Displaying publications 21 - 37 of 37 in total

  1. Ibrahim Z, Amin MF, Yahya A, Aris A, Umor NA, Muda K, et al.
    Water Sci Technol, 2009;60(3):683-8.
    PMID: 19657163 DOI: 10.2166/wst.2009.440
    Microbial flocs formed from raw textile wastewater in a prototype Aerobic Biofilm Reactor (ABR) system were characterised and studied for their potential use in the treatment of textile wastewater. After 90-100 days of operation, microbial flocs of loose irregular structures were obtained from the reactor with good settling velocity of 33 m/h and sludge volume index (SVI) of 48.2 mL/g. Molecular analysis of the flocs using PCR-amplified 16S rDNA sequence showed 98% homology to those of Bacillus sp, Paenibacillus sp and Acromobacter sp. Detection of Ca(2+)(131 mg/g) and Fe(2+)(131 mg/g) using atomic absorption spectrometer might be implicated with the flocs formation. In addition, presence of Co(2+) and Ni(2+) were indicative of the flocs ability to accumulate at least a fraction of the metals' present in the wastewater. When the flocs were used for the treatment of raw textile wastewater, they showed good removal of COD and colour about 55% and 70% respectively, indicating their potential application.
  2. Zakaria ZA, Gopalan HK, Zainal H, Mohd Pojan NH, Morsid NA, Aris A, et al.
    Yakugaku Zasshi, 2006 Nov;126(11):1171-8.
    PMID: 17077618
    AIM: The present study was carried out to evaluate the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of chloroform extract of Solanum nigrum leaves using various animal models.

    METHODS: The extract was prepared by soaking (1:20; w/v) the air-dried powdered leaves (20 g) in chloroform for 72 hrs followed by evaporation (40 degrees C) under reduced pressure to dryness (1.26 g) and then dissolved (1:50; w/v) in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). The supernatant, considered as the stock solution with dose of 200 mg/kg, was diluted using DMSO to 20 and 100 mg/kg, and all doses were administered (s.c.; 10 ml/kg) in mice/rats 30 min prior to tests.

    RESULTS: The extract exhibited significant (p<0.05) antinociceptive activity when assessed using the abdominal constriction, hot plate and formalin tests. The extract also produced significant (p<0.05) anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities when assessed using the carrageenan-induced paw edema and brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia tests. Overall, the activities occurred in a dose-independent manner.

    CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated that the lipid-soluble extract of S. nigrum leaves possessed antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic properties and confirmed the traditional claims.

