Displaying publications 21 - 40 of 47 in total

  1. Lim TO, Ngah BA, Suppiah A, Ismail F, Abdul Rahman R
    Singapore Med J, 1991 Aug;32(4):245-8.
    PMID: 1776003
    Consecutive hypertensives admitted with cardiovascular complications were studied. One hundred and eight complicated hypertensives (10%) out of 1,066 medical admissions were seen in the three month study. Thirty three per cent had cerebrovascular disease, 30% ischaemic heart disease, 2% had malignant hypertension and 85% had hypertensive heart disease. All patients had uncontrolled hypertension at admission (mean blood pressure 184/115 mmHg). Twenty-four patients (22%) were newly diagnosed; of the rest of previously diagnosed hypertensives (78%), 3% had never been on treatment and 56% had dropped out of treatment, which explained their ineffective blood pressure control. However, 18% of patients had apparently been on regular follow up and treatment, and yet their blood pressure control was poor. Many patients had evidence of renal disease. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors was also high; 56% had hypercholesterolaemia; 46% had hypertriglyceridaemia; 44% smoked, 38% were overweight or obese, and 18% were diabetic. This indicates that hypertension is best regarded as an ingredient of a cardiovascular risk profile and its management requires multifactorial correction of all risk factors identified.
  2. Haseeb A, Winit-Watjana W, Bakhsh AR, Elrggal ME, Hadi MA, Mously AA, et al.
    BMJ Open, 2016 06 16;6(6):e011401.
    PMID: 27311911 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-011401
    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of a pharmacist-led educational intervention to reduce the use of high-risk abbreviations (HRAs) by healthcare professionals.

    DESIGN: Quasi-experimental study consisting of a single group before-and-after study design.

    SETTING: A public emergency hospital in Mecca, Saudi Arabia.

    PARTICIPANTS: 660 (preintervention) and then 498 (postintervention) handwritten physician orders, medication administration records (MRAs) and pharmacy dispensing sheets of 482 and 388 patients, respectively, from emergency wards, inpatient settings and the pharmacy department were reviewed.

    INTERVENTION: The intervention consisted of a series of interactive lectures delivered by an experienced clinical pharmacist to all hospital staff members and dissemination of educational tools (flash cards, printed list of HRAs, awareness posters) designed in line with the recommendations of the Institute for Safe Medical Practices and the US Food and Drug Administration. The duration of intervention was from April to May 2011.

    MAIN OUTCOME: Reduction in the incidence of HRAs use from the preintervention to postintervention study period.

    FINDINGS: The five most common abbreviations recorded prior to the interventions were 'IJ for injection' (28.6%), 'SC for subcutaneous' (17.4%), drug name and dose running together (9.7%), 'OD for once daily' (5.8%) and 'D/C for discharge' (4.3%). The incidence of the use of HRAs was highest in discharge prescriptions and dispensing records (72.7%) followed by prescriptions from in-patient wards (47.3%). After the intervention, the overall incidence of HRA was significantly reduced by 52% (ie, 53.6% vs 25.5%; p=0.001). In addition, there was a statistically significant reduction in the incidence of HRAs across all three settings: the pharmacy department (72.7% vs 39.3%), inpatient settings (47.3% vs 23.3%) and emergency wards (40.9% vs 10.7%).

    CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacist-led educational interventions can significantly reduce the use of HRAs by healthcare providers. Future research should investigate the long-term effectiveness of such educational interventions through a randomised controlled trial.

