Displaying publications 21 - 39 of 39 in total

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  1. Elkalmi RM, Alkoudmani RM, Elsayed TM, Ahmad A, Khan MU
    J Relig Health, 2016 Dec;55(6):1869-75.
    PMID: 26429730 DOI: 10.1007/s10943-015-0136-0
    The Malaysian official Islamic authorities have issued a "fatwa" (Islamic ruling) regarding smoking practice which prohibits Muslims from smoking because of its potential harm to health. Since the prevalence of smoking among Malaysian students is high, this study was designed to explore the perceptions and opinions of Malaysian Muslim students towards smoking in International Islamic University of Malaysia. A prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted among School of Science students in International Islamic University Malaysia. Convenience sampling approach was used to recruit 323 students based on sample size calculation. A content- and face-validated questionnaire was used to collect the data from the participants. Non-smokers highly supported the fatwa on smoking forbiddance than smokers (94 vs 64.3 %, p = 0.001). A significant proportion of non-smokers believed that Islam prohibits smoking because of its potential harm (94.9 vs 71.4 %, p = 0.001). Majority of smokers agreed that addiction is the main barrier towards smoking cessation (78.6 vs 61.5 %, p = 0.019). The results showed positive influences of Islamic beliefs on the non-smokers. Further studies are required to validate these findings by surveying other universities of Malaysia.
  2. Ahmad A, Khan MU, Gogoi LJ, Kalita M, Sikdar AP, Pandey S, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(8):e0135767.
    PMID: 26296212 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0135767
    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a major cause of high morbidity and mortality in several states across India. However, in 2014, a sharp rise was observed in the number of cases of JE in north-eastern Assam state, and 51% of the total cases of JE in India were reported from the Assam in the same year. In this regard, a study was conducted to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes of healthcare workers in Darrang, a district of Assam highly affected by JE.
  3. Ahmad A, Khan MU, Srikanth AB, Patel I, Nagappa AN, Jamshed SQ
    J Clin Diagn Res, 2015 Jun;9(6):FC01-6.
    PMID: 26266133 DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2015/12921.6023
    The purpose of this study was to determine the level of workload among pharmacy academicians working in public and private sector universities in India. The study also aimed to assess the satisfaction of academicians towards their workload.
  4. Ahmad A, Khan MU, Patel I, Maharaj S, Pandey S, Dhingra S
    J Res Pharm Pract, 2015 Jan-Mar;4(1):37-41.
    PMID: 25710049 DOI: 10.4103/2279-042X.150057
    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of B.Sc. Pharmacy students about usage and resistance of antibiotics in Trinidad and Tobago.
    METHODS: This was a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study involving B.Sc. Pharmacy students. The questionnaire was divided into five components including Demographics data, knowledge about antibiotic use, attitude toward antibiotic use and resistance, self-antibiotic usage and possible causes of antibiotic resistance. Data were analyzed by employing Mann-Whitney and Chi-square tests using SPSS version 20.
    FINDINGS: The response rate was 83.07%. The results showed good knowledge of antibiotic use among students. The overall attitude of pharmacy students was poor. About 75% of participants rarely use antibiotics, whereas self-decision was the major reason of antibiotic use (40.7%) and main source of information was retail pharmacist (42.6%). Common cold and flu is a major problem for which antibiotics were mainly utilized by pharmacy students (35.2%).
    CONCLUSION: The study showed good knowledge of pharmacy students regarding antibiotic usage. However, students' attitude towards antibiotic use was poor. The study recommends future studies to be conducted with interventional design to improve knowledge and attitude of pharmacy students about antibiotic use and resistance.
    KEYWORDS: Antibiotics; Trinidad and Tobago; knowledge; pharmacy students; resistance
  5. Ahmad A, Khan MU, Kumar BD, Kumar GS, Rodriguez SP, Patel I
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2014 10 1;7(4):302-8.
    PMID: 26692742 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.158438
    OBJECTIVES: To assess the beliefs, attitudes and self-use of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy (AYUSH) medicines among senior pharmacy students.

    METHODOLOGY: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted among pharmacy students in four pharmacy schools located in Andhra Pradesh in South India. This study was conducted from the August to September 2014. The study population included all pharmacy students enrolled in Doctor of Pharmacy, Bachelor of Pharmacy and Diploma in Pharmacy programs in studied pharmacy schools. The pretested AYUSH survey had 8 questions on AYUSH related beliefs and 8 question on AYUSH related attitudes. The survey also asked participants about AYUSH related knowledge, frequency of use of AYUSH and the reason for using AYUSH. The data analysis was performed using SPSS Version 20. Chi-square test and Mann-Whitney U-test were employed to study the association between the independent and dependent variables.

