective effects in WIRS-induced ulcers. Compared to omeprazole, tocotrienol exerts a similar protective effect, albeit through multiple mechanisms of protection, particularly through up-regulation of growth factors that assist in repair of gastric tissue injuries.

    Matched MeSH terms: Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism
  2. Topchii II, Kirienko AN, Kirienko DA, Yakovtsova II, Gavriluk AA, Danyliuk SV, et al.
    Wiad. Lek., 2019;72(7):1269-1273.
    PMID: 31398154
    OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Vascular endothelium function interruption has the main role among mechanisms of development and progression of chronic kidney disease. In numerous experimental and clinical studies, it was proved that activated vascular endothelium is a structural and functional unit that matches processes of inflammation with intravascular coagulation, fibrinolysis and haemorheological disorders. The aim: To identify special features of endothelium morphological structure in kidney vessels, coronary arteries and aorta during chronic kidney disease.

    PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: Based on autopsy materials, we conducted a morphological study of patients (n = 20) aged 45 to 55 years who were observed in cardiac and neurological hospitals for 5-7 years. We removed kidney, heart and aorta samples from patients. For the study, a histological and immunohistochemical methods were used.

    RESULTS: Results and conclusions: Morphological study of vessels endothelium of kidneys, heart and aorta demonstrated that in the majority of observations intima underwentprofound pathological changes, manifested by different degrees of disorganization of endothelial lining and violations of structural and functional organization of the endotheliocytes, subendothelial layer, basal membrane. These pathological processes in all cases had similar features with the development of immune inflammation. Inflammatory infiltration was represented by macrophages, mast cells, plasma cells. Biological mediators of the presented cells can aggravate the damage to endothelial cells. Indirect signs of low ability to restore the structure of the vessel wall and endothelial lining may be a weak expression of the VEGF and bcl-2 vascular endothelial growth factor.

