Displaying publications 21 - 40 of 1412 in total

  1. Gazzaz NM, Yusoff MK, Juahir H, Ramli MF, Aris AZ
    Water Environ. Res., 2013 Aug;85(8):751-66.
    PMID: 24003601
    This study investigated relationships of a water quality index (WQI) with multiple water quality variables (WQVs), explored variability in water quality over time and space, and established linear and non-linear models predictive of WQI from raw WQVs. Data were processed using Spearman's rank correlation analysis, multiple linear regression, and artificial neural network modeling. Correlation analysis indicated that from a temporal perspective, the WQI, temperature, and zinc, arsenic, chemical oxygen demand, sodium, and dissolved oxygen concentrations increased, whereas turbidity and suspended solids, total solids, nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N), and biochemical oxygen demand concentrations decreased with year. From a spatial perspective, an increase with distance of the sampling station from the headwater was exhibited by 10 WQVs: magnesium, calcium, dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, temperature, NO3-N, arsenic, chloride, potassium, and sodium. At the same time, the WQI; Escherichia coli bacteria counts; and suspended solids, total solids, and dissolved oxygen concentrations decreased with distance from the headwater. Lastly, regression and artificial neural network models with high prediction powers (81.2% and 91.4%, respectively) were developed and are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  2. Mahmud SZ, Joanita S, Khairun Nisa J, Balkish MN, Tahir A
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2013 Apr;68(2):125-8.
    PMID: 23629557 MyJurnal
    Extensive literature reviews showed that pacifier usage is associated with early cessation of breast feeding, as well as respiratory infection. This cross sectional study was a part of the bigger study of The Third National Health Morbidity Survey conducted throughout Malaysia in 2006. Survival and pearson cox regression was done to find association between pacifier user and breast feeding duration. Logistic Regression was done to find association between variables of interest. The prevalence of pacifier use was 32.9%. Chinese children reported significantly higher usage of pacifier (95% CI; 47.5, 58.7) as well as those resided in urban area (95% CI;32.5,37.7). One third of pacifier user had stopped breastfeeding at 6 months of age. Those with pacifier users were significantly shorter in breast feeding duration and significantly associated with non exclusivity in breastfeeding. Those without pacifier user were significantly associated with ever breast fed.(p value=0.001). There was no significant association between pacifier use with acute respiratory infection. Factors such as ethnicity and residential are non modifiable whereas modifiable factor such as pacifier use is certainly needed to be addressed at maternal and child health care level.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  3. Lee KG, Indralingam V
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2012 Oct;67(5):478-82.
    PMID: 23770862 MyJurnal
    INTRODUCTION: Several studies have found higher in-hospital mortality for admissions during weekend or off hours, known as "weekend or off-hour effect". However, data for this on Malaysian populations is limited. This study was conducted to analyze the 3-year mortality trend in a secondary hospital and its relation to time and date of admission.

    METHODS: The clinical data of 126,627 patients admitted to Taiping Hospital from 1st January 2008 to 31st December 2010 obtained via patient registry database of hospital was analyzed. This study compared mortality during weekdays with weekends, office hours (0800-1700) with off hours (1701-0759), and subanalysis of office hours with evening (1701-2259) or night hours (2300-0759), adjusted for age and gender.

    RESULTS: Although the overall staff-to-patient ratio is improving, analyses showed a statistically significant increased risk of mortality for those patients admitted during weekends (OR = 1.22; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.14-1.31) or off hours in a weekday (OR = 1.67; 95% CI = 1.57-1.78). In the comparison between time of admission, there was statistically significant increased risk of mortality for admissions during evening hours (OR = 1.44; 95% CI = 1.28-1.62) and night hours (OR = 1.92; 95% CI = 1.71-2.16). Diseases of cardiovascular and respiratory system remained the top two causes of death over the three years.

    CONCLUSION: The risk of mortality is significantly higher as a result of "weekend or off-hour effect". Recognition and intervention addressing these issues will have important implications for the healthcare system setting, hospital staffing and training, quality and timeliness of medical care delivery.