    RESULTS: A total of 428 pharmacy students participated in the survey. 32.2% of the study population was females and 32.5% of the population resided in rural areas. Males were more likely to have positive beliefs about AYUSH when compared to females (odd ratio [OR] = 4.62, confidence interval [CI] = 2.37-8.99, P < 0.001). Similarly, students living in hostels were more positive in their beliefs about AYUSH compared with students living at home (OR = 2.14, CI = 1.12-4.07, P < 0.05). Students living in hostel also had a positive attitude about AYUSH use (OR = 1.74, CI = 1.03-2.93, P < 0.05).

    CONCLUSION: Pharmacy students held favorable attitude and beliefs about AYUSH use. This baseline survey provides important information about the pharmacy student's perception about AYUSH. Further research is needed to explore the reasons that shape the pharmacy student's beliefs and attitudes about AYUSH.

  6. Khan AN, Khan MU, Shoaib MH, Yousuf RI, Mir SA
    Oman Med J, 2014 Jul;29(4):271-5.
    PMID: 25170408 DOI: 10.5001/omj.2014.71
    OBJECTIVES: To explore the nurses' expectations and experience about pharmacists in private sector hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from June to September 2012 in five private sector hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan. A convenient sample of nurses (n=377) were enrolled in this study. Data was obtained through a previously validated questionnaire. Responses were statistically analyzed using SPSSv.17.

    RESULTS: Questionnaires were returned giving a response rate of 63.6% of which 20 were unusable (n=240). Out of the remaining 220, 24.1% (n=53) responded that they never or rarely interacted with a pharmacist. Respondents who expect pharmacists to collaborate with nurses to solve drug related problems were 45% (n=99). Nurses' experience of pharmacists was not substantial as only 44.5% (n=98) respondents consider pharmacists as a reliable source of clinical drug information.

    CONCLUSION: The role of pharmacists is not well appreciated among nurses in Pakistan. Hence, pharmacists must bridge the observed gap and use a more strategic and consistent approach to build a more positive image in line with other healthcare professionals and in providing patient-centred pharmaceutical care. This research would impress upon the pharmacists the need to redefine their role in the healthcare settings.

  7. Adeeb F, Khan MU, Li X, Stack AG, Devlin J, Fraser AD
    Int J Inflam, 2017;2017:8608716.
    PMID: 28660088 DOI: 10.1155/2017/8608716
    Vitamin D plays a significant role in the immune system modulation and may confer a protective role in autoimmune diseases. We conducted a case-control study to compare 25(OH)D levels in patients with BD who were managed at a regional rheumatology programme in the midwest region of Ireland compared to matched controls. Healthy controls were selected from the Irish health system and matched in 1 : 5 ratio for age, sex, and the month of the year. 25(OH)D levels <20 nmol/L were classified as deficient while levels between 20 and 40 nmol/L were classified as insufficient. Differences between groups were assessed using Mann-Whitney test and associations between cases and controls were expressed as odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Nineteen patients with BD were compared with 95 controls matched by age, sex, and month of blood draw. 25(OH)D levels were significantly higher in patients in BD than in matched controls (median values: 45 nmol/L versus 22 nmol/L, p < 0.005) and tended to be lower in patients with active disease than in those without (median values: 35 nmol/L (IQR: 22.75-47.25 nm/L) versus 50 nmol/L (IQR: 35-67 nmol/L), p = 0.11). Compared to controls, patients with BD were significantly less likely to have 25(OH)D deficiency or insufficiency (OR: 0.09, 95% CI: 0.03-0.28, p < 0.001). Our findings suggest a possible role for 25(OH)D in modifying the inflammatory response in BD and uncover a potential opportunity to assess whether correction of Vit D deficiency confers protective benefits.
  8. Hassali MA, Arief M, Saleem F, Khan MU, Ahmad A, Mariam W, et al.
    Pharm Pract (Granada), 2017 Apr-Jun;15(2):929.
    PMID: 28690695 DOI: 10.18549/PharmPract.2017.02.929
    OBJECTIVE: The present study was aimed to evaluate the practices and attitudes of young Malaysian adults towards the use of antibiotics, and to determine the socioeconomic factors associated with the antibiotic use.

