METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of 3657 subjects who had quit smoking with varenicline or no pharmacotherapy. We extracted health examination and medical claim data from a health insurer database for the period 2012-2015. We calculated the incremental cost-effective ratio (ICER) of varenicline using actual paid medical costs for nicotine dependence and the number needed to treat to maintain smoking cessation compared with no pharmacotherapy, considering sex, age, income, and occupation.
RESULTS: The 1- and 2-year smoking cessation maintenance rates were 69.7% and 62.4%, respectively. We found that 8.8% of subjects who quit smoking used varenicline for nicotine dependence and the cost per person was Japanese Yen (JPY) 52 177 (U.S. dollars [USD] 474; USD 1 = JPY 110). The ICER of varenicline was dominant when comparing 2-year cessation with 1-year cessation. Male, age <40 years, low income, and manufacturing workers were the most cost-effective variables.
CONCLUSIONS: The cost-effective variables of varenicline in the real world were investigated. The results of this study strengthen the evidence regarding which type of people should be targeted for measures to support smoking cessation using varenicline.
Methods: This multilevel study combined information from two databases, namely later-stage elderly healthcare insurance and long-term care insurance claims, from 2013 to 2019. Of 214,963 individuals with dementia, we identified 13,593 patients with AMI. The primary outcomes were the use of invasive procedures for treatment and long-term care for post-care management. Survival outcomes were also measured over a 6-year period, adjusting for individual- and regional-level characteristics in multilevel models.
Results: A total of 1954 (14.38%) individuals received an invasive procedure during treatment, and 7850 (87.18%) used long-term care for post-care management after AMI. After multivariate adjustment, patients aged ≥ 85 years and women were less likely to receive invasive procedures and more likely to use long-term care. Patients undergoing invasive procedures had a lower use of long-term care. Better survival outcome was significantly associated with invasive management and long-term care, regardless of the type of care.
Conclusion: Age and sex determine the use of invasive procedures and long-term care after AMI among patients with dementia. AMI patients with dementia receiving invasive procedures and long-term care had better survival outcomes.
METHODS: A random group of 1404 persons from universities, factories, companies, and elderly centers in Changchun completed a structured questionnaire. This study centered on life satisfaction indicators, which included the current whole life, income, family relationships, peer relationships, relationships with the neighbors, living environment, personal health, family health, spare time, and housework share. Other collected data included the Body Mass Index, blood pressure, self-rated health, Breslow's seven health practices, medical treatment within the past 6 months, physical examinations, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)-12 Scale, social activities, networking relationships with persons around the community, social support, and sociodemographic variables. Associations between life satisfaction, demographics, and health-related variables were analyzed through a multiway ANOVA.
RESULTS: The living environment and income of Chinese persons were related to their low life satisfaction. The multiway ANOVA showed that the independent relationship of self-rated health, regular physical examinations, GHQ-12 Scale, trust in the community, communication with the neighbors, education, and age related with life satisfaction accounting for 20.3% of the variance. Education and age showed interactive effects on life satisfaction.
CONCLUSION: This study identified seven factors that influenced the life satisfaction of persons in mainland China. Life satisfaction can be enhanced through interventions to improve self-rated health, regular physical examinations, mental health, trust in the community, communication with the neighbors, education, and improvement in the health service.