Displaying publications 21 - 40 of 53 in total

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  1. Alam A, Ferdosh S, Ghafoor K, Hakim A, Juraimi AS, Khatib A, et al.
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2016 Apr;9(4):402-409.
    PMID: 27086161 DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.03.011
    Clinacanthus nutans Lindau is known as snake grass belonging to the Acanthaceae family. This plant has diverse and potential medicinal uses in traditional herbal medicine for treating skin rashes, insects and snake bites, lesions caused by herpes simplex virus, diabetes, and gout in Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand and China. Phytochemical investigations documented the varied contents of bioactive compounds from this plant namely flavonoids, glycosides, glycoglycerolipids, cerebrosides and monoacylmonogalatosylglycerol. The pharmacological experiment proved that various types of extracts and pure compounds from this species exhibited a broad range of biological properties such as anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antioxidant, and anti-diabetic activities. The findings of toxicity study showed that extracts from this plant did not show any toxicity thus it can be used as strong therapeutic agents for specific diseased conditions. However, further experiments on chemical components and their mode of action showing biological activities are required to elucidate the complete phytochemical profile and assess to confirm their suitability for future drugs. This review summarizes the medicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of this plant in order to explore its therapeutic potential and gaps necessitating for prospected research work.
  2. Mediani A, Abas F, Maulidiani M, Khatib A, Tan CP, Ismail IS, et al.
    J Pharm Biomed Anal, 2016 Sep 05;128:302-312.
    PMID: 27318080 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpba.2016.06.003
    Herbal medicine has been proven to be an effective therapy offering a variety of benefits, such as moderate reduction in hypoglycemia, in the treatment and prevention of obesity and diabetes. Phyllanthus niruri has been used as a treatment for diabetes mellitus. Herein, the induction of type 2 diabetes in Sprague-Dawley rats was achieved by a low dose of streptozotocin (STZ) (25mg/kgbw). Here, we evaluated the in vivo antidiabetic properties of two concentrations (250 and 500mg/kg bw) of P. niruri via metabolomics approach. The administration of 500mg/kgbw of P. niruri extract caused the metabolic disorders of obese diabetic rats to be improved towards the normal state. The extract also clearly decreased the serum glucose level and improved the lipid profile in obese diabetic rats. The results of this study may contribute towards better understanding the molecular mechanism of this medicinal plant in managing diabetes mellitus.
  3. Gooda Sahib Jambocus N, Saari N, Ismail A, Khatib A, Mahomoodally MF, Abdul Hamid A
    J Diabetes Res, 2016;2016:2391592.
    PMID: 26798649 DOI: 10.1155/2016/2391592
    The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide, with high fat diet (HFD) as one of the main contributing factors. Obesity increases the predisposition to other diseases such as diabetes through various metabolic pathways. Limited availability of antiobesity drugs and the popularity of complementary medicine have encouraged research in finding phytochemical strategies to this multifaceted disease. HFD induced obese Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with an extract of Morinda citrifolia L. leaves (MLE 60). After 9 weeks of treatment, positive effects were observed on adiposity, fecal fat content, plasma lipids, and insulin and leptin levels. The inducement of obesity and treatment with MLE 60 on metabolic alterations were then further elucidated using a (1)H NMR based metabolomics approach. Discriminating metabolites involved were products of various metabolic pathways, including glucose metabolism and TCA cycle (lactate, 2-oxoglutarate, citrate, succinate, pyruvate, and acetate), amino acid metabolism (alanine, 2-hydroxybutyrate), choline metabolism (betaine), creatinine metabolism (creatinine), and gut microbiome metabolism (hippurate, phenylacetylglycine, dimethylamine, and trigonelline). Treatment with MLE 60 resulted in significant improvement in the metabolic perturbations caused obesity as demonstrated by the proximity of the treated group to the normal group in the OPLS-DA score plot and the change in trajectory movement of the diseased group towards the healthy group upon treatment.