  3. Muhamad MH, Sheikh Abdullah SR, Mohamad AB, Abdul Rahman R, Hasan Kadhum AA
    J Environ Manage, 2013 May 30;121:179-90.
    PMID: 23542216 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2013.02.016
    In this study, the potential of a pilot-scale granular activated carbon sequencing batch biofilm reactor (GAC-SBBR) for removing chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N) and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) from recycled paper wastewater was assessed. For this purpose, the response surface methodology (RSM) was employed, using a central composite face-centred design (CCFD), to optimise three of the most important operating variables, i.e., hydraulic retention time (HRT), aeration rate (AR) and influent feed concentration (IFC), in the pilot-scale GAC-SBBR process for recycled paper wastewater treatment. Quadratic models were developed for the response variables, i.e., COD, NH3-N and 2,4-DCP removal, based on the high value (>0.9) of the coefficient of determination (R(2)) obtained from the analysis of variance (ANOVA). The optimal conditions were established at 750 mg COD/L IFC, 3.2 m(3)/min AR and 1 day HRT, corresponding to predicted COD, NH3-N and 2,4-DCP removal percentages of 94.8, 100 and 80.9%, respectively.
  4. Hassan SA, Othman N, Idris FM, Abdul Rahman Z, Maning N, Abdul Rahman R, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2012 Aug;67(4):402-5.
    PMID: 23082450 MyJurnal
    This study describes the prevalence of Clostridium difficile toxin (CDT) in loose stool samples from inpatients aged more than two years of a tertiary hospital. A total of 175 samples that had been examined were from stool samples that were sent to the Medical Microbiology & Parasitology Laboratory for various clinical indications. The toxin was detected by a commercial immunochromatograhic test, and the patients' demography, clinical features, treatment and outcomes were analyzed from their medical records. Clostridium difficile toxin was positive in 24 (13.7%) of the stool samples. Male and female were 11 (45.8%) and 13 (54.2%) respectively, with the majority of them aged more than 50 years. Most were from medical wards (n = 21, 87.5%), with the rest from surgical wards (n = 2, 8.3%) and intensive care units (n = 1, 3.4%). All the CDT positive patients had history of prior antibiotic usage within 6 weeks before the detection of the toxin. The mean duration of antibiotics usage was 17.75 (+/- 13.75) days, while the mean duration of diarrhea was 5.21((+/- 5.85) days. Eighteen patients had underlying medical illnesses that were diabetes mellitus, chronic renal disease, hypertension, ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease and malignancy; with seven of them being CDT positive while on chemotherapy. Stool occult blood test was positive in 15 patients whereas presence of pus cells in the CD positive stool samples were detected in 21 patients. The duration of hospitalization among the patients was 27.96 (+/- 23.22) days.
  5. Abdul Rahman N, Ramli R, Abdul Rahman R, Hussaini HM, Abdul Hamid AL
    Geriatr Gerontol Int, 2010 Jan;10(1):64-9.
    PMID: 20102384 DOI: 10.1111/j.1447-0594.2009.00561.x
    Road traffic accidents are the main cause of trauma in Malaysia. It has been shown that there was an increase in admissions for trauma patients older than 60 years in the last decade. The purpose of this study was to determine the pattern of maxillofacial injuries in the geriatric patients referred to Seremban Hospital, Malaysia.
  6. Keng PS, Basri M, Ariff AB, Abdul Rahman MB, Abdul Rahman RN, Salleh AB
    Bioresour Technol, 2008 Sep;99(14):6097-104.
    PMID: 18243690 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2007.12.049
    Lipase-catalyzed production of palm esters by alcoholysis of palm oil with oleyl alcohol in n-hexane was performed in 2L stirred-tank reactor (STR). Investigation on the performance of reactor operation was carried out in batch mode STR with single impeller mounted on the centrally located shaft. Rushton turbine (RT) impellers provide the highest reaction yield (95.8%) at lower agitation speed as compared to AL-hydrofoil (AL-H) and 2-bladed elephant ear (EE) impellers. Homogenous enzyme particles suspension was obtained at 250 rpm by using RT impeller. At higher impeller speed, the shear effect on the enzyme particles caused by agitation has decreased the reaction performance. Palm esters reaction mixture in STR follows Newtons' law due to the linear relation between the shear stress (tau) and shear rate (dupsilon/dy). High stability of Lipozyme RM IM was observed as shown by its ability to be repeatedly used to give high percentage yield (79%) of palm esters even after 15 cycles of reaction. The process was successfully scale-up to 75 L STR (50 L working volume) based on a constant impeller tip speed approach, which gave the yield of 97.2% after 5h reaction time.
  7. Noordin R, Itoh M, Kimura E, Abdul Rahman R, Ravindran B, Mahmud R, et al.
    Filaria journal, 2007;6:9.
    PMID: 17961262
