BACKGROUND: Malaysia, a South East Asian country, legally permits general medical practitioners in private clinics to dispense medicines. This possibly can dilute the pharmacist role in the provision of healthcare and pharmaceutical care and deprive patients to benefit from these services.
OBJECTIVE: This study explored, assessed and compared the current status of medicines labeling, patient's counseling, and symptomatic diagnosis by general practitioners and community pharmacists.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study used trained Simulated Patients (SP), who participated in a scenario of common cold symptoms at private clinics and community pharmacies. SPs explored medication labeling, patients counseling and symptomatic diagnosis undertaken by general practitioners and community pharmacists. Later, study authors assessed and compared these practices. The study was conducted during June 2011 in Penang, Malaysia.
RESULTS: The study used descriptive statistics and Fisher-exact test to analyze data. Regarding patients counseling standard, among 100 visits by simulated patients, 64 (64%) from community pharmacists provided information about the medicine name, its indication, dosage and route of administration versus 17 (42.5%) general practitioners during 40 visits (p=0.024). Concerning adherence to labeling standard, for instance, only in one pharmacy visit, (1%) the pharmacist wrote the name of the patient on the medication label versus in 32 (80%) of doctors' visits, the doctors adhered to this labeling standard (p<0.001). In all doctors' visits (n=40, 100%), SPs were asked about symptoms, whereas in 87 (87%) CPs' visits, pharmacists fulfilled this counseling standard (p=0.02).
CONCLUSION: Although pharmacists showed less compliance to medicine labeling and symptomatic diagnosis compared to doctors, their counseling of patients was better. Separation will definitely contribute to more concentration of each provider on his/her roles and improve and direct the experiences and skills towards being more patient oriented.
KEYWORDS: Common cold; Community pharmacists; Dispensing doctors; Dispensing separation; General medical practitioners; Malaysia; Medicine labelling; Patient’s counselling; Simulated patients
This article described the author's reflection on conducting research in primary care. Certainly hand-on experience will give a better learning experience for a person to explore further in research and research training will help too. Conducting a collaborative research with other institutions also help in better research outcome. Research capacity building is important as most patients are seen in primary care.
Increased international collaboration in clinical trials has created a need for cross culturally valid instruments to assess the quality of life and behavioural disorders. Cross cultural studies of depressive symptomatology, in particular, must be preceded by an exhaustive study of the psychometric properties of the instruments to ensure the validity of the comparison. In this article, we examined the validity, reliability and factor structure of the Malay version of the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) among Malay postpartum women attending selected health centres in Kedah, North West of Peninsular Malaysia. Our findings indicated that the current version of the BDI-II is psychometrically strong and appropriate for use in assessing depressive symptomatology among this group of women.
This survey was carried out to examine the habits of practising optometrists in private practice around Kuala Lumpur and the Klang Valley. A questionnaire survey was prepared that encompassed questions on ophthalmic intruments and appliances, services offered, eye examinatians carried aut and patient management, failure ta carry out comprehensive eye examination, community engagements and their opinion on optometrists as primary eyecare practitioners. The questionnaire was sent to 100 registered optometrists practising in Kuala Lumpur and the Klang Valley. About 64 optometrists responded and returned the questionnaire, but 3 of them were excluded because they were incomplete. The results showed almast all aptornetric practice has all the equipment related to optometry practice except for tonometer and visual ﬁeld measurement. F orty~four percent ( 44%) of aptometrists undertook comprehensive eye examinatians and necessary referred patients far further examinations. Optometrists who did not perform comprehensive eye examinations give reasons of inadequate equipment and clients who want a quick examination. ln conclusion optometric practice provide almost all the equipments required for optometrists to practice as primary health care practioners but only 44% of optometrists carriedout comprehensive eye examinations. Optometrists in private practice need to practice all the skills they learned and play important roles in educating the public in an effort to improve the primary eyecare of society. Keywords: optometric practice, private practice, primary health eyecare
BACKGROUND: Fall is a worldwide health problem among elderly people and a known leading cause of disabilities. Fall prevention programs have been implemented in various forms. The Otago exercise program (OEP) is one of the most recent home-base exercise training program.
OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of OEP to reduce falls among elderly people in Shahroud, IR Iran.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This randomised control trial was conducted among the elderly community dwellers in Shahroud city of the Semnan province, IR Iran, with experience of falls in the last 12 months. Subjects of the study (n = 317) were recruited from elderly senior citizens at public health centers. Block systematic random sampling was applied to categorize the subjects in experimental and control groups. The experimental group (n = 160) received OEP for six months and was compared with the control group (n = 157) who received general health training. This study was registered with the following ID, IRCT2014012016285N1.
RESULTS: The findings of the study showed that OEP improved physical performance (Berg-Balance-Score with P > 0.025, and Timed-Up-Go-Test with P > 0.017) and functional capacity (Arm-Curl-Test with P > 0.00 and Chair-Stand-Test with P > 0.01). In addition, OEP significantly reduced the incidence of falls (P ≤ 0.00) among senior citizens in the experimental group.
DISCUSSION: The OEP as a home-based exercise is effective for the reduction of the incidence of falls among senior citizens with a history of falls. The OEP can be recommended for elderly homebound people who do not have access to facilities.
KEYWORDS: Community; Elderly; Falls; Otago Exercise
INTRODUCTION: There is a pressing need to better understand the complex biochemical pathways that lead to the pathogenesis of obesity. Increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant capacity have been identified to be associated with obesity. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels of Malaysian subjects and to evaluate its potential association with obesity and related anthropometric measurements.
METHODS: Plasma TAC of 362 multi-ethnic Malaysian subjects from the Kampar Health Clinic (138 males, 224 females; 124 ethnic Malays, 152 Chinese, 86 Indians; 192 non-obese, 170 obese) was measured using Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) 96-well plate assay.
RESULTS: Plasma TAC was significantly lower in obese subjects (M +/- SE = 292 +/- 10.4 micromol/L) compared to non-obese subjects (397 +/- 8.58 micromol/L), whereas it was significantly higher in males and those in the 21-30 age group. Those with salty food preference and practising a strict vegetarian diet also had significantly higher plasma TAC. However, no association was found for other dietary habits (coffee intake) and lifestyle factors (physical activity, smoking). Plasma TAC was also significantly negatively correlated with diastolic blood pressure, waist and hip circumferences, weight, body mass index, total body fat, % subcutaneous fat, visceral fat level, resting metabolism and % skeletal muscle.
CONCLUSION: Plasma TAC was found to be associated with obesity, strict vegetarian practice, salty food preference and all obesity anthropometric indicators, except systolic blood pressure and pulse rate. Obese people have decreased plasma TAC indicating a compromised systemic antioxidant defence and increased oxidative stress.
Study site: Klinik Kesihatan Kampar, Perak, Malaysia
The uses of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) among patients with chronic diseases are becoming increasingly popular. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in 45 government health clinics across Negeri Sembilan. Respondents at diabetes clinics were selected via systematic random sampling and interviewed using structured questionnaire. CAM usage was divided into three groups; CAM use for diabetes (CAM-DM), CAM use for general health (CAM-G) and Non CAM user. The prevalent use of CAM among type II diabetes mellitus patients in Negeri Sembilan was 58.5% (CAM-DM: 40.6% and CAM-G: 17.9%). For CAM-DM group, bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) was the most popular CAM consumed to help control diabetes, while supplement milk was the most popular choice for the CAM-G group. In conclusion, the use of CAM among type II diabetes mellitus patients in Negeri Sembilan was common. Natural products are the main choice of CAM modality used to help with the management of diabetes. Majority of CAM users never informed their healthcare providers about their CAM use.
Introduction An Analysis of a Survey Questionnaire on health care workers’ knowledge and practices regarding of infection control and complains them to apply universal precautions. Health care workers are at substantial risk of acquiring blood borne pathogen infections through exposure to blood or other products of patients. To assess of infection control among health care workers in Sana'a healthcare centers, Yemen.
Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in the health center to assess knowledge and practices regarding of infection control among 237 health workers in Sana,a city. A structured self-administered questionnaires were used and data was analyzed using SPSS version 20 and the associations were tested with chi-square, with p-value of < 0.05.
Results The health care workers in public centers ware (51.1%) and (48.9%) of them works in private centers. One hundred and seventeen (49.4%) respondents had poor infection control knowledge, 113 (43.5%) had fair knowledge, and 17 (7.2%) had good knowledge. The knowledge was significantly associated with type of center (P < 0.018), such that the public center had the highest proportion with poor knowledge. And nurses and midwife having the highest proportion with fair knowledge of infection control. Eight (3.4%) respondents had a poor practice of universal precautions, 93 (39.2%) had fair practice, and 136 (57.4%) good practice. The practice was significantly associated with the profession, level of education and work experience (P < 0.001), (P < 0.006), (P < 0.001) respectively, and nurses and midwives as the profession with the highest proportion with good practice.
Conclusion We conclude that the practices and knowledge of universal precautions were low and that's need for intensive programmes to educate health care workers on various aspects of standard precautions and infection control programmes and policies.
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of malnutrition among five-year-olds and factors associated with unsuccessful outcome of a Food Basket Programme (FBP) in a rural district of Kelantan, Malaysia.
DESIGN: Administrative health records from selected health clinics were reviewed. Study sample includes indigenous population or Orang Asli of Malaysia. Unsuccessful outcome was defined according to failure to complete the programme according to growth gain and on-time. Multiple logistics regression was used to assess the associated factors of unsuccessful outcome of FBP.
RESULTS: This study showed that the prevalence rates of malnutrition among children below five years old were 34.2% underweight, 16.4% thinness, 32.5% stunting and 3.0% overweight, with Orang Asli children faring the worse. Orang Asli children were also five times more likely to be unsuccessful in the FBP (p
BACKGROUND: The 21-item English version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21) has been proposed as a method for assessing self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress over the past week in various clinical and nonclinical populations. Several Malay versions of the DASS-21 have been validated in various populations with varying success. One particular Malay version has been validated in various occupational groups (such as nurses and automotive workers) but not among male clinic outpatient attendees in Malaysia.
OBJECTIVE: To validate the Malay version of the DASS-21 (Malay-DASS-21) among male outpatient clinic attendees in Johor.
METHODS: A validation study with a random sample of 402 male respondents attending the outpatient clinic of a major public outpatient clinic in Johor Bahru and Segamat was carried out from January to March 2016. Construct validity of the Malay-DASS-21 was examined using Exploratory Factor Analysis (KMO = 0.947; Bartlett's test of sphericity is significant, p<0.001) through Principal Component Analysis and orthogonal (varimax) rotation with Kaiser Normalization to confirm the psychometric properties of the Malay-DASS- 21 and the internal consistency reliability using Cronbach's alpha.
RESULTS: Construct validity of the Malay-DASS-21 based on eigenvalues and factor loadings to confirm the three factor structure (depression, anxiety, and stress) was acceptable. The internal consistency reliability of the factor construct was very impressive with Cronbach's alpha values in the range of 0.837 to 0.863.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed that the Malay- DASS-21 has acceptable psychometric construct and high internal consistency reliability to measure self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress over the past week in male outpatient clinic attendees in Johor. Further studies are necessary to revalidate the Malay-DASS-21 across different populations and cultures, and using confirmatory factor analyses.
Study site: two large outpatient
clinics in Johor Bahru and Segamat
Introduction: Traditionally, family planning initiatives were concentrated on women despite it
being a family matter. As family dynamics evolved over the years, fathers’ involvement in family
planning has become crucial in enhancing the family well-being.
Objectives: This study aimed to identify the role played by men in family planning activities and
the association of socio-economic characteristics with these roles.
Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study carried out in a university primary care clinic. All
married male attendees to the clinic, aged 50 years and below, were approached to answer a set of
self-administered questionnaires, asking for their involvement in family planning practices. The data
were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics.