    Matched MeSH terms: Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
  3. Othman FN, Muthuraju S, Noor SSM, Abdullah S, Mohd Yusoff AA, Tharakan J, et al.
    Tuberculosis (Edinb), 2018 09;112:45-51.
    PMID: 30205968 DOI: 10.1016/j.tube.2018.07.007
    The present study aimed to investigate the involvement of the angiogenic marker vascular endothelia growth factor (VEGF) and apoptotic markers of Bcl-2 and Bax in the neurons and astrocytes in the brain infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The immunohistochemistry staining was performed to analyze the expression of the VEGF, Bcl-2 and Bax in the astrocytes and neurons. The expression of VEGF was high in neurons and astrocytes in both the infected brain and control tissues with no difference of angiogenic activity (p = 0.40). Higher Bcl-2 expression was seen in astrocytes of infected brain tissues compared to the control tissues (p = 0.004) promoted a higher anti-apoptotic activity in astrocytes. The neurons expressed strong Bax expression in the infected brain tissues compared to the control tissues (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism*
  4. Fernandez AR, Husain R
    J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res., 2015 Feb;41(2):277-82.
    PMID: 25255906 DOI: 10.1111/jog.12511
    During preeclampsia (PE), the excessive circulation of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFLT1) hinders the vasodilatory effect of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). This effect has been proven in vitro in the renal artery of rats. The endothelium of the blood vessels is also said to be dysfunctional in PE. Genistein has shown the ability to antagonize the vascular contractions caused by a wide range of contractile agents. We conducted vascular reactivity studies to demonstrate the effect of: (i) sFLT1 on the vasodilatory effect of VEGF; and (ii) genistein on the vasodilatory effect of VEGF and its effects on denuded blood vessels (dysfunctional endothelium).
    Matched MeSH terms: Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
  5. Bastion ML, Then KY, Faridah HA, Mushawiahti M, Othmaliza O, Wong HS
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2011 Mar;66(1):10-4.
    PMID: 23765135 MyJurnal
    This retrospective study investigated the role of antivascular endothelial growth factor agents (VEGF), ranibizumab, bevacizumab and pegaptanib sodium in patients with iris neovascularisation (INV), in which 9 eyes received intraocular injections for various ischaemic ocular conditions. Ocular sequelae included recurrence of rubeosis (n=2) and hyphaema (n=2). Systemic complication included one case of cerebrovascular accident. INV regressed in all cases from day one. INV recurrence occurred in 2 cases. The mean intraocular pressure of the study eyes decreased from 25.3 mmHg to 18.3 mmHg at one month. Five eyes are medication free. Visual acuity improved in 5 eyes. Four eyes achieved a Snellen visual acuity of 6/24 or better. We conclude that the use of intraocular anti-VEGF agents are safe and effective for inducing the regression of INV. Patients with multiple systemic risk factors should be counseled on stroke risk.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A*
  6. Mazlyzam AL, Aminuddin BS, Saim L, Ruszymah BH
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2008 Jul;63 Suppl A:32-3.
    PMID: 19024969
    The angiogenic potential of native skin (NS), keratinocytes single skin equivalent (SSE-K), fibroblasts single skin equivalent (SSE-F) and bilayered skin equivalent secreting angiogenic growth factors such as transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in the in vitro systems at 24, 48, 72 hours and 7 days was compared using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Bilayered skin equivalent exhibit highest release of growth factors within 24 hours to 7 days of culture compared to NS, SSE-K and SSE-F. This proved the potential of bilayered skin equivalent in producing and sustaining growth factors release to enhance angiogenesis, fibroblasts proliferation, matrix deposition, migration and growth of keratinocytes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/physiology*
  7. Manzor NF, Chua KH, Tan GC, Tan AE, Abdul Rahman H
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2008 Jul;63 Suppl A:11-2.
    PMID: 19024960
    The objective of this study was to investigate the angiogenic potential of human chorion-derived stem cells (CDSC) cultured in medium containing bFGF and VEGF (EDM50). Total RNA was extracted from cells cultured in FD+10% FBS and EDM50. Quantitative RT-PCR was carried out to score the differential mRNA expression of genes involve in angiogenesis and endothelial differentiation. Our finding demonstrated that all angiogenic and endothelial associated genes were expressed higher in EDM50. Expression level of ANG-1, eNOS and VEGFR2 were significantly higher in EDM50 compared to FD+10% FBS. Our results suggested that human CDSC cultured in EDM50 can be used for angiogenesis purpose in regenerative medicine.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
  8. Yong MH, Amin A, Mushawiahti M, Bastion ML
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2015 Dec;70(6):358-60.
    PMID: 26988210
    We report a case of a middle-aged gentleman with recalcitrant macular oedema (RMO) secondary to ischaemic central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). He was given six injections of intravitreal ranibizumab (anti-VEGF) monthly. However, his visual acuity (VA) deteriorated and the macular oedema worsened. He then received an intravitreal dexamethasone implant eight months post-CRVO. His VA and macular oedema improved dramatically and significantly at first follow-up and remained stable at six months after implant. This case can be a reference for those who treating recalcitrant macular oedema. It shows the effect of an intravitreal dexamathasone implant might have in a patient with RMO due to CRVO. The patient enjoyed improvement of vision, with clinical evidence of reduction in central macular thickness (CMT) and with no serious adverse events after a single injection up to six months post implant.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
  9. Ng CT, Yip WK, Mohtarrudin N, Seow HF
    Malays J Pathol, 2015 Dec;37(3):219-25.
    PMID: 26712666 MyJurnal
    Immortalized human endothelial cells are widely used as in vitro models for debilitating conditions such as cancer, cardiovascular and ocular diseases. Human microvascular endothelial cell (HMEC-1) is immortalized via stable transfection with a gene encoding SV40 large antigen whilst telomerase-immortalized human microvascular endothelial (TIME) cells is immortalized by engineering the human telomerase catalytic protein (hTERT) into primary microvascular endothelial cells. Here, we established a three-dimensional (3D) spheroid invasion assay with HMEC-1 and TIME and compared the difference in their ability to invade through the collagen matrix in response to exogenous growth factors, namely vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF).
    Matched MeSH terms: Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism*; Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/pharmacology
  10. Vântu A, Ghertescu D, Fiscă C, Mărginean A, Hutanu A, Gheban D, et al.
    Malays J Pathol, 2019 Apr;41(1):25-32.
    PMID: 31025634
    INTRODUCTION: Experimental models are essential for clarifying the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in the context of diabetes mellitus (DM). We aimed to evaluate the presence and the magnitude of several factors known to promote atherogenesis, and to assess the potential of a pro-atherogenic environment to stimulate the development of atherosclerotic lesions in a rat model of long-term type 1 DM.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six control and five DM Wistar rats were evaluated. DM was induced at 11 weeks of age using streptozotocin (STZ; 60 mg/kg, intraperitoneal). Animals were monitored up to 38 weeks of age, when plasma glucose, lipid profile, and markers specific for systemic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and oxidative stress were measured. The amount of fat within the aortic wall was assessed semiquantitatively using Oil Red O staining.