  4. Yusof NA, Isha A, Ismail IS, Khatib A, Shaari K, Abas F, et al.
    J. Sci. Food Agric., 2015 Sep;95(12):2533-43.
    PMID: 25371390 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6987
    The metabolite changes in three germplasm accessions of Malaysia Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F.) Nees, viz. 11265 (H), 11341 (P) and 11248 (T), due to their different harvesting ages and times were successfully evaluated by attenuated total reflectance (ATR)-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and translated through multivariate data analysis of principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least square-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). This present study revealed the feasibility of ATR-FTIR in detecting the trend changes of the major metabolites - andrographolide and neoandrographolide - functional groups in A. paniculata leaves of different accessions. The harvesting parameter was set at three different ages of 120, 150 and 180 days after transplanting (DAT) and at two different time sessions of morning (7:30-10:30 am) and evening (2:30-5.30 pm).
  5. Javadi N, Abas F, Abd Hamid A, Simoh S, Shaari K, Ismail IS, et al.
    J. Food Sci., 2014 Jun;79(6):C1130-6.
    PMID: 24888400 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.12491
    Cosmos caudatus, which is known as "Ulam Raja," is an herbal plant used in Malaysia to enhance vitality. This study focused on the evaluation of the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of different ethanolic extracts of C. caudatus. Six series of samples extracted with water, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% ethanol (EtOH) were employed. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and orthogonal partial least-squares (OPLS) analysis was used to correlate bioactivity of different extracts to different metabolite profiles of C. caudatus. The obtained OPLS scores indicated a distinct and remarkable separation into 6 clusters, which were indicative of the 6 different ethanol concentrations. GC-MS can be integrated with multivariate data analysis to identify compounds that inhibit α-glucosidase activity. In addition, catechin, α-linolenic acid, α-D-glucopyranoside, and vitamin E compounds were identified and indicate the potential α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of this herb.
  6. Mediani A, Abas F, Khatib A, Tan CP, Ismail IS, Shaari K, et al.
    Plant Foods Hum Nutr, 2015 Jun;70(2):184-92.
    PMID: 25800644 DOI: 10.1007/s11130-015-0478-5
    The study investigated the changes in the metabolite, antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of Phyllanthus niruri after three drying treatments: air, freeze and oven dryings. Water extracts and extracts obtained using different solvent ratios of ethanol and methanol (50, 70, 80 and 100%) were compared. The relationships among the antioxidant, α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and metabolite levels of the extracts were evaluated using partial least-square analysis (PLS). The solvent selectivity was assessed based on the phytochemical constituents present in the extract and their concentrations quantitatively analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography. The freeze-dried P. niruri samples that were extracted with the mixture of ethanol or methanol with low ratio of water showed higher biological activity values compared with the other extracts. The PLS results for the ethanolic with different ratio and water extracts demonstrated that phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid and ellagic acid) and flavonoids were highly linked to strong α-glucosidase inhibitory and antioxidant activities.
  7. Sharif KM, Rahman MM, Azmir J, Khatib A, Sabina E, Shamsudin SH, et al.
    Biomed. Chromatogr., 2015 Dec;29(12):1826-33.
    PMID: 26033701 DOI: 10.1002/bmc.3503
    Multivariate analysis of thin-layer chromatography (TLC) images was modeled to predict antioxidant activity of Pereskia bleo leaves and to identify the contributing compounds of the activity. TLC was developed in optimized mobile phase using the 'PRISMA' optimization method and the image was then converted to wavelet signals and imported for multivariate analysis. An orthogonal partial least square (OPLS) model was developed consisting of a wavelet-converted TLC image and 2,2-diphynyl-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity of 24 different preparations of P. bleo as the x- and y-variables, respectively. The quality of the constructed OPLS model (1 + 1 + 0) with one predictive and one orthogonal component was evaluated by internal and external validity tests. The validated model was then used to identify the contributing spot from the TLC plate that was then analyzed by GC-MS after trimethylsilyl derivatization. Glycerol and amine compounds were mainly found to contribute to the antioxidant activity of the sample. An alternative method to predict the antioxidant activity of a new sample of P. bleo leaves has been developed.
  8. Fadzillah NA, Man Yb, Rohman A, Rosman AS, Ismail A, Mustafa S, et al.
    J Oleo Sci, 2015;64(7):697-703.