    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  4. Lyn LY, Sze HW, Rajendran A, Adinarayana G, Dua K, Garg S
    Acta Pharm, 2011 Dec;61(4):391-402.
    PMID: 22202198 DOI: 10.2478/v10007-011-0037-z
    Piroxicam is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug with low aqueous solubility which exhibits polymorphism. The present study was carried out to develop polymorphs of piroxicam with enhanced solubility and dissolution rate by the crystal modification technique using different solvent mixtures prepared with PEG 4000 and PVP K30. Physicochemical characteristics of the modified crystal forms of piroxicam were investigated by X-ray powder diffractometry, FT-IR spectrophotometry and differential scanning calorimetry. Dissolution and solubility profiles of each modified crystal form were studied and compared with pure piroxicam. Solvent evaporation method (method I) produced both needle and cubic shaped crystals. Slow crystallization from ethanol with addition of PEG 4000 or PVP K30 at room temperature (method II) produced cubic crystal forms. Needle forms produced by method I improved dissolution but not solubility. Cubic crystals produced by method I had a dissolution profile similar to that of untreated piroxicam but showed better solubility than untreated piroxicam. Cubic shaped crystals produced by method II showed improved dissolution, without a significant change in solubility. Based on the XRPD results, modified piroxicam crystals obtained by method I from acetone/benzene were cube shaped, which correlates well with the FTIR spectrum; modified needle forms obtained from ethanol/methanol and ethanol/acetone showed a slight shift of FTIR peak that may be attributed to differences in the internal structure or conformation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  5. Neoh KB, Yeap BK, Tsunoda K, Yoshimura T, Lee CY
    PLoS ONE, 2012;7(4):e36375.
    PMID: 22558452 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0036375
    Undertaking behavior is a significant adaptation to social life in enclosed nests. Workers are known to remove dead colony members from the nest. Such behavior prevents the spread of pathogens that may be detrimental to a colony. To date, little is known about the ethological aspects of how termites deal with carcasses.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  6. Lim SM, Yim HS
    Int J Med Mushrooms, 2012;14(6):593-602.
    PMID: 23510253
    A central composite design of response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the extraction time (X1: 266.4-393.6 min) and temperature (X2: 42.9-57.1°C) of Pleurotus ostreatus aqueous extract with high antioxidant activities, namely DPPH radical-scavenging activity, ABTS radical cation inhibition, and ferric reducing/antioxidant power, as well as total phenolic content (TPC). Results showed that the data were adequately fitted into four second-order polynomial models developed by RSM. The extraction time and temperature were found to have significant quadratic effects on antioxidant activities and TPC. The optimal extraction time and temperature were 282.3 min and 42.9°C (DPPH), 393.6 min and 42.9°C (ABTS), 340.4 min and 49.8°C (FRAP), and 347.6 min, 49.7°C (TPC), with corresponding yields of 53.32%, 73.20%, 37.14 mM Fe2+ equivalents/100 g, and 826.33 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g, respectively. These experimental data were close to their predicted values. The establishment of such a model provides a good experimental basis for employing RSM to optimize the extraction time and temperature for high antioxidant activities from P. ostreatus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  7. Rozilawati H, Zairi J, Adanan CR
    Trop Biomed, 2007 Jun;24(1):83-94.
    PMID: 17568381 MyJurnal
    Ovitrap surveillance was conducted in a selected urban area and suburban area, ie. Taman Permai Indah(TPI) and Kampung Pasir Gebu (KPG) in Penang for 14 months. It was found that Aedes albopictus was the most abundant Aedes species in both study areas, even though a small percentage of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus were found to breed simultaneously in the same ovitrap. This study indicated that the main dengue vector was Ae. albopictus. A strong correlation was found between rainfall and egg population in both of the study sites (r = 0.982 and r = 0.918).