    RESULTS: Diabetic rats presented significantly higher plasma glucose (p < 0.001), total cholesterol and triglycerides (both p = 0.02), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (p = 0.01), and vascular endothelial growth factor (p = 0.04) levels, and significantly lower interleukin-10 (p = 0.04), superoxide dismutase (p < 0.01), and glutathione peroxidase (p = 0.01) levels than the control rats. Mild (grade 1) atherosclerotic lesions were observed in the aortic wall of 80% of the diabetic rats and in none of the control rats.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study presents a STZ-induced type 1 DM rat model with one of the longest follow-ups in the literature. In this model, long-term DM created a highly pro-atherogenic environment characterised by hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, systemic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and oxidative stress that resulted in the development of early aortic atherosclerotic lesions.

    Matched MeSH terms: Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
  11. Ghazali WSW, Iberahim R, Ashari NSM
    Malays J Med Sci, 2017 Oct;24(5):62-72.
    PMID: 29386973 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/mjms2017.24.5.7
    Background: Previous studies have shown that serum VEGF levels were elevated in patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), especially in those with lupus nephritis (LN). In this case control study, we aimed to compare serum levels of VEGF in SLE patients between LN, non-LN and healthy participants to determine the association between serum VEGF levels and the activity and histological classes of lupus nephritis.
    Methods: Blood samples were obtained from 92 SLE patients (46 LN and 46 non-LN) and 26 controls. Data were collected from medical records. Serum VEGF assays were performed by specific, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits (ELISA). Laboratory investigations included urinalysis, urine protein-creatinine ratio, serum creatinine, albumin and VEGF levels. Blood pressure, renal biopsy result and treatment were recorded. LN activity was evaluated using the renal subscale of the British Isles Lupus Assessment Group (rBILAG, 2004). The rBILAG measures blood pressure (diastolic and systolic), urine protein, serum creatinine, calculated glomerular filtration rate (GFR), presence of active urinary sediments and histological evidence of active nephritis.
    Results: Serum VEGF was elevated in SLE patients with LN compared with the non-LN group and healthy controls. The levels found were significantly higher in the sera of patients with active nephritis compared to those with quiescent nephritis (P = 0.024). The study did not find a statistically significant relationship between serum VEGF levels and histological classes of LN.
    Conclusion: There was no significant difference of serum VEGF level between LN and non-LN SLE groups and between the non-LN group and healthy controls. However, there were increased levels of serum VEGF in the LN group, especially in patients with active nephritis as compared to quiescent nephritis group. This reflects the role of VEGF in the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis, however the clinical potential of this biomarker needs further study.
    Study site: Rheumatology clinic, medical wards, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM), Kelantan, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
  12. Amini F, Thazin Oo NM, Okechukwu PN, Seghayat MS, Ng ESC
    Australas. J. Dermatol., 2019 May;60(2):e99-e104.
    PMID: 30215845 DOI: 10.1111/ajd.12918
    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The unknown pathogenesis of periorbital hyperpigmentation makes its treatment difficult. Existing evidence links p53 and VEGFA genes with skin hyperpigmentation. This study was aimed at (i) identifying the clinical pattern of periorbital hyperpigmentation; and (ii) detecting the presence of VEGFA and P53 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in different subtypes of periorbital hyperpigmentation in Malaysian Chinese.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among Malaysian Chinese. Clinical assessments were performed, and medical history was collected. Three regions of p53 and two of VEGFA were amplified by PCR followed by direct sequencing using saliva-extracted DNA.

