Displaying publications 21 - 40 of 210 in total

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  1. Wynn JP, Hamid AA, Li Y, Ratledge C
    Microbiology (Reading), 2001 Oct;147(Pt 10):2857-2864.
    PMID: 11577164 DOI: 10.1099/00221287-147-10-2857
    The biochemical events associated with the onset of lipid accumulation in Mucor circinelloides and Mortierella alpina, under conditions of nitrogen-limited growth, have been elucidated; they differ in key aspects from those described in oleaginous yeasts. The NAD+:isocitrate dehydrogenases of Mc. circinelloides and Mort. alpina were not absolutely dependent on AMP for activity. Furthermore, changes in the cellular adenine nucleotide pools and energy charge were different from those reported for oleaginous yeasts. In Mc. circinelloides ATP, ADP and AMP concentrations all decreased by 50% after nitrogen limitation, leading to a constant energy charge at the expense of the size of the total adenylate pool. Pyruvate carboxylase in Mc. circinelloides was cytosolic, having implications for the organization of lipid synthesis in filamentous fungi. As a result of the data obtained, a revised and more concerted mechanism for the initiation of storage lipid accumulation is put forward for filamentous fungi.
  2. Wang L, Li Y, Liang S, Xu M, Qu S
    Sci Total Environ, 2021 Aug 20;801:149781.
    PMID: 34467898 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.149781
    Increasing trade cooperation under the Belt and Road (B&R) Initiative has promoted economic development and intensified the water scarcity risk transmission between China and countries along the route (B&R countries). Local water scarcity risk (LWSR, the potential direct production losses induced by local water scarcity) can transcend geographical boundaries through global supply chains and influence production activities in downstream economies. To understand the vulnerability of the Initiative to water scarcity, we investigated the impacts of LWSR in China and B&R countries on each other's economies during 2001-2013, using a global environmentally extended multi-regional input-output model. Results reveal that more than 80% of China's trade-related water scarcity risk imports (TWSR imports, the vulnerability to foreign water scarcity risk through imports) originates from B&R countries. The share of TWSR from China in total imports of B&R countries has steadily increased. In particular, India, Thailand, Iran, Pakistan and Kazakhstan have the largest TWSR exports (LWSR in each nation transmitted to other nations through its exports) to China, while South Korea, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia have the largest imports from China. Water scarcity to their Agriculture sectors is responsible for TWSR transmission between them. Our study can contribute to the policy-making of governments and firms involved in mitigating the supply chain wide water scarcity risk. It also reveals the need for nations to collectively manage water resources to achieve sustainable development.
  3. Fujita T, Babazono A, Jiang P, Jamal A, Li Y
    PMID: 34529297 DOI: 10.1002/pds.5359
    PURPOSE: Smoking is an important public health issue. Although measures to support smoking cessation have been implemented worldwide, smokers often fail to quit smoking after receiving pharmacotherapies for nicotine dependence. The present study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of varenicline for smoking cessation compared with no pharmacotherapy using actual paid medical cost data in Japan.

    METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of 3657 subjects who had quit smoking with varenicline or no pharmacotherapy. We extracted health examination and medical claim data from a health insurer database for the period 2012-2015. We calculated the incremental cost-effective ratio (ICER) of varenicline using actual paid medical costs for nicotine dependence and the number needed to treat to maintain smoking cessation compared with no pharmacotherapy, considering sex, age, income, and occupation.

    RESULTS: The 1- and 2-year smoking cessation maintenance rates were 69.7% and 62.4%, respectively. We found that 8.8% of subjects who quit smoking used varenicline for nicotine dependence and the cost per person was Japanese Yen (JPY) 52 177 (U.S. dollars [USD] 474; USD 1 = JPY 110). The ICER of varenicline was dominant when comparing 2-year cessation with 1-year cessation. Male, age <40 years, low income, and manufacturing workers were the most cost-effective variables.

    CONCLUSIONS: The cost-effective variables of varenicline in the real world were investigated. The results of this study strengthen the evidence regarding which type of people should be targeted for measures to support smoking cessation using varenicline.