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  8. Chandran TH, Prepageran N, Philip R, Gopala K, Zubaidi AL, Jalaludin MA
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2007 Dec;62(5):411-2.
    PMID: 18705478 MyJurnal
    Pneumocephalus or collection of air in the intracranial cavity can occur after trauma or surgery. However, delayed pneumocephalus occurring months after the initial injury is not common. We would like to report a case of spontaneous traumatic pneumoencephalocele presenting with transient recurrent hemiparesis 14 months after the initial trauma.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  9. Naito Y, Kanzaki M, Numata S, Obayashi K, Konuma A, Nishimura S, et al.
    J. Plant Res., 2008 Jan;121(1):33-42.
    PMID: 17943228
    We monitored the reproductive status of all trees with diameters at breast height (dbh) >30 cm in a 40-ha plot at Pasoh, west Malaysia, and investigated the individual fecundity of 15 Shorea acuminata Dyer (Dipterocarpaceae) trees using seed-trapping methods during two consecutive general flowering periods in 2001 (GF2001) and 2002 (GF2002). The proportion of flowering trees was higher, and not dependent on size, in GF2002 (84.2%), than in GF2001 (54.5%), when flowering mainly occurred in trees with a dbh < or =70 cm. Fecundity parameters of individual trees per event varied widely (221,000-35,200,000 flowers, 0-139,000 mature seeds, and 1.04-177 kg total dry matter mass of fruit (TDM) per tree). Monotonic increases with increasing tree size were observed for flower production and TDM amongst trees up to 90 cm in dbh, but not for mature seed production or for any of these parameters amongst larger trees. The pattern of reproductive investment during the two consecutive reproductive events clearly differed between medium-sized and large trees; the former concentrated their reproductive investment in one of the reproductive events whereas the latter allocated their investment more evenly to both reproductive events. Our results suggest size-related differences in the resource allocation pattern for reproduction.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  10. Lan BL
    Chaos, 2006 Sep;16(3):033107.
    PMID: 17014212
    The dynamics of a periodically delta-kicked Hamiltonian system moving at low speed (i.e., at speed much less than the speed of light) is studied numerically. In particular, the trajectory of the system predicted by Newtonian mechanics is compared with the trajectory predicted by special relativistic mechanics for the same parameters and initial conditions. We find that the Newtonian trajectory, although close to the relativistic trajectory for some time, eventually disagrees completely with the relativistic trajectory, regardless of the nature (chaotic, nonchaotic) of each trajectory. However, the agreement breaks down very fast if either the Newtonian or relativistic trajectory is chaotic, but very much slower if both the Newtonian and relativistic trajectories are nonchaotic. In the former chaotic case, the difference between the Newtonian and relativistic values for both position and momentum grows, on average, exponentially. In the latter nonchaotic case, the difference grows much slower, for example, linearly on average.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  11. Lee YW, Zairi J
    J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 2006 Mar;22(1):97-101.
    PMID: 16646329
    Susceptibility levels of a few laboratory-cultured and dengue-endemic area field-collected strains of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus to Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) at different storage ages were studied. The susceptibility of laboratory-cultured World Health Organization (WHO) Bora Bora reference, Vector Control Research Unit (VCRU), and Fumakilla Malaysia Berhad (FMB) strains of Ae. aegypti to Bti was examined. The sensitivity to Bti decreased with storage age. The median lethal concentration (LC50) for Bti increased by 2-3 times after 2 years compared to a fresh sample (3-6 months of storage). However, after the 2-year storage period, Bti still provided very good efficacy against all laboratory-cultured susceptible strains of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. The observed 95% lethal concentration values were about 20 times lower than the recommended concentration (6,000 international toxic units (ITU)/liter). Results obtained from the study against the dengue-endemic area field-collected strains of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus confirmed the effectiveness of the Bti after storage for 2 years (18-24 months). For Ae. aegypti, the Ujung Batu strain was the most susceptible to Bti, whereas the Sungai Nibong strain showed the most tolerance. Susceptibility of laboratory-cultured strains varied; the Air Itam strain of Ae. albopictus was the most susceptible to Bti, whereas the Kampung Serani strain was the most tolerant among the field strains. However, the laboratory strain of Ae. albopictus was more susceptible than all the field strains.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  12. Rao M
    Adv Physiol Educ, 2006 Jun;30(2):95.