    PMID: 25994556 DOI: 10.5650/jos.ess14255
    The authentication of food products from the presence of non-allowed components for certain religion like lard is very important. In this study, we used proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((1)H-NMR) spectroscopy for the analysis of butter adulterated with lard by simultaneously quantification of all proton bearing compounds, and consequently all relevant sample classes. Since the spectra obtained were too complex to be analyzed visually by the naked eyes, the classification of spectra was carried out.The multivariate calibration of partial least square (PLS) regression was used for modelling the relationship between actual value of lard and predicted value. The model yielded a highest regression coefficient (R(2)) of 0.998 and the lowest root mean square error calibration (RMSEC) of 0.0091% and root mean square error prediction (RMSEP) of 0.0090, respectively. Cross validation testing evaluates the predictive power of the model. PLS model was shown as good models as the intercept of R(2)Y and Q(2)Y were 0.0853 and -0.309, respectively.
  9. Azam AA, Pariyani R, Ismail IS, Ismail A, Khatib A, Abas F, et al.
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2017 May 25;17(1):278.
    PMID: 28545435 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-017-1777-1
    BACKGROUND: Orthosiphon stamineus (OS) is a herb known in ethnomedicine for treating diabetes mellitus (DM). In this study, a (1)H NMR based urine metabolomics tool has been used for the first time to identify the metabolic protective mechanism of OS in DM using Streptozotocin (STZ) induced experimental model in rats.

    METHODS: Four different solvent extracts of OS, namely aqueous, ethanolic, 50% aqueous ethanolic and methanolic, at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight (bw) were orally administered for 14 days to diabetic rats induced via intraperitoneal injection of 60 mg/kg bw STZ. NMR metabolomics approach using pattern recognition combined with multivariate statistical analysis was applied in the rat urine to study the resulted metabolic perturbations.

    RESULTS: OS aqueous extract (OSAE) caused a reversal of DM comparable to that of 10 mg/kg bw glibenclamide. A total of 15 urinary metabolites, which levels changed significantly upon treatment were identified as the biomarkers of OSAE in diabetes. A systematic metabolic pathways analysis identified that OSAE contributed to the antidiabetic activity mainly through regulating the tricarboxylic acid cycle, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, lipid and amino acid metabolism.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study validated the ethnopharmacological use of OS in diabetes and unveiled the biochemical and metabolic mechanisms involved.

  10. Lee SY, Mediani A, Maulidiani M, Khatib A, Ismail IS, Zawawi N, et al.
    J. Sci. Food Agric., 2018 Jan;98(1):240-252.
    PMID: 28580581 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8462
    BACKGROUND: Neptunia oleracea is a plant consumed as a vegetable and which has been used as a folk remedy for several diseases. Herein, two regression models (partial least squares, PLS; and random forest, RF) in a metabolomics approach were compared and applied to the evaluation of the relationship between phenolics and bioactivities of N. oleracea. In addition, the effects of different extraction conditions on the phenolic constituents were assessed by pattern recognition analysis.

    RESULTS: Comparison of the PLS and RF showed that RF exhibited poorer generalization and hence poorer predictive performance. Both the regression coefficient of PLS and the variable importance of RF revealed that quercetin and kaempferol derivatives, caffeic acid and vitexin-2-O-rhamnoside were significant towards the tested bioactivities. Furthermore, principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) results showed that sonication and absolute ethanol are the preferable extraction method and ethanol ratio, respectively, to produce N. oleracea extracts with high phenolic levels and therefore high DPPH scavenging and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities.

    CONCLUSION: Both PLS and RF are useful regression models in metabolomics studies. This work provides insight into the performance of different multivariate data analysis tools and the effects of different extraction conditions on the extraction of desired phenolics from plants. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Javadi N, Abas F, Mediani A, Abd Hamid A, Khatib A, Simoh S, et al.
    J Food Drug Anal, 2015 Sep;23(3):433-441.