Results: There were 167 participants in the study. A high proportion of men participated in the
discussions regarding previous pregnancies (60.42%), future child planning (89.76%) and desired
family size (89.76%). However, the discussions on the usage of family planning methods (FPMs;
39.16%) were significantly low. Socio-economic factors associated with higher likelihood of men
discussing family planning activities were older age (p < 0.0), higher education level (p = 0.010),
higher monthly income (p < 0.001) and longer duration of marriage (p = 0.0049).
Conclusions: The level of participation of men varied in the discussions of four family planning
activities. The roles taken by men in family planning were associated with older age and higher
socio-economic class. The majority of men needs to be encouraged to play a more active role in the
discussion of FPMs.
We report a case of a young Chinese female who developed acute rhabdomyolysis with acute renal failure after a strenuous push-up exercise during a company motivation course. She managed to make full recovery after a period of outpatient treatment.
Waiting is a common phenomenon in the doctor's waiting room. The purpose of this audit is to assess patient waiting time and doctor consultation time in a primary healthcare clinic and to formulate strategies for improvement. This audit was conducted at a primary care clinic for 4 weeks using the universal sampling method. All patients who attended the clinic during this period was included in the study except for those who required more time to be seen such as those who were critically ill, aggressive or those who came for repeat medication or procedures only without needing to see the doctor. The time of arrival was captured using the queue management system (QMS) and then the patient was given a timing chit which had to be manually filled by the staff at every station. The waiting time for registration, pre-consultation, consultation, appointment, payment and pharmacy were recorded as well as consultation time. The data were entered into the statistical software SPSS version 17 for analysis. version 17. Results showed that more than half of the patients were registered within 15 minutes (53%) and the average total waiting time from registration to seeing a doctor was 41 minutes. Ninety-nine percentage of patients waited less than 30 minutes to get their medication. The average consultation time was 18.21 minutes. The problems identified in this audit were addressed and strategies formulated to improve the waiting and consultation time were carried out including increasing the number of staff at the registration counter, enforcing the staggered appointment system for follow-up patients and improving the queuing system for walk-in patients.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevailing level of adherence to a dosing algorithm and a recall schedule and its relationship with the time in therapeutic range (TTR) among patients with atrial fibrillation.
METHODS: The study was carried out at a regional primary care clinic in Malaysia. Patients on anticoagulation therapy aged older than 18 years were included in the study. The participants have received continuation of their anticoagulation therapy at the primary care clinic for at least 6 months to 1 year after being discharged from a tertiary center. Correlation and multiple regression studies were performed to determine the significance of the predictors of TTR.
RESULTS: A majority (217) of patients with atrial fibrillation received anticoagulation therapy at the clinic followed by patients with mitral valve replacement and aortic valve replacement. The mean TTR for patients with atrial fibrillation was 57.6%. General practitioners (GPs) adhered to 75.5% of the dose protocol but fared poorly in adhering to the recall schedule (36.2%). The concordance to the dose algorithm and recall schedule were significantly related to TTR. Multiple regression analysis proved that the concordance to the dose algorithm and recall schedule were important predictors of the level of TTR in patients with atrial fibrillation.
DISCUSSION: The study provides preliminary evidence on the relationship between a validated dose algorithm that is integrated with a recall schedule in the control of TTR in patients with atrial fibrillation on anticoagulation treatment. A larger multicenter study is needed to confirm the results of this finding.
Study site: Klinik Kesihatan Seremban, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia
BACKGROUND: Malaysia is an upper middle income country that provides subsidized healthcare to ensure universal coverage to its citizens. The challenge of escalating health care cost occurs in most countries, including Malaysia due to increase in disease prevalence, which induced an escalation in drug expenditure. In 2009, the Ministry of Health has allocated up to Malaysian Ringgit (MYR) 1.402 billion (approximately USD 390 million) on subsidised drugs. This study was conducted to measure patients' willingness to pay (WTP) for treatment of chronic condition or acute illnesses, in an urbanized population.
METHODS: A cross-sectional study, through face-to-face interview was conducted in an urban state in 2012-2013. Systematic random sampling of 324 patients was selected from a list of patients attending ten public primary cares with Family Medicine Specialist service. Patients were asked using a bidding technique of maximum amount (in MYR) if they are WTP for chronic or acute illnesses.
