Displaying publications 21 - 40 of 408 in total

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  1. Rafii MY, Jalani BS, Rajanaidu N, Kushairi A, Puteh A, Latif MA
    Genet. Mol. Res., 2012;11(4):3629-41.
    PMID: 23096688 DOI: 10.4238/2012.October.4.10
    We evaluated 38 dura x pisifera (DP) oil palm progenies in four locations in Malaysia for genotype by environment interaction and genotypic stability studies. The DP progenies derived from crosses between pisifera palms of AVROS, Serdang S27B, Serdang 29/36, and Lever Cameroon were chosen to be the males' parent and Deli dura palms designated as females' parent. All the locations differed in terms of soil physical and chemical properties, and the soil types ranged from coastal clay to inland soils. The genotype by environment interaction and stability of the individual genotypes were analyzed for oil yield trait using several stability techniques. A genotype by environment interaction was detected for oil yield and it had a larger variance component than genotypic variance (σ(2)(gl)/σ(2)(g) = 139.7%). Genotype by environment interaction of oil yield was largely explained by a non-linear relationship between genotypic and environmental values. Overall assessment of individual genotypic stability showed that seven genotypes were highly stable and had consistent performance over the environments for the oil yield trait [total individual genotype stability scored more than 10 and mean oil yielded above the average of the environment (genotype means are more than 34.37 kg·palm(-1)·year(-1))]. These genotypes will be useful for oil palm breeding and tissue culture programs for developing high oil yielding planting materials with stable performance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment*; Gene-Environment Interaction
  2. Fornace KM, Abidin TR, Alexander N, Brock P, Grigg MJ, Murphy A, et al.
    Emerging Infect. Dis., 2016 Feb;22(2):201-8.
    PMID: 26812373 DOI: 10.3201/eid2202.150656
    The zoonotic malaria species Plasmodium knowlesi has become the main cause of human malaria in Malaysian Borneo. Deforestation and associated environmental and population changes have been hypothesized as main drivers of this apparent emergence. We gathered village-level data for P. knowlesi incidence for the districts of Kudat and Kota Marudu in Sabah state, Malaysia, for 2008-2012. We adjusted malaria records from routine reporting systems to reflect the diagnostic uncertainty of microscopy for P. knowlesi. We also developed negative binomial spatial autoregressive models to assess potential associations between P. knowlesi incidence and environmental variables derived from satellite-based remote-sensing data. Marked spatial heterogeneity in P. knowlesi incidence was observed, and village-level numbers of P. knowlesi cases were positively associated with forest cover and historical forest loss in surrounding areas. These results suggest the likelihood that deforestation and associated environmental changes are key drivers in P. knowlesi transmission in these areas.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment*
  3. Rahman K, Abdul Ghani N, Kamil AA, Mustafa A, Chowdhury MA
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(7):e0133229.
    PMID: 26196124 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0133229
    Pedestrian overflow causes queuing delay and in turn, is controlled by the capacity of a facility. Flow control or blocking control takes action to avoid queues from building up to extreme values. Thus, in this paper, the problem of pedestrian flow control in open outdoor walking facilities in equilibrium condition is investigated using M/M/c/K queuing models. State dependent service rate based on speed and density relationship is utilized. The effective rate of the Poisson arrival process to the facility is determined so as there is no overflow of pedestrians. In addition, the use of the state dependent queuing models to the design of the facilities and the effect of pedestrian personal capacity on the design and the traffic congestion are discussed. The study does not validate the sustainability of adaptation of Western design codes for the pedestrian facilities in the countries like Bangladesh.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment Design*
  4. Hayakawa K
    Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi, 2011 Jan;66(1):29-30.