    In the global effort to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (LF), rapid field-applicable tests are useful tools that will allow on-site testing to be performed in remote places and the results to be obtained rapidly. Exclusive reliance on the few existing tests may jeopardize the progress of the LF elimination program, thus the introduction of other rapid tests would be useful to address this issue. Two new rapid immunochromatographic IgG4 cassette tests have been produced, namely WB rapid and panLF rapid, for detection of bancroftian filariasis and all three species of lymphatic filaria respectively. WB rapid was developed using BmSXP recombinant antigen, while PanLF rapid was developed using BmR1 and BmSXP recombinant antigens. A total of 165 WB rapid and 276 panLF rapid tests respectively were evaluated at USM and the rest were couriered to another university in Malaysia (98 WB rapid, 129 panLF rapid) and to universities in Indonesia (56 WB rapid, 62 panLF rapid), Japan (152 of each test) and India (18 of each test) where each of the tests underwent independent evaluations in a blinded manner. The average sensitivities of WB rapid and panLF rapid were found to be 97.6% (94%-100%) and 96.5% (94%-100%) respectively; while their average specificities were both 99.6% (99%-100%). Thus this study demonstrated that both the IgG4 rapid tests were highly sensitive and specific, and would be useful additional tests to facilitate the global drive to eliminate this disease.
  8. Shaharir SS, Mohamed Said MS, Mohd R, Abdul Cader R, Mustafar R, Abdul Rahman R
    PLoS One, 2019;14(9):e0222343.
    PMID: 31539383 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0222343
    Flare of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) may occur during pregnancy and puerperium. We studied the prevalence and factors associated with SLE relapse during pregnancy and post-partum period in a multi-ethnic SLE cohort. Consecutive SLE patients who attended the outpatient clinic were reviewed for previous history of pregnancies in our institution. Patients who had a complete antenatal, delivery, and post-partum follow up were included. Their medical records were retrospectively analysed to assess the disease activity at pre-pregnancy/conception, during antenatal, and post-partum period. Presence of flare episodes during pregnancy and puerperium were recorded. The pregnancy outcomes recorded include live birth, foetal loss, prematurity and intra-uterine growth restrictions (IUGR). Univariate and multivariable logistic regression with generalized estimating equations (GEE) analyses were performed to determine the factors associated with disease relapse and the pregnancy outcomes. A total of 120 patients with 196 pregnancies were included, with a live birth rate of 78.6%. Four (2.0%) were diagnosed to have SLE during pregnancy. The flare rate in pregnancy was 40.1% while post-partum 17.4%. Majority of the relapse in pregnancy occurred in haematological system (62.3%) followed by renal (53.2%), musculoskeletal (22.1%), and mucocutaneous (14.3%). In GEE analyses, active disease at conception was the independent predictor of SLE relapse during and after pregnancy, whereas older maternal age and Malay ethnicity were associated with higher flare during post-partum. HCQ use was significantly associated with reduced risk of flare in univariate analysis but it was no longer significant in the GEE analyses. Presence of disease flare in pregnancy was significantly associated with prematurity. In conclusion, pregnancy in SLE need to be planned during quiescent state as pre-pregnant active disease was associated with disease relapse in both during and after pregnancy. Malay patients had an increased risk of post-partum flare but further larger prospective studies are needed to confirm the association between pregnancies in the different ancestral background.
  9. Fikry M, Yusof YA, M Al-Awaadh A, Abdul Rahman R, Chin NL, Ghazali HM
    Antioxidants (Basel), 2019 Jul 18;8(7).
    PMID: 31323854 DOI: 10.3390/antiox8070226
    Full-fat roasted date seeds are considered an excellent source of antioxidants which can treat many diseases. The specific objectives were to investigate the effect of roasting temperature and time on the hardness of whole seeds, moisture content of the roasted date seeds powder, DPPH radical scavenging activity, total phenolic contents, extraction yield, pH, browning index and sensory properties of the brew prepared from the full-fat roasted date seeds and to construct descriptive models that could describe this effect. Date seeds were roasted at three temperatures (160, 180 and 200 °C) for different period of times (10, 20 and 30 min) using a natural conventional oven; then grinded and next brewed. Hardness of whole seeds, moisture content of the seeds powder, DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic contents, extraction yield, pH and browning index and sensory properties of the brew were significantly affected by the roasting conditions. The statistical results indicated that the proposed model could adequately describe the measured properties. Strong correlations have been found among the properties of the brew as well. The producers of the date seeds brew can utilize these results for controlling the roasting process.
  10. Wan Ismail WR, Abdul Rahman R, Rahman NAA, Atil A, Nawi AM
    J Prev Med Public Health, 2019 Jul;52(4):205-213.
    PMID: 31390683 DOI: 10.3961/jpmph.19.020
    OBJECTIVES: Maternal folic acid supplementation is considered mandatory in almost every country in the world to prevent congenital malformations. However, little is known about the association of maternal folic acid intake with the occurrence of childhood cancer. Hence, this study aimed to determine the effects of maternal folic acid consumption on the risk of childhood cancer.