    METHODS: A survey was carried in Cheras community by approaching a conveniently selected sample of 480 participants. A pre-tested questionnaire was used for data collection.

    RESULT: Of 480 participants approached, 400 agreed to participate in this study, giving a response rate of 83.3%. The study results showed that 42.75% of the participants exhibited poor attitudes towards antibiotic usage. Chinese race and high income were significantly associated with the positive attitudes towards antibiotic usage. It is shown that the practice of the participants towards antibiotics was relatively poor. The majority of participants agreed that they do not consult a doctor for minor illnesses (64%). The main reason for not consulting a doctor was the high fees of consultation (34.25%) and the inconvenience of visit (29.25%). However, a large proportion of respondents (77.5%) agreed that there is a need to enhance antibiotic education among public.

    CONCLUSION: The study results identified some crucial gaps in the attitudes and practices of Cheras community about the use of antibiotics. Thus, improving the public knowledge and changing their attitude towards antibiotic use along with proper interventions to regulate the ease of their availability would play a significant role for the effective use of antibiotics in the community.
  9. Ahmad A, Khan MU, Malik S, Mohanta GP, Parimalakrishnan S, Patel I, et al.
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2016 Oct-Dec;8(4):335-340.
    PMID: 28216959 DOI: 10.4103/0975-7406.199340
    BACKGROUND: Acute gastroenteritis and respiratory illnesses are the major causes of morbidity and mortality in children under 5 years of age. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prescription pattern of antibiotic utilization during the treatment of cough/cold and/or diarrhea in pediatric patients.

    METHODS: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted for 6 months in pediatric units of a tertiary care hospital in South India. Children under 5 years of age presenting with illness related to diarrhea and/or cough/cold were included in this study. Data were collected by reviewing patient files and then assessed for its appropriateness against the criteria developed in view of the Medication Appropriateness Index and Guidelines of the Indian Academy of Pediatrics. The results were expressed in frequencies and percentages. Chi-square test was used to analyze the data. A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

    RESULTS: A total of 303 patients were studied during the study period. The mean age of the patients was 3.5 ± 0.6 years. The majority of children were admitted mainly due to chief complaint of fever (63%) and cough and cold (56.4%). The appropriateness of antibiotic prescriptions was higher in bloody and watery diarrhea (83.3% and 82.6%; P < 0.05). Cephalosporins (46.2%) and penicillins (39.9%) were the most commonly prescribed antibiotics, though the generic prescriptions of these drugs were the lowest (13.5% and 10%, respectively). The seniority of prescriber was significantly associated with the appropriateness of prescriptions (P < 0.05). Antibiotics prescription was higher in cold/cough and diarrhea (93.5%) in comparison to cough/cold (85%) or diarrhea (75%) alone.