    PMID: 21358129
    The importance of twin research in the field of preventive medicine is described from the viewpoint of gene-environment interaction. The recent advancements in twin research in Japan and other countries are the major topics in this paper. The historical background of the Japan Society for Twin Studies is described. The Center for Twin Research of Osaka University is also described as the first center of this kind in Japan. The advancement of epigenetic research is described as a new global trend of twin research, particularly in European countries. Other new trends in twin research in Asian countries, such as China, Indonesia, Russia, Iran, and Malaysia, are also described.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene-Environment Interaction*
  5. Chua KB, Chua IL, Chua IE, Chua KH
    PMID: 16438137
    A prospective field study was carried out to investigate any preferential differences of gravid female Aedes mosquitoes in ovipositing their eggs in man-made containers placed in different environmental conditions. The findings of this study show that gravid female Aedes mosquitoes preferred to breed in containers found in the outdoor garden than those placed on the patio and or inside the house. The findings also show that if the breeding habitats in the garden were removed, they would favorably use the breeding habitats found on the patio or inside the house as alternatives. An incidental interesting finding in this study shows that ultra-low volume fogging of insecticides using the vehicle-mounted equipment carried out outside the house may promote the gravid female Aedes mosquitoes to enter the house to breed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment*
  6. Potts MD, Davies SJ, Bossert WH, Tan S, Nur Supardi MN
    Oecologia, 2004 May;139(3):446-53.
    PMID: 14997378
    Dispersal-assembly theories of species coexistence posit that environmental factors play no role in explaining community diversity and structure. Dispersal-assembly theories shed light on some aspects of community structure such as species-area and species-abundance relationships. However, species' environmental associations also affect these measures of community structure. Measurements of species' niche breadth and overlap address this influence. Using a new continuous measure of niche and a dispersal-assembly null model that maintains species' niche breadth and aggregation, we tested two hypotheses assessing the effects of habitat heterogeneity on the ability of dispersal-assembly theories to explain community niche structure. We found that in both homogenous and heterogeneous environments dispersal-assembly theories cannot fully explain observed niche structure. The performance of the dispersal-assembly null models was particularly poor in heterogeneous environments. These results indicate that non-dispersal based mechanisms are in part responsible for observed community structure and measures of community structure which include species' environmental associations should be used to test theories of species diversity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment*
  7. Chen PCY
    Soc Sci Med, 1988;26(10):1073-7.
    PMID: 3393924 DOI: 10.1016/0277-9536(88)90225-0
    In Sarawak, some tribes stay in communal longhouses whilst others live in villages of single dwellings. The present study looks into the question of whether there is an association between the prevalence of leprosy and tuberculosis with the quantum of social contact that occurs in these two types of settlement patterns. It was found that the prevalence of leprosy and tuberculosis is significantly higher among longhouse dwellers compared with single house dwellers. It was also noted that social groups tended to be larger and to persist for much longer among longhouse dwellers than among those in single dwellings. This lends support to the evidence that social contact in longhouses is more extensive and contributes towards a higher prevalence of leprosy and tuberculosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Environment*
  8. Bennett EL
    Folia Primatol., 1986;47(1):26-38.
    PMID: 3557228
    Data are presented from a long-term study of banded langurs in three contrasting rain forest habitats in Peninsular Malaysia. Results from different sites and months are used to correlate ranging patterns with food availability and other environmental variables. Day range lengths are correlated with availability of preferred foods; the degree of territoriality is related to the distribution and size of food sources and length of time for which any one of these produces favoured food items.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment*
  9. Verburg PH, Soepboer W, Veldkamp A, Limpiada R, Espaldon V, Mastura SS
    Environ Manage, 2002 Sep;30(3):391-405.
    PMID: 12148073
    Land-use change models are important tools for integrated environmental management. Through scenario analysis they can help to identify near-future critical locations in the face of environmental change. A dynamic, spatially explicit, land-use change model is presented for the regional scale: CLUE-S. The model is specifically developed for the analysis of land use in small regions (e.g., a watershed or province) at a fine spatial resolution. The model structure is based on systems theory to allow the integrated analysis of land-use change in relation to socio-economic and biophysical driving factors. The model explicitly addresses the hierarchical organization of land use systems, spatial connectivity between locations and stability. Stability is incorporated by a set of variables that define the relative elasticity of the actual land-use type to conversion. The user can specify these settings based on expert knowledge or survey data. Two applications of the model in the Philippines and Malaysia are used to illustrate the functioning of the model and its validation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment*
  10. REID HA, LIM KJ
    Br Med J, 1957 Nov 30;2(5056):1266-72.