  3. Vijaya Bhaskar Reddy A, Yusop Z, Jaafar J, Bin Aris A, Abdul Majid Z, Umar K, et al.
    J Sep Sci, 2016 Jun;39(12):2276-83.
    PMID: 27095506 DOI: 10.1002/jssc.201600155
    A sensitive and selective gas chromatography with mass spectrometry method was developed for the simultaneous determination of three organophosphorus pesticides, namely, chlorpyrifos, malathion, and diazinon in three different food commodities (milk, apples, and drinking water) employing solid-phase extraction for sample pretreatment. Pesticide extraction from different sample matrices was carried out on Chromabond C18 cartridges using 3.0 mL of methanol and 3.0 mL of a mixture of dichloromethane/acetonitrile (1:1 v/v) as the eluting solvent. Analysis was carried out by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry using selected-ion monitoring mode. Good linear relationships were obtained in the range of 0.1-50 μg/L for chlorpyrifos, and 0.05-50 μg/L for both malathion and diazinon pesticides. Good repeatability and recoveries were obtained in the range of 78.54-86.73% for three pesticides under the optimized experimental conditions. The limit of detection ranged from 0.02 to 0.03 μg/L, and the limit of quantification ranged from 0.05 to 0.1 μg/L for all three pesticides. Finally, the developed method was successfully applied for the determination of three targeted pesticides in milk, apples, and drinking water samples each in triplicate. No pesticide was found in apple and milk samples, but chlorpyrifos was found in one drinking water sample below the quantification level.
  4. We ACE, Aris A, Zain NAM, Muda K, Sulaiman S
    Chemosphere, 2021 Jan;263:128209.
    PMID: 33297168 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.128209
    The present work investigates the feasibility of aerobic granulation for the treatment of low-medium strength domestic wastewater for long-term operation and effects of a static mixer on the properties and removal performances of the aerobic granules formed. The static mixer was installed in a sequential batch reactor to provide higher hydrodynamic shear force in enhancing the formation of the aerobic granules. Aerobic granules were successfully formed in the domestic wastewater, and the granulation treatment system was sustained for a period of 356 days without granules disintegration. Subsequent to the installation, aerobic granules with a low SVI30 of 41.37 mL/gTSS, average diameter 1.11 mm, granular strength with integrity coefficient 10.4% and regular shape with minimum filamentous outgrowth were formed. Mineral concentrations such as Fe, Mg, Ca and Na as well as composition of protein and polysaccharide in tightly bound-extracellular polymeric substance of the aerobic granules were found to be higher under the effect of the static mixer. However, no significant improvement was observed on the TCOD, NH4+-N and TSS removal performance. Good TCOD and TSS removal performance of above 85% and 90%, respectively and moderate NH4+-N removal performance of about 60% were observed throughout the study. Higher simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) efficiency of 56% was observed after the installation of the static mixer, as compared to 21% prior. Therefore, it may be concluded that the installation of the static mixer significantly improved the properties of aerobic granules formation and SND efficiency but not the TCOD, NH4+-N and TSS removal performance.
  5. Muda K, Aris A, Salim MR, Ibrahim Z, van Loosdrecht MC, Ahmad A, et al.
    Water Res, 2011 Oct 15;45(16):4711-21.
    PMID: 21714982 DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2011.05.012
    The physical characteristics, microbial activities and kinetic properties of the granular sludge biomass were investigated under the influence of different hydraulic retention times (HRT) along with the performance of the system in removal of color and COD of synthetic textile wastewater. The study was conducted in a column reactor operated according to a sequential batch reactor with a sequence of anaerobic and aerobic reaction phases. Six stages of different HRTs and different anaerobic and aerobic reaction time were evaluated. It was observed that the increase in HRT resulted in the reduction of organic loading rate (OLR). This has caused a decrease in biomass concentration (MLSS), reduction in mean size of the granules, lowered the settling ability of the granules and reduction of oxygen uptake rate (OUR), overall specific biomass growth rate (ìoverall), endogeneous decay rate (kd) and biomass yield (Yobs, Y). When the OLR was increased by adding carbon sources (glucose, sodium acetate and ethanol), there was a slight increase in the MLSS, the granules mean size, ìoverall, and biomass yield. Under high HRT, increasing the anaerobic to aerobic reaction time ratio caused an increase in the concentration of MLSS, mean size of granules and lowered the SVI value and biomass yield. The ìoverall and biomass yield increased with the reduction in anaerobic/aerobic time ratio. The HRT of 24 h with anaerobic and aerobic reaction time of 17.8 and 5.8 h respectively appear to be the best cycle operation of SBR. Under these conditions, not only the physical properties of the biogranules have improved, the highest removal of color (i.e. 94.1±0.6%) and organics (i.e. 86.5±0.5%) of the synthetic textile dyeing wastewater have been achieved.
  6. How SW, Lim SY, Lim PB, Aris AM, Ngoh GC, Curtis TP, et al.
    Water Sci Technol, 2018 May;77(9-10):2274-2283.
    PMID: 29757179 DOI: 10.2166/wst.2018.143