    CONCLUSIONS: The study observed high rates of antibiotic utilization in Chidambaram during the treatment of cough/cold and/or diarrhea in pediatric patients. The findings highlight the need for combined interventions using education and expert counseling, targeted to the clinical conditions and classes of antibiotic for which inappropriate usage is most common.
  10. Khan MU, Arief M, Ahmad A, Malik S, Gogoi LJ, Kalita M, et al.
    Int J Clin Pharm, 2017 Apr;39(2):473-477.
    PMID: 28260131 DOI: 10.1007/s11096-017-0443-5
    Background Shortage of qualified medical doctors and little or no access to basic medicines and medical facilities are the major rural health concerns in India. Expanding the role of pharmacists to provide prescribing services could improve rural health outcomes. Objective To assess the attitudes of rural population towards pharmacist prescribing and their interest in using expanded pharmacist prescribing services. Setting Rural population of Assam, India. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional survey was conducted for a period of 2 months from March to April 2016 in the State of Assam, India. A multi-stage sampling was used to recruit (n = 410) eligible participants. Main outcome measure Rural population attitudes towards, and interests in using, pharmacist prescribing services. Results The attitudes of participants were generally positive towards pharmacist prescribing. A large proportion of participants (81.5%) agreed that pharmacists should have a prescribing role in rural India. Participants indicated their interest in using expanded pharmacist prescribing services, with greater interests in receiving medications in emergency situations (79.7%) and getting a treatment plan for their medical problem (75.6%). Participants with low income and tertiary education had better attitudes and showed more interest towards expanded pharmacist prescribing services (p 
  11. Ahmad A, Khan MU, Haque I, Ivan R, Dasari R, Revanker M, et al.
    J Clin Diagn Res, 2015 Feb;9(2):FC10-3.
    PMID: 25859467 DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2015/11264.5608
    Polypharmacy is considered as one of the major risk factors in precipitation of drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Patient population at high risk include the elderly and patients with co morbidities as they are usually prescribed with more number of drugs. Critical evaluation of such prescriptions by pharmacist could result in identification and reduction of such problems.
  12. Jamshed SQ, Wong PS, Yi HC, Yun GS, Khan MU, Ahmad A
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2016 Jul-Sep;8(3):217-22.
    PMID: 27413350 DOI: 10.4103/0975-7406.172662
    World Health Organization has defined self-medication as the selection and use of medications (including herbal and traditional product) by individuals to treat self-recognized illnesses or symptoms. The prevalence of self-medication is reported to be higher among female students.
  13. Khan MU, Ahmad A, Salman S, Ayub M, Aqeel T, Haq NU, et al.
    J Relig Health, 2017 Apr;56(2):635-648.
    PMID: 27640195 DOI: 10.1007/s10943-016-0308-6
    Pakistan is one of the two countries where polio remains endemic. Among multiple reasons of polio prevalence, false religious beliefs are accounted as major barriers towards polio immunization in Pakistan. Within this context, religious scholars are now engaged in polio immunization campaigns to dismantle the myths and battle the resurgence of polio in Pakistan. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge, attitudes and perceived barriers of Muslim scholars towards polio immunization in Pakistan. A descriptive, cross-sectional survey of Muslim scholars was conducted in Quetta and Peshawar divisions of Pakistan. From October to December 2015, a convenience sample of 770 Muslim scholars was recruited from the local mosques and religious institutions to participate in this study. Knowledge, attitudes, and perceived barriers were assessed by using self-administered, anonymous and pretested questionnaire. Descriptive and regression analyses were used to express the results with p 
  14. Ahmad A, Khan MU, Jamshed SQ, Kumar BD, Kumar GS, Reddy PG, et al.
    J Infect Dev Ctries, 2016 Aug 02;10(7):747-54.
    PMID: 27482807 DOI: 10.3855/jidc.7578
    INTRODUCTION: The World Health Organization (WHO) declared the Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic to be a public health emergency of international concern. Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at the highest risk of infection, as they may come into contact with patients' blood or fluids. This study was conducted to assess knowledge and attitudes of HCWs towards EVD in India.
    METHODOLOGY: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in a multispecialty public sector referral hospital of Telangana, India. Knowledge and attitude of HCWs were evaluated using a pre-validated questionnaire. A sample of 278 participants was selected to participate in this study. The Chi-squared test was used to assess the relationship between attitudes and demographic characteristics. Logistic regression was used examine the association between knowledge and study variables.
    RESULTS: Of 257 participants who responded (92.4% response rate), 157 (61.1%) were females. The majority of the respondents were physicians (n = 117, 45.5%). Radio and television were the major sources of information about EVD reported by participants (89%). Overall knowledge of HCWs was poor (mean knowledge score: 6.57 ± 2.57). Knowledge of physicians and experienced workers (≥ 10 years) was significantly higher than their respective groups. The overall attitude of the participants was positive (mean attitude score: 1.62 ± 0.57). Significant positive correlations between knowledge and attitude were observed.
    CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate that participants lack basic understanding of EVD. We recommend future studies be conducted across India to identify and subsequently bridge the knowledge gaps among HCWs.
  15. Patel I, Hussain R, Khan A, Ahmad A, Khan MU, Hassalai MAA
    PMID: 28878929 DOI: 10.1186/s40545-017-0118-6
  16. Adeeb F, Ng WL, Khan MU, Devlin J, Stack AG, Fraser AD
    Eur J Rheumatol, 2017 Dec;4(4):254-259.
    PMID: 29308279 DOI: 10.5152/eurjrheum.2017.17046
    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate prescription practices, treatment responses, and serious adverse events of anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) therapies in Behçet's disease (BD).

    Material and Methods: Patients with BD satisfying the International Study Group for Behçet's Disease or the International Criteria for Behçet's Disease criteria were recruited from a regional rheumatology program. The choice of anti-TNF, treatment response, and adverse events were specified. Response to treatment was evaluated by the detection of new, worsening, or improving clinical features, and management was benchmarked against current The European League against Rheumatism recommendations published in 2008.