    METHODS: A total of 158 related articles were obtained from PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, and ProQuest using standardized keywords, of which 17 were included in the final review.

    RESULTS: Eleven of the 17 articles showed a significant protective association between maternal folic acid supplementation and childhood cancer. Using a random-effects model, pooled odds ratios (ORs) showed a protective association between maternal folic acid supplementation and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (OR, 0.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66 to 0.86). However, there was no significant association between maternal folic acid supplementation and acute myeloid leukaemia (OR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.46 to 1.06) or childhood brain tumours (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.88 to 1.19).

    CONCLUSIONS: Maternal folic acid supplementation was found to have a protective effect against childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Thus, healthcare professionals are recommended to provide regular health education and health promotion to the community on the benefits of folic acid supplementation during pregnancy.

  11. Khor BH, Tiong HC, Tan SC, Abdul Rahman R, Abdul Gafor AH
    Nutrients, 2020 Sep 13;12(9).
    PMID: 32933198 DOI: 10.3390/nu12092809
    Nutritional assessment is essential to identify patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) who are protein-energy wasting (PEW) and at risk of poor clinical outcomes. This systematic review aimed to investigate the relationship of nutritional assessments for PEW with clinical outcomes in patients with AKI. A systematic search was performed in PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane Library databases using search terms related to PEW, nutrition assessment, and AKI to identify prospective cohort studies that involved AKI adult patients with at least one nutritional assessment performed and reported relevant clinical outcomes, such as mortality, length of stay, and renal outcomes associated with the nutritional parameters. Seventeen studies reporting eight nutritional parameters for PEW assessment were identified and mortality was the main clinical outcome reported. A meta-analysis showed that PEW assessed using subjective global assessment (SGA) was associated with greater mortality risk (RR: 1.99, 95% CI: 1.36-2.91). Individual nutrition parameters, such as serum chemistry, body mass, muscle mass, and dietary intakes, were not consistently associated with mortality. In conclusion, SGA is a valid tool for PEW assessment in patients with AKI, while other nutrition parameters in isolation had limited validity for PEW assessment.
  12. Syed Anwar Aly SA, Abdul Rahman R, Sharip S, Shah SA, Abdullah Mahdy Z, Kalok A
    Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2021 May 27;18(11).
    PMID: 34072017 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18115762
    Pregnant women are susceptible to COVID-19 complications due to gestation-related physiological changes. We aimed to evaluate the level of maternal knowledge, perception, and practice during the pandemic. A cross-sectional study was conducted during the Malaysian Movement Control Order (MCO) between April and June 2020. A self-administered electronic questionnaire that included the knowledge and practice domains was distributed. A newly designed set of questions was used to evaluate (1) women's perception of MCO and (2) maternal experience, which was subdivided into clinical care provision and maternal anxiety. The survey response rate was 93% with the final number for analysis of 415. The majority of women (95%) demonstrated an adequate level of knowledge on COVID-19, whilst 99% had a good practice. We found that tertiary education (p < 0.001), employment status (p = 0.03), higher household income (p < 0.001), and multiple sources of information (p < 0.001) were independent predictors of adequate maternal knowledge on COVID-19. Women with adequate knowledge also reported a more positive perception of MCO (p < 0.001) and better obstetric care experience (p = 0.037), as did those of Malay ethnicity. Younger (p < 0.001) and nulliparous (p = 0.01) women demonstrated greater anxiety levels. The majority of our women reported good practice and adequate knowledge, which contributed to a positive perception of MCO and better maternal obstetric experience. First-time mothers may benefit from extra support and reassurance during the pandemic to alleviate maternal anxiety.
  13. Cheok CY, Sobhi B, Mohd Adzahan N, Bakar J, Abdul Rahman R, Ab Karim MS, et al.
    Food Chem, 2017 Feb 1;216:10-8.
    PMID: 27596386 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.08.011
    Chili shrimp paste (CSP) is an exotic traditional Southeast Asian condiment prepared using mainly fresh chilies and fermented shrimp paste (belacan) which attributed to strong pungent fishy odor. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of electron beam irradiation (EBI) exposure on CSP for microorganisms decontamination, and its physicochemical qualities changes. Changes in capsaicinoid contents and volatile compounds were analyzed using HPLC and GC-MS. Mesophilic bacteria, yeast, mold and pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae decreased as irradiation dose increasing from 0 to 10kGy. EBI at 10kGy effectively decontaminated the samples with no significant effects on phenolic and capsaicinoids contents compared to the fresh samples. From 24 compounds, irradiated CSP retained 23 volatile compounds, while thermally treated CSP has only 19 compounds. EBI at 10kGy is effective for decontamination in CSP with lesser destructive effect on volatile compounds and texture compared to thermal treatment.
  14. Cheok CY, Mohd Adzahan N, Abdul Rahman R, Zainal Abedin NH, Hussain N, Sulaiman R, et al.
    Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr, 2018 Feb 11;58(3):335-361.
    PMID: 27246698 DOI: 10.1080/10408398.2016.1176009
    Recent rapid growth of the world's population has increased food demands. This phenomenon poses a great challenge for food manufacturers in maximizing the existing food or plant resources. Nowadays, the recovery of health benefit bioactive compounds from fruit wastes is a research trend not only to help minimize the waste burden, but also to meet the intensive demand from the public for phenolic compounds which are believed to have protective effects against chronic diseases. This review is focused on polyphenolic compounds recovery from tropical fruit wastes and its current trend of utilization. The tropical fruit wastes include in discussion are durian (Durio zibethinus), mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.), rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum), mango (Mangifera indica L.), jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), papaya (Carica papaya), passion fruit (Passiflora edulis), dragon fruit (Hylocereus spp), and pineapple (Ananas comosus). Highlights of bioactive compounds in different parts of a tropical fruit are targeted primarily for food industries as pragmatic references to create novel innovative health enhancement food products. This information is intended to inspire further research ideas in areas that are still under-explored and for food processing manufacturers who would like to minimize wastes as the norm of present day industry (design) objective.
  15. Anuar N, Idris NS, Mohd Zin F, Abdul Rahman R, Ahmad I, Ibrahim MI
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2019 Nov 01;20(11):3353-3359.
    PMID: 31759359 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2019.20.11.3353
    OBJECTIVE: To study the effectiveness of the smoking prevention module towards knowledge on smoking and its harmful effects and smoking refusal skills among secondary school students in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    METHODS: A quasi experimental interventional study involving 166 non-smokers adolescents, aged 13 to 14 years old were carried out in two schools located in two different suburbs. Both schools had equal number of participants. One school was given the smoking prevention module for intervention while the control school only received the module after the study had been completed. The knowledge on smoking and its harmful effects and smoking refusal skill score were assessed using a set of validated Malay questionnaires at baseline, two weeks and eight weeks after the intervention. Repeated measure ANCOVA was used to analyse the mean score difference of both groups at baseline and after intervention.