    Intensive aeration for nitrification is a major energy consumer in sewage treatment plants (STPs). Low-dissolved-oxygen (low-DO) nitrification has the potential to lower the aeration demand. However, the applicability of low-DO nitrification in the tropical climate is not well-understood. In this study, the potential of low-DO nitrification in tropical setting was first examined using batch kinetic experiments. Subsequently, the performance of low-DO nitrification was investigated in a laboratory-scale sequential batch reactor (SBR) for 42 days using real tropical sewage. The batch kinetic experiments showed that the seed sludge has a relatively high oxygen affinity. Thus, the rate of nitrification was not significantly reduced at low DO concentrations (0.5 mg/L). During the operation of the low-DO nitrification SBR, 90% of NH4-N was removed. The active low-DO nitrification was mainly attributed to the limited biodegradable organics in the sewage. Fluorescence in-situ hybridisation and 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing revealed the nitrifiers were related to Nitrospira genus and Nitrosomonadaceae family. Phylogenetic analysis suggests 47% of the operational taxonomic units in Nitrospira genus are closely related to a comammox bacteria. This study has demonstrated active low-DO nitrification in tropical setting, which is a more sustainable process that could significantly reduce the energy footprint of STPs.
  7. Reddy AVB, Yusop Z, Jaafar J, Bin Aris A, Abdul Majid Z
    J Sep Sci, 2017 Aug;40(15):3086-3093.
    PMID: 28581679 DOI: 10.1002/jssc.201700252
    An extremely sensitive and simple gas chromatography with mass spectrometry method was developed and completely validated for the analysis of five process-related impurities, viz., 4-hydroxy-l-phenylglycine, 4-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, methyl-4-hydroxyphenylacetate, and 2-[4-{(2RS)-2-hydroxy-3-[(1-methylethyl)amino]propoxy}phenyl]acetonitrile, in atenolol. The separation of impurities was accomplished on a BPX-5 column with dimensions of 50 m × 0.25 mm i.d. and 0.25 μm film thickness. The method validation was performed following International Conference on Harmonisation guidelines in which the method was capable to quantitate 4-hydroxy-l-phenylglycine, 4-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile, and 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid at 0.3 ppm, and methyl-4-hydroxyphenylacetate and 2-[4-{(2RS)-2-hydroxy-3-[(1-methylethyl)amino]propoxy}phenyl]acetonitrile at 0.35 ppm with respect to 10 mg/mL of atenolol. The method was linear over the concentration range of 0.3-10 ppm for 4-hydroxy-l-phenylglycine, 4-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile, and 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, and 0.35-10 ppm for methyl-4-hydroxyphenylacetate and 2-[4-{(2RS)-2-hydroxy-3-[(1-methylethyl)amino]propoxy}phenyl]acetonitrile. The correlation coefficient in each case was found ≥0.998. The repeatability and recovery values were acceptable, and found between 89.38% and 105.60% for all five impurities under optimized operating conditions. The method developed here is simple, selective, and sensitive with apparently better resolution than the reported methods. Hence, the method is a straightforward and good quality control tool for the quantitation of selected impurities at trace concentrations in atenolol.
  8. Mohd-Aris A, Muhamad-Sofie MHN, Zamri-Saad M, Daud HM, Ina-Salwany MY
    Vet World, 2019 Nov;12(11):1806-1815.
    PMID: 32009760 DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2019.1806-1815
    Fish diseases are often caused either by bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, or a combination of these pathogens. Of these, bacterial fish diseases are considered to be a major problem in the aquaculture industry. Hence, the prevention of such diseases by proper vaccination is one of the integral strategies in fish health management, aimed at reducing the fish mortality rate in the aquaculture farms. Vaccination offers an effective yet low-cost solution to combat the risk of disease in fish farming. An appropriate vaccination regime to prevent bacterial diseases offers a solution against the harmful effects of antibiotic applications. This review discusses the role of live-attenuated vaccine in controlling bacterial diseases and the development of such vaccines and their vaccination strategy. The current achievements and potential applications of live-attenuated and combined vaccines are also highlighted. Vaccine development is concluded to be a demanding process, as it must satisfy the requirements of the aquaculture industry.
  9. Hasan ZAE, Mohd Zainudin NAI, Aris A, Ibrahim MH, Yusof MT
    J Appl Microbiol, 2020 Oct;129(4):991-1003.
    PMID: 32324939 DOI: 10.1111/jam.14674
    AIMS: Agro-based wastes were evaluated as a medium for mass micropropagule production and optimal efficacy of Trichoderma asperellum B1092 in controlling Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and promoting tomato growth. This study focused on biological control because pathogen persistence in the soil makes the disease difficult to control.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: Rice bran, biochar, empty fruit bunches, coconut fibres, compost, top soil and mixed soil were evaluated as media for mass multiplication of T. asperellum, which is effective in controlling plant pathogens. Yielding the most colony forming units (CFU) among the media, coconut fibre was deemed most suitable for promoting sporulation. After 120 days on the medium, T. asperellum B1902 produced 9·053 × 105  CFU per gram coconut fibre; oil palm empty fruit bunches was second highest (7·406 × 105  CFU per gram). In field tests of T. asperellum B1092 against F. oxysporum f. sp lycopersici (causing Fusarium wilt of cherry tomato), B1092 significantly promoted plant growth compared to the control. The efficacy of this formulation resulted in increased growth of roots and shoots tomato plants and total lycopene, sugar, K, N, Ca, P and Mg content after 120 days.

