OBJECTIVES: This study has aimed to establish optimum conditions to generate and characterize MSC from human umbilical cord (UC-MSC).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: To optimize MSC population growth, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was utilized in culture media. Effects of bFGF on expansion kinetics, cell cycle, survival of UC-MSC, cytokine secretion, expression of early stem-cell markers and immunomodulation were investigated.
RESULTS: bFGF supplementation profoundly enhanced UC-MSC proliferation by reducing population doubling time without altering immunophenotype and immunomodulatory function of UC-MSC. However, cell cycle studies revealed that bFGF drove the cells into the cell cycle, as a higher proportion of cells resided in S phase and progressed into M phase. Consistent with this, bFGF was shown to promote expression of cyclin D proteins and their relevant kinases to drive UC-MSC to transverse cell cycle check points, thus, committing the cells to DNA synthesis. Furthermore, supplementation with bFGF changed the cytokine profiles of the cells and reduced their apoptotic level.
CONCLUSION: Our study showed that bFGF supplementation of UC-MSC culture enhanced the cells' growth kinetics without compromising their nature.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: PA exerted selective cytotoxicity on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with IC(50) value of 6.91 ± 0.85 µM when compared to human normal fibroblast and normal liver epithelial cells. Assessment of the growth kinetics by cell impedance-based Real-Time Cell Analyzer showed that PA induced both cytotoxic and cytostatic effects on HUVECs, depending on the concentration used. Results also showed that PA suppressed VEGF-induced survival and proliferation of HUVECs. Furthermore, endothelial cell migration, invasion, and morphogenesis or tube formation demonstrated significant time- and dose-dependent inhibition by PA. PA also suppressed matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) secretion and attenuated its activation to intermediate and active MMP-2. In addition, PA suppressed F-actin stress fiber formation to prevent migration of the endothelial cells. More importantly, anti-angiogenic potential of PA was also evidenced in two in vivo models. PA inhibited neo-vessels formation in murine Matrigel plugs, and angiogenesis in zebrafish embryos.
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, our study demonstrated the distinctive anti-angiogenic properties of PA, both in vitro and in vivo. This report thus reveals another biological activity of PA in addition to its reported anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities, suggestive of PA's potential for development as an anti-angiogenic agent for cancer therapy.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adipose stromal cells were cultured in three different types of medium: (i) F12/DMEM (FD) supplemented with 10% FBS from passage 0 (P0) to P6; (ii) FD supplemented with 2% FBS at P6; and (iii) FD supplemented with 2% FBS plus 50 ng/ml of VEGF at P6. Morphological changes and growth rate of ASCs were recorded. Changes in stemness, angiogenic and endogenic genes' expressions were analysed using Real-Time PCR.
RESULTS: Adipose stromal cells changed from fibroblast-like shape when cultured in 10% FBS medium to polygonal when cultured in 2% FBS plus VEGF-supplemented medium. Their growth rate was lower in 2% FBS medium, but increased with addition of VEGF. Real-Time PCR showed that ASCs maintained most of their stemness and angiogenic genes' expression in 10% FBS at P1, P5 and P6, but this increased significantly in 2% FBS at P6. Endogenic genes expression such as PECAM-1, VE chaderin and VEGFR-2 decreased after serial passage in 10% FBS, but increased significantly at P6 in 2% FBS. Addition of VEGF did not cause any significant change in gene expression level.
CONCLUSION: Adipose stromal cells had greater angiogenic potential when cultured in reduced serum conditions. VEGF did not enhance their angiogenic potential in 2% FBS-supplemented medium.