    RESULTS: Eighty-four participants were recruited (average age 22.2 years). In the majority (n = 62), both eyelids were affected. Facial pigmentary, demarcation lines, tear trough and eye bags were not observed. Mixed (pigmented-vascular) was the most common subtype. Thirteen SNPs were found, nine of which are new. Only three out of 13 SNPs showed significant association with periorbital hyperpigmentation presentation. TA genotype in rs1437756379 (p53) was significantly more prevalent among participants with mixed subtype (P = 0.011) while AC genotype in rs1377053612 (VEGFA) was significantly more prevalent among pigmented subtype (P = 0.028). AA genotype in rs1479430148 (VEGFA) was significantly associated with allergic rhinitis in mixed subtype (P = 0.012).

    CONCLUSION: Mixed subtype was the most prevalent type of periorbital hyperpigmentation in the study population. Three polymorphisms in p53 and VEGFA genes were statistically linked with different clinical presentations of periorbital hyperpigmentation.

    Matched MeSH terms: Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/genetics*
  13. Lai SL, Cheah SC, Wong PF, Noor SM, Mustafa MR
    PLoS ONE, 2012;7(5):e38103.
    PMID: 22666456 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038103
    BACKGROUND: Targeting angiogenesis has emerged as an attractive and promising strategy in anti-cancer therapeutic development. The present study investigates the anti-angiogenic potential of Panduratin A (PA), a natural chalcone isolated from Boesenbergia rotunda by using both in vitro and in vivo assays.

    METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: PA exerted selective cytotoxicity on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with IC(50) value of 6.91 ± 0.85 µM when compared to human normal fibroblast and normal liver epithelial cells. Assessment of the growth kinetics by cell impedance-based Real-Time Cell Analyzer showed that PA induced both cytotoxic and cytostatic effects on HUVECs, depending on the concentration used. Results also showed that PA suppressed VEGF-induced survival and proliferation of HUVECs. Furthermore, endothelial cell migration, invasion, and morphogenesis or tube formation demonstrated significant time- and dose-dependent inhibition by PA. PA also suppressed matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) secretion and attenuated its activation to intermediate and active MMP-2. In addition, PA suppressed F-actin stress fiber formation to prevent migration of the endothelial cells. More importantly, anti-angiogenic potential of PA was also evidenced in two in vivo models. PA inhibited neo-vessels formation in murine Matrigel plugs, and angiogenesis in zebrafish embryos.

    CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, our study demonstrated the distinctive anti-angiogenic properties of PA, both in vitro and in vivo. This report thus reveals another biological activity of PA in addition to its reported anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities, suggestive of PA's potential for development as an anti-angiogenic agent for cancer therapy.