    CONCLUSIONS: Trichoderma asperellum B1092 showed great field potential for improving productivity and quality of tomatoes and in controlling Fusarium wilt of cherry tomato.

    SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This innovative approach using a cheap agro-waste to control the persistent soil-borne Fusarium pathogen of cherry tomato should increase soil survival rate of Trichoderma and has potential for upscaling in the field for other crops.

  10. Aris A, Khalid MZM, Yahaya H, Yoong LO, Ying NQ
    Curr Diabetes Rev, 2020;16(4):387-394.
    PMID: 31433762 DOI: 10.2174/1573399815666190712192527
    BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a preventable condition. Targeting those who are at risk of getting this disease is essential.

    OBJECTIVE: To examine T2D risk among university students in Malaysia and determine its relationship with socio-demographic characteristics and physical activity.

    METHODS: The study was conducted cross-sectionally on 390 students selected using quota sampling method from 13 faculties in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. A short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and Finnish Diabetes Risk Score were used to measure the physical activity and T2D risk.

    RESULTS: The T2D risk was found to be low (M = 5.23, SD = 3.32) with more than two-third of the student population at the low risk level while a significant proportion of 23.8%, 5.6% and 0.3% having slightly elevated, moderate and high risk respectively. The T2D risk was significantly related to their age (rho = 0.197, p < 0.000), gender (U = 12641, p = 0.011), ethnic group (Χ2 = 18.86, p < 0.000), marital status (Χ2 = 6.597, p = 0.037), residence (U = 10345, p = 0.008), academic year (Χ2 = 14.24, p = 0.007) and physical activity (rho = -0.205, p < 0.000 and Χ2 = 13.515, p = 0.001). Of these, only age (β=0.130) and physical activity (β=-0.159) remained significant in the regression analysis.