    PMID: 28911700 DOI: 10.1016/j.jfda.2015.01.005
    Cosmos caudatus, which is a commonly consumed vegetable in Malaysia, is locally known as "Ulam Raja". It is a local Malaysian herb traditionally used as a food and medicinal herb to treat several maladies. Its bioactive or nutritional constituents consist of a wide range of metabolites, including glucosinolates, phenolics, amino acids, organic acids, and sugars. However, many of these metabolites are not stable and easily degraded or modified during storage. In order to investigate the metabolomics changes occurring during post-harvest storage, C. caudatus samples were subjected to seven different storage times (0 hours, 2 hours, 4 hours, 6 hours, 8 hours, 10 hours, and 12 hours) at room temperature. As the model experiment, the metabolites identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were correlated with α-glucosidase inhibitory activity analyzed with multivariate data analysis (MVDA) to find out the variation among samples and metabolites contributing to the activity. Orthogonal partial least squares (OPLS) analysis was applied to investigate the metabolomics changes. A profound chemical alteration, both in primary and secondary metabolites, was observed. The α-tocopherol, catechin, cyclohexen-1-carboxylic acid, benzoic acid, myo-inositol, stigmasterol, and lycopene compounds were found to be the discriminating metabolites at early storage; however, sugars such as sucrose, α-d-galactopyranose, and turanose were detected, which was attributed to the discriminating metabolites for late storage. The result shows that the MVDA method is a promising technique to identify biomarker compounds relative to storage at different times.
  12. Jambocus NGS, Ismail A, Khatib A, Mahomoodally F, Saari N, Mumtaz MW, et al.
    Food Nutr Res, 2017;61(1):1338919.
    PMID: 28814950 DOI: 10.1080/16546628.2017.1338919
    Background: Morinda citrifolia L. is widely used as a folk medicinal food plant to manage a panoply of diseases, though no concrete reports on its potential anti-obesity activity. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of M. citrifolia leaf extracts (MLE60) in the prevention of weight gain in vivo and establish its phytochemical profile. Design: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into groups based on a normal diet (ND) or high fat diet (HFD), with or without MLE60 supplementation (150 and 350 mg/kg body weight) and assessed for any reduction in weight gain. Plasma leptin, insulin, adiponectin, and ghrelin of all groups were determined. (1)H NMR and LCMS methods were employed for phytochemical profiling of MLE60. Results: The supplementation of MLE60 did not affect food intake indicating that appetite suppression might not be the main anti-obesity mechanism involved. In the treated groups, MLE60 prevented weight gain, most likely through an inhibition of pancreatic and lipoprotein activity with a positive influence on the lipid profiles and a reduction in LDL levels . MLE60 also attenuated visceral fat deposition in treated subjects with improvement in the plasma levels of obesity-linked factors . (1)Spectral analysis showed the presence of several bioactive compounds with rutin being more predominant. Conclusion: MLE60 shows promise as an anti-obesity agents and warrants further research.
  13. Ahmed QU, Alhassan AM, Khatib A, Shah SAA, Hasan MM, Sarian MN
    Antioxidants (Basel), 2018 Oct 08;7(10).
    PMID: 30297618 DOI: 10.3390/antiox7100137
    The objective of the present study was to investigate the antiradical and xanthine oxidase inhibitory effects of Averrhoa bilimbi leaves. Hence, crude methanolic leaves extract and its resultant fractions, namely hexane, chloroform, and n-butanol were evaluated for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity. The active constituents were tentatively identified through LC-QTOF-MS/MS and molecular docking approaches. The n-butanol fraction of A. bilimbi crude methanolic leaves extract displayed significant DPPH radical scavenging effect with IC50 (4.14 ± 0.21 μg/mL) (p < 0.05), as well as xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity with IC50 (64.84 ± 3.93 μg/mL) (p < 0.05). Afzelechin 3-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranoside and cucumerin A were tentatively identified as possible metabolites that contribute to the antioxidant activity of the n-butanol fraction.
  14. Pariyani R, Ismail IS, Azam A, Khatib A, Abas F, Shaari K, et al.
    J Pharm Biomed Anal, 2017 Feb 20;135:20-30.