    PMID: 16709743
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  13. Kundin WD, Nadchatram M, Keong A
    J. Med. Entomol., 1972 Dec 20;9(6):558-9.
    PMID: 4654691
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  14. Silva JF
    Trop Doct, 1979 Oct;9(4):221-7.
    PMID: 516150
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  15. Puraviappan A, Hing NK, Ping WW
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1975 Mar;30(3):202-5.
    PMID: 1160679
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  16. Venugopalan B, Rajendra P
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2001 Mar;56(1):39-43.
    PMID: 11503294
    A retrospective epidemiological study was done on 41 deaths among patients treated for TB in the Klang Chest Clinic for the year 1999. The findings revealed a male preponderance of TB deaths with Indians having the highest case fatality rate (8.6%). The majority of deaths occurred within the 25-44 year age group. Of those cases diagnosed as Pulmonary TB, 69% were diagnosed as far-advanced, at presentation, based on chest x-rays reported. Eighty three percent of these patients were still on treatment when they died. HIV was the most common co-existing disease condition and was implicated in 14.6% of the deaths. The recommendations include implementation of clinical guidelines on TB screening for HIV patients, a study to evaluate the effectiveness of the current TB surveillance programme and for chest x-rays of all sputum smear negative patients to be reported by the radiologist to reduce the risk of misdiagnosis.
    Study site: Chest clinic, Kelang, Selangor, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  17. Ng KP, Saw TL, Baki A, Kamarudin R
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2003 Aug;58(3):454-60.
    PMID: 14750391
    Determine HIV-1/2, Chembio HIV-1/2 STAT-PAK and PenTest are simple/rapid tests for the detection of antibodies to HIV-1 and HIV-2 in human whole blood, serum and plasma samples. The assay is one step and the result is read visually within 15 minutes. Using 92 known HIV-1 reactive sera and 108 known HIV-1 negative sera, the 3 HIV tests correctly identified all the known HIV-1 reactive and negative samples. The results indicated that Determine HIV-1/2, Chembio HIV-1/2 STAT-PAK and PenTest HIV are as sensitive and specific (100% concordance) as Microparticle Enzyme Immunoassay. The data indicated that these 3 HIV tests are effective testing systems for diagnosis of HIV infection in a situation when the conventional Enzyme Immunoassay is not suitable.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  18. Shamel MM, Sulaiman NM, Sulaiman MZ
    Artif Cells Blood Substit Immobil Biotechnol, 1999 Sep-Nov;27(5-6):447-53.
    PMID: 10595447
    A study was conducted to evaluate the cross flow tubular ultrafiltration behavior of aqueous solutions of pectin. The effectiveness of pulsatile flow as a cleaning-in-place (CIP) technique to improve permeate flux was undertaken on the above mentioned solution. This investigation is part of a study to apply membrane filtration in the clarification of tropical fruit juice. The main variables, which were investigated, include the concentration of pectin, pulse frequency and amplitude. It was found that the amount of pectin in the solution significantly affects its ultrafiltration behavior. From the observed profiles, it is evident that the formation of gel layer on the membrane surface is responsible for the leveling of flux at high pressures. The presence of pectin was found to affect the properties of the solution such as viscosity, pH and the size of pectin colloid. Improvements in the permeate flux for pectin solution were obtained by employing pulsatile flow cleaning-in-place technique. Both pulse frequency and amplitude are important parameters that can improve the improvement of in-situ cleaning method. Similar to several findings reported in the literature, pulsatile flow showed significant effectiveness of about 60% higher flux when the ultrafiltration process is operated under laminar condition.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
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