    Matched MeSH terms: Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/pharmacology
  14. Rathakrishnan A, Wang SM, Hu Y, Khan AM, Ponnampalavanar S, Lum LC, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2012;7(12):e52215.
    PMID: 23284941 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0052215
    Dengue is an important medical problem, with symptoms ranging from mild dengue fever to severe forms of the disease, where vascular leakage leads to hypovolemic shock. Cytokines have been implicated to play a role in the progression of severe dengue disease; however, their profile in dengue patients and the synergy that leads to continued plasma leakage is not clearly understood. Herein, we investigated the cytokine kinetics and profiles of dengue patients at different phases of illness to further understand the role of cytokines in dengue disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/blood
  15. Choi JR, Pingguan-Murphy B, Wan Abas WA, Yong KW, Poon CT, Noor Azmi MA, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(1):e0115034.
    PMID: 25615717 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0115034
    Adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASCs) natively reside in a relatively low-oxygen tension (i.e., hypoxic) microenvironment in human body. Low oxygen tension (i.e., in situ normoxia), has been known to enhance the growth and survival rate of ASCs, which, however, may lead to the risk of tumourigenesis. Here, we investigated the tumourigenic potential of ASCs under their physiological condition to ensure their safe use in regenerative therapy. Human ASCs isolated from subcutaneous fat were cultured in atmospheric O2 concentration (21% O2) or in situ normoxia (2% O2). We found that ASCs retained their surface markers, tri-lineage differentiation potential, and self-renewal properties under in situ normoxia without altering their morphology. In situ normoxia displayed a higher proliferation and viability of ASCs with less DNA damage as compared to atmospheric O2 concentration. Moreover, low oxygen tension significantly up-regulated VEGF and bFGF mRNA expression and protein secretion while reducing the expression level of tumour suppressor genes p16, p21, p53, and pRb. However, there were no significant differences in ASCs telomere length and their relative telomerase activity when cultured at different oxygen concentrations. Collectively, even with high proliferation and survival rate, ASCs have a low tendency of developing tumour under in situ normoxia. These results suggest 2% O2 as an ideal culture condition for expanding ASCs efficiently while maintaining their characteristics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/genetics; Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism
  16. Hussain Z, Katas H, Mohd Amin MC, Kumolosasi E
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(11):e113143.
    PMID: 25396426 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0113143
    The present study was conducted with the aim to investigate the immuno-modulatory and histological stabilization effects of nanocarrier-based transcutaneous co-delivery of hydrocortisone (HC) and hydroxytyrosol (HT). In this investigation, the clinical and pharmacological efficacies of nanoparticle (NP)-based formulation to alleviate 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced atopic dermatitis (AD) was explored by using an NC/Nga mouse model. Ex vivo visual examination of AD induction in experimental mice indicated remarkable control of NP-based formulations in reducing pathological severity of AD-like skin lesions. Therapeutic effectiveness of NP-based formulations was also evaluated by comparing skin thickness of AD-induced NP-treated mice (456±27 µm) with that of atopic mice (916±37 µm). Analysis of the immuno-spectrum of AD also revealed the dominance of NP-based formulations in restraining immunoglobulin-E (IgE), histamine, prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2), vascular endothelial growth factor-α (VEGF-α), and T-helper cells (TH1/TH2) producing cytokines in serum and skin biopsies of tested mice. These anti-AD data were further supported by histological findings that revealed alleviated pathological features, including collagen fiber deposition, fibroblasts infiltration, and fragmentation of elastic fibers in experimental mice. Thus, NP-mediated transcutaneous co-delivery of HC and HT can be considered as a promising therapy for managing immunological and histological spectra associated with AD.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/analysis; Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/blood
  17. Ang WJ, Zunaina E, Norfadzillah AJ, Raja-Norliza RO, Julieana M, Ab-Hamid SA, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2019;14(8):e0221481.
    PMID: 31437234 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0221481
    OBJECTIVE: Detection of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels in ocular tissue may perhaps provide insight into the role of VEGF in the pathogenesis and progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR). The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of VEGF in tears and serum amongst type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients.

    METHODS: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted between August 2016 and May 2018 involving type 2 DM patients with no DR, non-proliferative DR (NPDR), and proliferative DR (PDR). Tear samples were collected using no.41 Whatman filter paper (Schirmer strips) and 5 mL blood samples were drawn by venous puncture. VEGF levels in tears and serum were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    RESULTS: A total of 88 type 2 DM patients (no DR: 30 patients, NPDR: 28 patients, PDR: 30 patients) were included in the study. Mean tear VEGF levels were significantly higher in the NPDR and PDR groups (114.4 SD 52.5 pg/mL and 150.8 SD 49.7 pg/mL, respectively) compared to the no DR group (40.4 SD 26.5 pg/mL, p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in the mean serum VEGF levels between the three groups. There was a fair correlation between serum and tear VEGF levels (p = 0.015, r = 0.263).