    PMID: 27987392 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpba.2016.12.010
    Orthosiphon stamineus (OS) is a popular medicinal herb used in traditional Chinese medicine as a diuretic agent and for renal system disorders. This study employed 1H NMR based metabolomics approach to investigate the possible protective activity of OS in cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity owing to its diuretic and antioxidant activities. Aqueous (OSAE) and 50% aqueous ethanolic (OSFE) extracts of OS leaves were orally administered at 400mg/kg BW doses to rats which were then intraperitoneally injected with cisplatin at 5mg/kg BW dose. The 1H NMR profile of the urine samples collected on day 5 after cisplatin administration were analyzed by multivariate pattern recognition techniques, whereby 19 marker metabolites suggestive in the involvement of TCA cycle, disturbed energy metabolism, altered gut microflora and BCAA metabolism pathways were identified. It was observed that OSFE caused significant changes (p<0.05) in the levels of 8 markers namely leucine, acetate, hippurate, lysine, valine, 2-oxoglutarate, 3-HBT and acetoacetate resulting in a moderate ameliorative effect, however, it did not completely protect from nephrotoxicity. OSAE did not demonstrate significant down regulatory effects on any markers, albeit, it potentiated the cisplatin nephrotoxicity by inducing significant increase in glucose, glycine, creatinine, citrate, TMAO, acetate and creatine levels. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the 1H NMR spectra of OS extracts identified that OSFE had higher concentrations of the secondary metabolites such as caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, protocatechuic acid and orthosiphol, among others. Whereas, OSAE was characterized by higher concentrations of acetate, lactate, succinic acid, valine and phosphatidylcholine. This research denotes the first comprehensive analysis to identify the effects of OS extracts on cisplatin nephrotoxicity.
  15. Saleh MSM, Bukhari DAM, Siddiqui MJA, Kasmuri AR, Murugesu S, Khatib A
    Nat. Prod. Res., 2019 Jan 25.
    PMID: 30678487 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2018.1560295
    Different extraction processes were employed to extract bioactive metabolites from Salacca zalacca flesh by a range of aqueous and organic solvents. The highest extraction yield was obtained by 50% ethanol extract of SE (73.18 ± 4.35%), whereas SFE_1 showed the lowest yield (0.42 ± 0.08%). All extracts were evaluated for in vitro α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, measured by their IC50 values in comparison to that of quercetin, the positive control (IC50 = 2.7 ± 0.7 μg/mL). The lowest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity was indicated by water extract of SE (IC50 = 724.3 ± 42.9 μg/mL) and the highest activity was demonstrated by 60% ethanol extract by UAE (IC50 = 16.2 ± 2.4 μg/mL). All extracts were analysed by GC-MS and identified metabolites like carbohydrates, fatty acids, organic acids, phenolic acids, sterols and alkane-based compounds etcetera that may possess the potential as α-glucosidase inhibitor and may attribute to the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity.
  16. Ismail SN, Maulidiani M, Akhtar MT, Abas F, Ismail IS, Khatib A, et al.
    Molecules, 2017 Sep 25;22(10).
    PMID: 28946701 DOI: 10.3390/molecules22101612
    Gaharu (agarwood, Aquilaria malaccensis Lamk.) is a valuable tropical rainforest product traded internationally for its distinctive fragrance. It is not only popular as incense and in perfumery, but also favored in traditional medicine due to its sedative, carminative, cardioprotective and analgesic effects. The current study addresses the chemical differences and similarities between gaharu samples of different grades, obtained commercially, using ¹H-NMR-based metabolomics. Two classification models: partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and Random Forests were developed to classify the gaharu samples on the basis of their chemical constituents. The gaharu samples could be reclassified into a 'high grade' group (samples A, B and D), characterized by high contents of kusunol, jinkohol, and 10-epi-γ-eudesmol; an 'intermediate grade' group (samples C, F and G), dominated by fatty acid and vanillic acid; and a 'low grade' group (sample E and H), which had higher contents of aquilarone derivatives and phenylethyl chromones. The results showed that ¹H- NMR-based metabolomics can be a potential method to grade the quality of gaharu samples on the basis of their chemical constituents.
  17. Alam Shah S, Selamat J, Haque Akanda MJ, Sanny M, Khatib A
    PMID: 29448903 DOI: 10.1080/19440049.2018.1440639
    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of different types of soy sauce and marinating time on the formation of heterocyclic amines (HCAs) in roasted chicken. Chicken breast samples were marinated with sweet, salty, light and dark soy sauce at 0, 3, 6 and 12 h (control treatment was the chicken without marinade). The concentrations of free amino acids, sugars and creatinine were determined before roasting while HCA concentrations were determined after roasting. All types of soy sauce significantly increased (p ≤ 0.05) the concentration of HCAs in roasted chicken with increasing marinating time. The highest increment of total concentration of HCAs was found in samples marinated with light soy sauce (887%) followed by dark (375%), salty (193%) and sweet (169%) at 12 h. PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo(4,5-b)pyridine) showed a substantial reduction in samples only momentarily marinated with sweet, salty and dark soy sauce (0 h). Free amino acids were found to be more strongly correlated with the formation of HCAs than reducing sugars or creatinine.