    CONCLUSION: The findings call for a radical change in the nursing practice to target the amendable factors that are significant in order to prevent the progression of the risk towards type 2 diabetes.
  11. Lim CK, Bay HH, Neoh CH, Aris A, Abdul Majid Z, Ibrahim Z
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2013 Oct;20(10):7243-55.
    PMID: 23653315 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-013-1725-7
    In this study, the adsorption behavior of azo dye Acid Orange 7 (AO7) from aqueous solution onto macrocomposite (MC) was investigated under various experimental conditions. The adsorbent, MC, which consists of a mixture of zeolite and activated carbon, was found to be effective in removing AO7. The MC were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray, point of zero charge, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area analysis. A series of experiments were performed via batch adsorption technique to examine the effect of the process variables, namely, contact time, initial dye concentration, and solution pH. The dye equilibrium adsorption was investigated, and the equilibrium data were fitted to Langmuir, Freundlich, and Tempkin isotherm models. The Langmuir isotherm model fits the equilibrium data better than the Freundlich isotherm model. For the kinetic study, pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and intraparticle diffusion model were used to fit the experimental data. The adsorption kinetic was found to be well described by the pseudo-second-order model. Thermodynamic analysis indicated that the adsorption process is a spontaneous and endothermic process. The SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectral and high performance liquid chromatography analysis were carried out before and after the adsorption process. For the phytotoxicity test, treated AO7 was found to be less toxic. Thus, the study indicated that MC has good potential use as an adsorbent for the removal of azo dye from aqueous solution.
  12. Lim CK, Bay HH, Aris A, Abdul Majid Z, Ibrahim Z
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2013 Jul;20(7):5056-66.
    PMID: 23334551 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-013-1476-5
    Reactive dyes account for one of the major sources of dye wastes in textile effluent. In this study, decolorization of the monoazo dye, Acid Orange 7 (AO7) by the Enterococcus faecalis strain ZL that isolated from a palm oil mill effluent treatment plant has been investigated. Decolorization efficiency of azo dye is greatly affected by the types of nutrients and the size of inoculum used. In this work, one-factor-at-a-time (method and response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize these operational factors and also to study the combined interaction between them. Analysis of AO7 decolorization was done using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, desorption study, UV-Vis spectral analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The optimum condition via RSM for the color removal of AO7 was found to be as follows: yeast extract, 0.1% w/v, glycerol concentration of 0.1% v/v, and inoculum density of 2.5% v/v at initial dye concentration of 100 mg/L at 37 °C. Decolorization efficiency of 98% was achieved in only 5 h. The kinetic of AO7 decolorization was found to be first order with respect to dye concentration with a k value of 0.87/h. FTIR, desorption study, UV-Vis spectral analysis, FESEM, and HPLC findings indicated that the decolorization of AO7 was mainly due to the biosorption as well as biodegradation of the bacterial cells. In addition, HPLC analyses also showed the formation of sulfanilic acid as a possible degradation product of AO7 under facultative anaerobic condition. This study explored the ability of E. faecalis strain ZL in decolorizing AO7 by biosorption as well as biodegradation process.
  13. Muda K, Aris A, Salim MR, Ibrahim Z, Yahya A, van Loosdrecht MC, et al.
    Water Res, 2010 Aug;44(15):4341-50.
    PMID: 20580402 DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2010.05.023
    Microbial granular sludge that is capable to treat textile wastewater in a single reactor under intermittent anaerobic and aerobic conditions was developed in this study. The granules were cultivated using mixed sewage and textile mill sludge in combination with anaerobic granules collected from an anaerobic sludge blanket reactor as seed. The granules were developed in a single sequential batch reactor (SBR) system under alternating anaerobic and aerobic condition fed with synthetic textile wastewater. The characteristics of the microbial granular sludge were monitored throughout the study period. During this period, the average size of the granules increased from 0.02 +/- 0.01 mm to 2.3 +/- 1.0 mm and the average settling velocity increased from 9.9 +/- 0.7 m h(-1) to 80 +/- 8 m h(-1). This resulted in an increased biomass concentration (from 2.9 +/- 0.8 g L(-1) to 7.3 +/- 0.9 g L(-1)) and mean cell residence time (from 1.4 days to 8.3 days). The strength of the granules, expressed as the integrity coefficient also improved. The sequential batch reactor system demonstrated good removal of COD and ammonia of 94% and 95%, respectively, at the end of the study. However, only 62% of color removal was observed. The findings of this study show that granular sludge could be developed in a single reactor with an intermittent anaerobic-aerobic reaction phase and is capable in treating the textile wastewater.