    CONCLUSION: VEGF levels in tears were significantly higher amongst diabetic patients with DR compared to those without DR and were significantly associated with the severity of DR. There was a fair correlation between serum and tear VEGF levels. Detection of VEGF in tears is a good non-invasive predictor test for the severity of DR. A large cohort study is needed for further evaluation.

    Matched MeSH terms: Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/blood*; Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism
  18. Langmia IM, Apalasamy YD, Omar SZ, Mohamed Z
    Pharmacogenet. Genomics, 2015 Apr;25(4):199-204.
    PMID: 25714003 DOI: 10.1097/FPC.0000000000000125
    Angiogenic pathway regulating genes such as vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) have been implicated in preterm birth (PTB) complications. Research shows that the VEGFA/VEGF receptor system plays an important role in the regulation of circulating progesterone level. Attenuation of VEGFA signaling at mid pregnancy results in onset of labor and parturition because of a reduction in circulating progesterone levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of VEGFA gene polymorphisms (rs2010963, rs3025039, rs699947, and rs10434) with spontaneous PTB and VEGFA plasma levels in preterm and term women.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/blood*; Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/genetics*
  19. Rehman K, Zulfakar MH
    Pharm. Res., 2017 01;34(1):36-48.
    PMID: 27620176 DOI: 10.1007/s11095-016-2036-8
    PURPOSE: To characterize bigel system as a topical drug delivery vehicle and to establish the immunomodulatory role of imiquimod-fish oil combination against skin cancer and inflammation resulting from chemical carcinogenesis.

    METHODS: Imiquimod-loaded fish oil bigel colloidal system was prepared using a blend of carbopol hydrogel and fish oil oleogel. Bigels were first characterized for their mechanical properties and compared to conventional gel systems. Ex vivo permeation studies were performed on murine skin to analyze the ability of the bigels to transport drug across skin and to predict the release mechanism via mathematical modelling. Furthermore, to analyze pharmacological effectiveness in skin cancer and controlling imiquimod-induced inflammatory side effects, imiquimod-fish oil combination was tested in vitro on epidermoid carcinoma cells and in vivo in Swiss albino mice cancer model.

    RESULTS: Imiquimod-loaded fish oil bigels exhibited higher drug availability inside the skin as compared to individual imiquimod hydrogel and oleogel controls through quasi-Fickian diffusion mechanism. Imiquimod-fish oil combination in bigel enhanced the antitumor effects and significantly reduced serum pro-inflammatory cytokine levels such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6, and reducing tumor progression via inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor. Imiquimod-fish oil combination also resulted in increased expression of interleukin-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, which could also aid anti-tumor activity against skin cancer.

    CONCLUSION: Imiquimod administration through a bigel vehicle along with fish oil could be beneficial for controlling imiquimod-induced inflammatory side effects and in the treatment of skin cancer.

    Matched MeSH terms: Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism
  20. Low GKK, Gan SC, Zainal N, Naidu KD, Amin-Nordin S, Khoo CS, et al.
    Pathog Glob Health, 2018 09;112(6):334-341.
    PMID: 30246621 DOI: 10.1080/20477724.2018.1516417
    This study aimed to evaluate vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and pentraxin 3 (PTX-3) as predictive and diagnostic markers in differentiating severe dengue from non-severe dengue. The study was conducted in Ampang Health Clinic, Ampang Hospital and Serdang Hospital. The plasma levels of VEGF and PTX-3 were compared between severe dengue and non-severe dengue by ELISA from the day of presentation until discharged. Multiple logistic regression was used to develop predictive and diagnostic models by incorporating other clinical parameters. The receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis was used to assess the accuracy of the biomarkers and the developed models. Eighty-two patients were recruited, 29 with severe dengue and four died. The Area Under the Curve (AUC) was statistically significant in VEGF as diagnostic marker at Day 2 and 3 of illness with sensitivity of 80.00%-100.00% and specificity of 76.47%-80.00%. The predictive model with AUC of 0.84 (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/blood*
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