    RESULT: Baseline analysis shows no significant difference in knowledge score between the study groups (p = 0.713) while post intervention, it shows significant inclination of knowledge score in intervention group and the difference was significant after controlling the gender [F(df) = 15.96(1.5), p <0.001]. The mean baseline for refusal skills score in the control and intervention groups were 30.89(6.164) and 28.02(6.241) respectively (p= 0.003). Post intervention, there is a significant difference in the crude mean and the estimated marginal means for smoking refusal skills score between the two groups after controlling for sex [F(df) = 5.66(1.8), p = 0.005].

    CONCLUSION: This smoking prevention module increased the level of knowledge on smoking and its harmful effects and smoking refusal skill among the secondary school students. Thus, it is advocated to be used as one of the standard modules to improve the current method of teaching in delivering knowledge related to harmful effects of smoking and smoking refusal skill to the adolescents in Malaysia.

  16. Jameran AS, Cheah SK, Tzar MN, Musthafa QA, Low HJ, Maaya M, et al.
    J Crit Care, 2021 10;65:216-220.
    PMID: 34252648 DOI: 10.1016/j.jcrc.2021.06.018
    PURPOSE: Early detection of candidemia in critically ill patients is important for preemptive antifungal treatment. Our study aimed to identify the independent risk factors for the development of a new candidemia prediction score.

    METHODS: This single-centre retrospective observational study evaluated 2479 intensive care unit (ICU) cases from January 2016 to December 2018. A total of 76 identified candidemia cases and 76 matched control cases were analyzed. The patients' demographic characteristics and illness severity were analyzed, and possible risk factors for candidemia were investigated.