  14. Tee SK, Ong TL, Aris A, See SML, Leong HY, Khalid MKNM, et al.
    Seizure, 2019 Apr;67:78-81.
    PMID: 30947044 DOI: 10.1016/j.seizure.2019.03.012
  15. Aziz MA, Norman S, Mohamed Zaid S, Simarani K, Sulaiman R, Mohd Aris A, et al.
    Arch Microbiol, 2023 Jan 28;205(2):76.
    PMID: 36708390 DOI: 10.1007/s00203-023-03417-y
    Wastewater monitoring for SARS-CoV-2 has attracted considerable attention worldwide to complement the existing clinical-based surveillance system. In this study, we report our first successful attempt to prove the circulation of SARS-CoV-2 genes in Malaysian urban wastewater. A total of 18 wastewater samples were obtained from a regional sewage treatment plant that received municipal sewage between February 2021 and May 2021. Using the quantitative PCR assay targeting the E and RdRp genes of SARS-CoV-2, we confirmed that both genes were detected in the raw sewage, while no viral RNA was found in the treated sewage. We were also able to show that the trend of COVID-19 cases in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor was related to the changes in SARS-CoV-2 RNA levels in the wastewater samples. Overall, our study highlights that monitoring wastewater for SARS-CoV-2 should help local health professionals to obtain additional information on the rapid and silent circulation of infectious agents in communities at the regional level.
  16. Ina-Salwany MY, Al-Saari N, Mohamad A, Mursidi FA, Mohd-Aris A, Amal MNA, et al.
    J Aquat Anim Health, 2019 03;31(1):3-22.
    PMID: 30246889 DOI: 10.1002/aah.10045
    Current growth in aquaculture production is parallel with the increasing number of disease outbreaks, which negatively affect the production, profitability, and sustainability of the global aquaculture industry. Vibriosis is among the most common diseases leading to massive mortality of cultured shrimp, fish, and shellfish in Asia. High incidence of vibriosis can occur in hatchery and grow-out facilities, but juveniles are more susceptible to the disease. Various factors, particularly the source of fish, environmental factors (including water quality and farm management), and the virulence factors of Vibrio, influence the occurrence of the disease. Affected fish show weariness, with necrosis of skin and appendages, leading to body malformation, slow growth, internal organ liquefaction, blindness, muscle opacity, and mortality. A combination of control measures, particularly a disease-free source of fish, biosecurity of the farm, improved water quality, and other preventive measures (e.g., vaccination) might be able to control the infection. Although some control measures are expensive and less practical, vaccination is effective, relatively cheap, and easily implemented. In this review, the latest knowledge on the pathogenesis and control of vibriosis, including vaccination, is discussed.
  17. How SW, Sin JH, Wong SYY, Lim PB, Mohd Aris A, Ngoh GC, et al.
    Water Sci Technol, 2020 Jan;81(1):71-80.
    PMID: 32293590 DOI: 10.2166/wst.2020.077
    Many developing countries, mostly situated in the tropical region, have incorporated a biological nitrogen removal process into their wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Existing wastewater characteristic data suggested that the soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) in tropical wastewater is not sufficient for denitrification. Warm wastewater temperature (30 °C) in the tropical region may accelerate the hydrolysis of particulate settleable solids (PSS) to provide slowly-biodegradable COD (sbCOD) for denitrification. This study aimed to characterize the different fractions of COD in several sources of low COD-to-nitrogen (COD/N) tropical wastewater. We characterized the wastewater samples from six WWTPs in Malaysia for 22 months. We determined the fractions of COD in the wastewater by nitrate uptake rate experiments. The PSS hydrolysis kinetic coefficients were determined at tropical temperature using an oxygen uptake rate experiment. The wastewater samples were low in readily-biodegradable COD (rbCOD), which made up 3-40% of total COD (TCOD). Most of the biodegradable organics were in the form of sbCOD (15-60% of TCOD), which was sufficient for complete denitrification. The PSS hydrolysis rate was two times higher than that at 20 °C. The high PSS hydrolysis rate may provide sufficient sbCOD to achieve effective biological nitrogen removal at WWTPs in the tropical region.
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