    PMID: 13479694
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment*
  11. Ibrahim MKA, Hamid H, Law TH, Wong SV
    Accid Anal Prev, 2018 Feb;111:63-70.
    PMID: 29172046 DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.10.023
    Construction of exclusive motorcycle lanes is one of the measures to reduce motorcycle fatalities. Previous studies highlighted the risk of crashes with roadside objects and the tendency of motorcyclists to ride with excessive speed on exclusive motorcycle lanes. However, the risk of same-direction crashes on exclusive motorcycle lanes was not explored in much detail, especially on the impact of lane geometry and roadside configurations. This study used naturalistic riding data to determine the effects of lane width and roadside configurations on overtaking speed, lateral position and likelihood of comfortable overtaking on tangential sections of an exclusive motorcycle lane. Twenty-nine recruited motorcyclists rode the instrumented motorcycles along a 20km stretch of an exclusive motorcycle lane along a major urban road. Results revealed that both the roadside configurations and lane width significantly affect the participants' lateral position, while the roadside configurations only affects the overtaking speed. Participants' overtaking speeds and the front motorcycles' lateral position contribute significantly to the likelihood of comfortable overtaking in exclusive motorcycle lanes. The findings highlight the importance of micro-level behavior indicators in improving the design and overall safety of the exclusive motorcycle facility.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment Design*
  12. Rashed AN, Wong IC, Wilton L, Tomlin S, Neubert A
    Drugs Real World Outcomes, 2015;2(4):397-410.
    PMID: 26690854
    To investigate and compare drug prescription patterns in children admitted to a paediatric general medical ward in five countries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment
  13. Amini H, Farzaneh B, Azimifar F, Sarhan AAD
    ISA Trans, 2016 Sep;64:293-302.
    PMID: 27329852 DOI: 10.1016/j.isatra.2016.05.006
    This paper establishes a novel control strategy for a nonlinear bilateral macro-micro teleoperation system with time delay. Besides position and velocity signals, force signals are additionally utilized in the control scheme. This modification significantly improves the poor transparency during contact with the environment. To eliminate external force measurement, a force estimation algorithm is proposed for the master and slave robots. The closed loop stability of the nonlinear micro-micro teleoperation system with the proposed control scheme is investigated employing the Lyapunov theory. Consequently, the experimental results verify the efficiency of the new control scheme in free motion and during collision between the slave robot and the environment of slave robot with environment, and the efficiency of the force estimation algorithm.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment
  14. Habib ur Rehman M, Liew CS, Wah TY, Shuja J, Daghighi B
    Sensors (Basel), 2015 Feb 13;15(2):4430-69.
    PMID: 25688592 DOI: 10.3390/s150204430
    The staggering growth in smartphone and wearable device use has led to a massive scale generation of personal (user-specific) data. To explore, analyze, and extract useful information and knowledge from the deluge of personal data, one has to leverage these devices as the data-mining platforms in ubiquitous, pervasive, and big data environments. This study presents the personal ecosystem where all computational resources, communication facilities, storage and knowledge management systems are available in user proximity. An extensive review on recent literature has been conducted and a detailed taxonomy is presented. The performance evaluation metrics and their empirical evidences are sorted out in this paper. Finally, we have highlighted some future research directions and potentially emerging application areas for personal data mining using smartphones and wearable devices.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment
  15. Udin, W. S., Ahmad, A., Ismail, Z.
    MyJurnal
    In recent years image acquisition in close range photogrammetry relies on digital sensors such as digital cameras, video cameras, CCD cameras etc that are not specifically designed for photogrammetry. This study is performed to evaluate the compatibility of the digital metric camera and non-metric camera for the purpose of mapping meandering flume, using close range photogrammetric technique and further, to determine the accuracy that could be achieved using such a technique. The meandering flume provides an opportunity to conduct an experimental study in a controlled environment. In this study, the digital images of the whole meandering flume were acquired using a compact digital camera - Nikon Coolpix S560, a Single Lens Reflex (SLR) Nikon D60 and also a metric digital camera Rollei D30. A series of digital images were acquired to cover the whole meandering flume. Secondary data of ground control points (GCP) and check points (CP), established using the Total Station technique, was used. The digital camera was calibrated and the recovered camera calibration parameters were then used in the processing of digital images. In processing the digital images, digital photogrammetric software was used for processes such as aerial triangulation, stereo compilation, generation of digital elevation model (DEM) and generation of orthophoto. The whole process was successfully performed and the output produced in the form of orthophoto. The research output is then evaluated for planimetry and vertical accuracy using root mean square error (RMSE). Based on the analysis, sub-meter accuracy is obtained. It can be concluded that the differences between the different types of digital camera are small . As a conclusion, this study proves that close range photogrammetry technique can be used for mapping meandering flume using both the metric digital camera and non-metric digital camera.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment, Controlled
  16. Omar WM
    Trop Life Sci Res, 2010 Dec;21(2):51-67.