    RESULTS: Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified renal replacement therapy (RRT) (odds ratio [OR]: 52.83; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.82-356.92; P < 0.0001), multifocal Candida colonization (OR: 23.55; 95% CI: 4.23-131.05; P < 0.0001), parenteral nutrition (PN) (OR: 63.67; 95% CI: 4.56-889.77; P = 0.002), and acute kidney injury (AKI) (OR: 7.67; 95% CI: 1.24-47.30; P = 0.028) as independent risk factors. A new prediction score with a cut-off value of 5.0 (80.3% sensitivity and 77.3% specificity) was formulated from the logit model equation.

    CONCLUSIONS: Renal replacement therapy, AKI, PN, and multifocal Candida colonization were the independent risk factors for the new candidemia prediction score with high discriminatory performance and predictive accuracy.

  17. Wan Mat WR, Yahya N, Izaham A, Abdul Rahman R, Abdul Manap N, Md Zain J
    Int J Risk Saf Med, 2014;26(2):57-60.
    PMID: 24902502 DOI: 10.3233/JRS-140611
    Acute pain service (APS) ensures provision of effective and safe postoperative pain relief. The following cases describe a potentially fatal error in managing patients who receive epidural analgesia postoperatively.
  18. Zailani MAH, Raja Sabudin RZA, Abdul Rahman R, Mohd Saiboon I, Ismail A, Mahdy ZA
    Malays J Pathol, 2021 Aug;43(2):251-259.
    PMID: 34448789
    INTRODUCTION: The vast advancement of technology and breakthrough in high-tech disciplines created multiple areas of research activities, including the emergence of the medical drone. Malaysia, a rapidly developing country in Southeast Asia is on track to achieving high-income status. However, the stagnant growth of Malaysian maternal healthcare does not run parallel with the aspiration. This review paper assessed and reported narratively the current condition of maternal healthcare in Malaysia, the possible application of drones in improving the sector, exploring in detail several challenges, and providing recommendations for experts in studying the rising technological phenomena.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature search was done from June 2019 to November 2019 with restrictions to the English language. The search was performed in ScienceDirect, PubMed, and EMBASE databases, using a combination of search terms related to drones, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS), maternal, obstetric, healthcare, medical products transportation and Malaysia. A discourse analysis followed and a narrative review was provided on this subject.

    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The validated ability of drones in the delivery of blood products is highlighted as a possible application in improving maternal healthcare in Malaysia, particularly in the state of Sabah. Five key challenges are identified: infrastructure, technicalities, regulations, expertise, and social acceptance. Future predictions of drone technology in healthcare were outlined with the suggestion of three principle arms of application.

    CONCLUSION: The usage of the medical drone in medical products transportation supports the objectives of WHO MDG 5 for Malaysian maternal health. A study on the impact of drones in reducing the maternal mortality ratio is recommended for further exploration.

  19. Mokhtar MN, Azaharuddin I, Abdullah FH, Izaham A, Abdul Rahman R
    Front Med (Lausanne), 2022;9:1058121.
    PMID: 36569164 DOI: 10.3389/fmed.2022.1058121
    Pseudomonas putida is a rare pathogen leading to nosocomial and central nervous system infections. Despite having a low virulence and being a rare organism to cause bacteremia, it can evolve into a multidrug-resistant organism and lead to mortality and morbidity in the intensive care setting. A 64-year-old male gardener was presented with extensive acute subarachnoid hemorrhage with intraventricular extension causing hydrocephalus requiring embolization and coiling following a cerebral angiogram, which showed bilateral posterior circulation aneurysm and left anterior circulation aneurysm. External ventricular drain (EVD) was inserted given the worsening hydrocephalus. During his stay in the intensive care unit (ICU), he was becoming more septic and a full septic workup including a cerebral spinal fluid culture taken from the indwelling catheter of the EVD and was found to be positive for a ceftazidime-sensitive strain of P. putida. Following the treatment with intravenous ceftazidime for 1 week and a revision of the EVD on day 32 of admission, he continued to recover well and showed an improvement in his Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and septic parameters. Eventually, he was able to wean off mechanical ventilation. He was discharged from ICU care to the neurosurgical ward with supplemental oxygen on day 42 of admission. It is necessary to be aware of the possibility of nosocomial P. putida infection, especially in patients with indwelling catheters, and to consider the early initiation of appropriate antibiotic regimens once detected as well as strict precautions in hygiene during the management of these patients to avoid further development of multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains.
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