    Results: Out of the total of 22 patients, 18 (81.9%) received anti-TNF therapies, resulting in 14 (77.8%) complete and 4 (22.2%) partial remissions. Eleven (61.1%) patients switched to a second anti-TNF, seven patients (38.9%) required three different anti-TNFs, and one required a fourth anti-TNF to achieve remission. Two patients required retrials before their disease was controlled. Anti-TNF therapy included infliximab (IFX): n=15, 83.3%; adalimumab (ADA): n=9, 50%; golimumab: n=6, 33.3%; etanercept: n=5, 27.8%; and certolizumab pegol: n=2, 11.1%. Secondary failure was observed with IFX (4/15; 26.7%) and ADA (2/9; 22.2%), and these (100%) were manifested after at least 2 years of treatment. Five patients with potentially life-threatening laryngeal involvement received anti-TNFs successfully halting disease progression. Five allergic reactions were encountered, and five serious infections were documented involving three patients aged ≥ 50 years, all with the use of IFX.

    Conclusion: Anti-TNF therapy induced a clinical response in 100% patients and achieved complete remission in 78% patients. It provides an effective alternative option for first-line therapy in severe BD where many conventional immunosuppressive therapies fail. Patients with BD who do not respond to one or more anti-TNFs because of intolerance, ineffectiveness, or secondary failure might benefit from switching to another drug from this group or even a retrial of a previously administered anti-TNF because unsatisfactory results with one biologic is not predictive of response to another anti-TNF. For those with potentially life-threatening destructive laryngeal manifestation, anti-TNF as a first choice may be considered.

  17. Rafi MS, Naqvi SB, Khan MU, Fayyaz M, Ashraf N, Khan MA, et al.
    J Clin Diagn Res, 2015 Jul;9(7):FC05-8.
    PMID: 26393139 DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2015/13437.6207
    Limited resources of healthcare system and high use of antidepressants have raised some serious concerns regarding proper surveillance system of prescribed medicines. Not much literature is available from Pakistan regarding the potential drug-drug interactions (pDDIs) associated with antidepressants.
  18. Abebe TB, Bhagavathula AS, Tefera YG, Ahmad A, Khan MU, Belachew SA, et al.
    J Public Health Afr, 2016 Dec 31;7(2):570.
    PMID: 28299161 DOI: 10.4081/jphia.2016.570
    A poor understanding of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) among Health Care Professionals (HCPs) may put our lives at risk. We aimed to assess the awareness, knowledge, attitudes, perceptions, beliefs of HCPs towards Ebola at Gondar University Hospital (GUH) in Northwest Ethiopia. We conducted a hospital based, cross-sectional survey among 245 randomly selected HCPs working at GUH from August-October, 2015. A validated, self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. We calculated descriptive statistics with P<0.05 being statistically significant. Of the 245 participants, 211 (86.1%) completed the study. The majority had heard about EVD and used news media (62%) as a source of information. Still, many were afraid of getting EVD (56.4%; P=0.001). A significant number of HCPs thought EVD can cause paralysis like polio (45%) and can be treated with antibiotics (28.4%). In addition, 46.4% of the HCPs felt anger or fear towards Ebola infected patients (P=0.006). We identified poor knowledge and negative incorrect beliefs among doctors and allied health professionals. There is a need for intensive training for all HCPs reduce EVD risk.
  19. Elkalmi RM, Khan MU, Ahmad A, Srikanth AB, Abdurhaman NS, Jamshed SQ, et al.
    J Res Pharm Pract, 2015 Apr-Jun;4(2):94-8.
    PMID: 25984548 DOI: 10.4103/2279-042X.155760
    OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to assess the knowledge, awareness, and perception of contraception among senior pharmacy students of a public sector university in Malaysia.
    METHODS: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was conducted among senior pharmacy students. The pretested questionnaire was used to collect data from the participants over the period of 1-month. The questionnaire was divided into four sections, for gathering the information about students' demographic data, and their knowledge, attitudes, and perception toward contraception. Data were statistically analyzed using SPSS version 20.
    FINDINGS: The response rate was 68.6%. The results showed that the contraceptive knowledge was comparatively higher in year four students (P < 0.001), married respondents (P < 0.001) and those taking elective courses (P = 0.022) as compared to their respective counterparts. Majority of the students were well aware and had a positive perception about contraception.
    CONCLUSION: Overall findings reflect that the majority of the students had good knowledge, perception, and awareness about contraception. The study recommends future studies to be conducted covering different pharmacy schools across the country to further establish the results.
    KEYWORDS: Awareness; contraceptive; knowledge; perception; students
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