    PMID: 24575199
    Algal communities possess many attributes as biological indicators of spatial and temporal environmental changes. Algal parameters, especially the community structural and functional variables that have been used in biological monitoring programs, are highlighted in this document. Biological indicators like algae have only recently been included in water quality assessments in some areas of Malaysia. The use of algal parameters in identifying various types of water degradation is essential and complementary to other environmental indicators.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment; Environmental Monitoring
  17. Sharmini S, Jamaiyah H, Jaya Purany SP
    Malays Fam Physician, 2010;5(1):13-8.
    PMID: 25606180 MyJurnal
    This survey set out to describe patient registries available in the country, to determine their security features, data confidentiality, extent of outputs produced and data quality of the registries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment
  18. Al-Samman AM, Rahman TA, Azmi MH, Hindia MN, Khan I, Hanafi E
    PLoS ONE, 2016 Sep 21;11(9):e0163034.
    PMID: 27654703 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0163034
    This paper presents an experimental characterization of millimeter-wave (mm-wave) channels in the 6.5 GHz, 10.5 GHz, 15 GHz, 19 GHz, 28 GHz and 38 GHz frequency bands in an indoor corridor environment. More than 4,000 power delay profiles were measured across the bands using an omnidirectional transmitter antenna and a highly directional horn receiver antenna for both co- and cross-polarized antenna configurations. This paper develops a new path-loss model to account for the frequency attenuation with distance, which we term the frequency attenuation (FA) path-loss model and introduce a frequency-dependent attenuation factor. The large-scale path loss was characterized based on both new and well-known path-loss models. A general and less complex method is also proposed to estimate the cross-polarization discrimination (XPD) factor of close-in reference distance with the XPD (CIX) and ABG with the XPD (ABGX) path-loss models to avoid the computational complexity of minimum mean square error (MMSE) approach. Moreover, small-scale parameters such as root mean square (RMS) delay spread, mean excess (MN-EX) delay, dispersion factors and maximum excess (MAX-EX) delay parameters were used to characterize the multipath channel dispersion. Multiple statistical distributions for RMS delay spread were also investigated. The results show that our proposed models are simpler and more physically-based than other well-known models. The path-loss exponents for all studied models are smaller than that of the free-space model by values in the range of 0.1 to 1.4 for all measured frequencies. The RMS delay spread values varied between 0.2 ns and 13.8 ns, and the dispersion factor values were less than 1 for all measured frequencies. The exponential and Weibull probability distribution models best fit the RMS delay spread empirical distribution for all of the measured frequencies in all scenarios.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment
  19. Mohd Syafwan Mohd Soffian, Irfan Mohamad, Norasnieda Md Shukri
    MyJurnal
    Leech infestation in otolaryngology is sporadically seen in
    remote area of tropical countries, but the cases are usually not
    scientifically reported. We are reporting an unusual case of a
    land leech removal from external auditory canal (EAC).
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment
  20. Wan Maznah Wan Omar
    Trop Life Sci Res, 2010;21(2):-.
    MyJurnal
    Algal communities possess many attributes as biological indicators of spatial and temporal environmental changes. Algal parameters, especially the community structural and functional variables that have been used in biological monitoring programs, are highlighted in this document. Biological indicators like algae have only recently been included in water quality assessments in some areas of Malaysia. The use of algal parameters in identifying various types of water degradation is essential and complementary to other environmental indicators.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment; Environmental Monitoring
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