  18. Sepahpour S, Selamat J, Khatib A, Manap MYA, Abdull Razis AF, Hajeb P
    PMID: 29913103 DOI: 10.1080/19440049.2018.1488085
    Natural antioxidants in spices and herbs have attracted considerable attention as potential inhibitors against the formation of mutagenic heterocyclic amines (HCAs) in heat-processed meat. In this study, the inhibitory activity of four spices/herbs and their mixtures on HCAs formation in grilled beef were examined. A simplex centroid mixture design with four components comprising turmeric, curry leaf, torch ginger and lemon grass in 19 different proportions were applied on beef samples before grilling at 240 ºC for 10 min. The HCAs were extracted from the samples using solid phase extraction (SPE) method and analysed using Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry LC-MS/MS. All spices/herbs in single or mixture forms were found to reduce total HCA concentrations in marinated grilled beef ranging from 21.2% for beef marinated with curry leaf to 94.7% for the combination of turmeric and lemon grass (50:50 w/w). At the optimum marinade formula (turmeric: lemon grass 52.4%: 47.6%), concentration of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinolone (IQ), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), Harman, Norharman and AαC were 2.2, 1.4, 0.5, 2.8 and 1.2 ng/g, respectively. The results of the mutagenic activity demonstrated that this optimised marinade formula significantly (p 
  19. Saleh MSM, Siddiqui MJ, Mat So'ad SZ, Roheem FO, Saidi-Besbes S, Khatib A
    Molecules, 2018 Jun 13;23(6).
    PMID: 29899270 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23061434
    Salak fruit (Salacca zalacca), commonly known as snake fruit, is used indigenously as food and for medicinal applications in Southeast Asia. This study was conducted to evaluate the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of salak fruit extracts in correlation to its Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) fingerprint, utilizing orthogonal partial least square. This calibration model was applied to develop a rapid analytical method tool for quality control of this fruit. A total of 36 extracts prepared with different solvent ratios of ethanol⁻water (100, 80, 60, 40.20, 0% v/v) and their α-glucosidase inhibitory activities determined. The FT-IR spectra of ethanol⁻water extracts measured in the region of 400 and 4000 cm−1 at a resolution of 4 cm−1. Multivariate analysis with a combination of orthogonal partial least-squares (OPLS) algorithm was used to correlate the bioactivity of the samples with the FT-IR spectral data. The OPLS biplot model identified several functional groups (C⁻H, C=O, C⁻N, N⁻H, C⁻O, and C=C) which actively induced α-glucosidase inhibitory activity.
  20. Benchoula K, Khatib A, Jaffar A, Ahmed QU, Sulaiman WMAW, Wahab RA, et al.
    Exp. Anim., 2019 May 21.
    PMID: 31118344 DOI: 10.1538/expanim.18-0168
    Metabolic syndrome is a cluster including hyperglycaemia, obesity, hypertension, and hypertriglyceridaemia as a result of biochemical and physiological alterations and can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Fundamental research on this disease requires validated animal models. One potential animal model that is rapidly gaining in popularity is zebrafish (Danio rerio). The use of zebrafish as an animal model conveys several advantages, including high human genetic homology, transparent embryos and larvae that allow easier visualization. This review discusses how zebrafish models contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome studies. Different diseases in the cluster of metabolic syndrome, such as hyperglycaemia, obesity, diabetes, and hypertriglyceridaemia, have been successfully studied using zebrafish; and the model is promising for hypertension and cardiovascular metabolic-related diseases due to its genetic similarity to mammals. Genetic mutation, chemical induction, and dietary alteration are among the tools used to improve zebrafish models. This field is expanding, and thus, more effective and efficient techniques are currently developed to fulfil the increasing demand for thorough investigations.
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