RESULTS: Patients are mostly young, female, of lower education and lower income. A total of 234 respondents (72.2%) were not willing to pay for drug charges. WTP for drugs either for chronic or acute illness were at low at median of MYR10 per visit (USD 3.8). Bivariate analysis showed that lower numbers of dependent children (≤3), higher personal and household income are associated with WTP. Multivariate analysis showed only number of dependent children (≤3) as significant (p = 0.009; 95% CI 1.27-5.44) predictor to drugs' WTP.
CONCLUSION: The result indicates that primary care patients have low WTP for drugs, either for chronic condition or acute illness. Citizens are comfortable in the comfort zone whereby health services are highly subsidized through universal coverage. Hence, there is a resistance to pay for drugs.
Introduction: Nicotine cravings and withdrawal symptoms are associated with higher rates of relapse. It has been shown that combining behavioral therapy and pharmacotherapy leads to a higher long-term abstinence rate in those who quit smoking. Al-Quran recitation has been proven to reduce anxiety among athletes before tournaments and pulse and heart rates among patients awaiting cardiac operations. As most of the patients who wish to stop smoking experience high-anxiety states, we postulate that Al-Quran recitation will also able to reduce craving among smokers attempting to quit smoking.
Methods: Fifty smokers from an outpatient clinic were randomly assigned to control and intervention groups. They were taught different ways of coping with smoking urges, i.e., counseling using the 12'M' method (control group) versus Al-Quran recitation (intervention group). They met for four consecutive weeks of counselling and to fill out a withdrawal scale. Carbon monoxide (CO) levels were tested at baseline and at week 4. At week 12, the number of cigarettes smoked was measured again. The decrease in the number of cigarettes considered to be clinically significant for the calculation of sample size was based on expert opinion.
Results: The reduction in the number of cigarettes smoked was 7 cigarettes in the counselling group and 9 cigarettes in Al-Quran recitation group over 12 weeks duration. There was a statistically significant difference in the number of cigarettes smoked between the groups. There was also a statistically significant difference in the change in cravings between the groups at week 4 (p-value = 0.005). However, the difference in the changes in CO levels between the two groups was not statistically significant.
Conclusion: Al-Quran recitation produced a statistically significant reduction in the number of cigarettes smoked at week 12 and a significant change in cravings at week 4 among smokers attempting to quit. Difference in smoking abstinence rates was not measured in this study.
AIMS: To examine the impact of Ramadan Focused Education Program (RFEP) on medications adjustment in type 2 diabetes patients in Ramadan.
METHODS: This is a controlled, intervention based study. It was run on three phases: before, during, and after Ramadan on 262 type 2 diabetes patients. The intervention group (n = 140) received RFEP on medications doses & timing adjustment before and after Ramadan, while the control group (n = 122) received standard care.
RESULTS: The dose of insulin glargine was reduced from 42.51 ± 22.16 at the baseline to 40.11 ± 18.51-units during Ramadan (p = 0.002) in the intervention group while it remained the same in the control group before Ramadan and during Ramadan (38.51 ± 18.63 and 38.14 ± 18.46, P = 0.428, respectively). The hypoglycemia score was 14.2 ± (8.5) pre-Ramadan in the intervention and reduced to 6.36 ± 6.17 during Ramadan (p
The aim of this study was first to analyse the prescribing habits of primary care doctors with a view to providing feedback which may help them to rationalise their prescribing. This analysis was helped by comparing the prescribing practices in two different settings and thus highlighting anomalous differences. The second aim of this study was to obtain data on the diagnoses being made in primary care settings in Malaysia as this information, though available from other countries, is limited here. Lists of the most commonly prescribed drugs and most common diagnoses made are provided, together with tables showing the most commonly prescribed drugs for the ten most common diagnoses. Differences in prescribing habits between the two settings are discussed and possible reasons are suggested.
The Department of Primary Care Medicine was established in UHKL in 1987. This article examines the philosophy of primary care, the clinical services provided by UHKL Family Practice Clinic and the quality assurance activities.