  4. Sun Y, Li Y, Wang Y, Jiang D, Liu X
    Front Public Health, 2021;9:723084.
    PMID: 34604162 DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2021.723084
    The Covid-19 outbreak has spread over the world, limiting population and trade, causing job losses, and forcing businesses to close. The study's goal is to look at Covid-19's pandemic and consumer survival as a mediator for the future of running a business when FMCG companies are doing well. The researchers employed a basic random sampling strategy to do a layered transverse evaluation of samples. EFA, CFA, and SEM are used to choose data collection techniques for participants at Covid-19. According to the data, Malaysia has resulted in job losses, business growth, and customer satisfaction retention, as well as an increase in unemployment, company closures, and a drop in overall GDP. The impact of the Covid-19 epidemic on survival, production, and GDP has been demonstrated. Incorporating technology into all aspects of a company's working practices reveals the necessity and capacity of the organization to adapt to new scenarios.
  5. Li Y, Babazono A, Jamal A, Liu N, Yamao R
    Clin Epidemiol, 2021;13:883-892.
    PMID: 34616183 DOI: 10.2147/CLEP.S327404
    Background: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) management strategies, involving treatment and post-care, are much more difficult for patients with dementia. This study investigated the factors influencing the use of invasive procedures and long-term care in the management strategies for AMI patients with dementia and the factors associated with these patients' survival.

    Methods: This multilevel study combined information from two databases, namely later-stage elderly healthcare insurance and long-term care insurance claims, from 2013 to 2019. Of 214,963 individuals with dementia, we identified 13,593 patients with AMI. The primary outcomes were the use of invasive procedures for treatment and long-term care for post-care management. Survival outcomes were also measured over a 6-year period, adjusting for individual- and regional-level characteristics in multilevel models.

    Results: A total of 1954 (14.38%) individuals received an invasive procedure during treatment, and 7850 (87.18%) used long-term care for post-care management after AMI. After multivariate adjustment, patients aged ≥ 85 years and women were less likely to receive invasive procedures and more likely to use long-term care. Patients undergoing invasive procedures had a lower use of long-term care. Better survival outcome was significantly associated with invasive management and long-term care, regardless of the type of care.

    Conclusion: Age and sex determine the use of invasive procedures and long-term care after AMI among patients with dementia. AMI patients with dementia receiving invasive procedures and long-term care had better survival outcomes.

  6. Barathan M, Mohamed R, Vadivelu J, Chang LY, Saeidi A, Yong YK, et al.
    Eur. J. Clin. Invest., 2016 Feb;46(2):170-80.
    PMID: 26681320 DOI: 10.1111/eci.12581
    Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells play an important role in innate host defence. MAIT cells appear to undergo exhaustion and are functionally weakened in chronic viral infections. However, their role in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remains unclear.
  7. Barathan M, Mohamed R, Saeidi A, Vadivelu J, Chang LY, Gopal K, et al.
    Eur. J. Clin. Invest., 2015 May;45(5):466-74.
    PMID: 25721991 DOI: 10.1111/eci.12429
    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes persistent disease in ~85% of infected individuals, where the viral replication appears to be tightly controlled by HCV-specific CD8+ T cells. Accumulation of senescent T cells during infection results in considerable loss of functional HCV-specific immune responses.
  8. Négrier C, Abdul Karim F, Lepatan LM, Lienhart A, López-Fernández MF, Mahlangu J, et al.
    Haemophilia, 2016 Jul;22(4):e259-66.
    PMID: 27333467 DOI: 10.1111/hae.12972
    INTRODUCTION: Recombinant factor IX fusion protein (rIX-FP) has been developed to improve the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of factor IX (FIX), allowing maintenance of desired FIX activity between injections at extended intervals, ultimately optimizing haemophilia B treatment.
    AIM: To determine the efficacy and safety of rIX-FP in the perioperative setting.
    METHODS: Subjects were adult and paediatric patients with severe to moderately severe haemophilia B (FIX ≤ 2%) participating in three Phase III clinical trials and undergoing a surgical procedure. PK profiles were established prior to surgery for each patient. Haemostatic efficacy was assessed by the investigator for up to 72 h after surgery. Safety measurements during the study included adverse events and inhibitors to FIX. FIX activity was monitored during and after surgery to determine if repeat dosing was required.
    RESULTS: Twenty-one, both major and minor, surgeries were performed in 19 patients. Haemostatic efficacy was rated as excellent (n = 17) or good (n = 4) in all surgeries. A single preoperative dose maintained intraoperative haemostasis in 20 of 21 surgeries. Nine major orthopaedic surgeries were conducted in eight patients with a mean of 7 (range: 6-12) rIX-FP injections during surgery and the 14-day postoperative period. Median rIX-FP consumption for orthopaedic surgeries was 87 IU kg(-1) preoperatively and 375 IU kg(-1) overall. No subject developed inhibitors to FIX or antibodies to rIX-FP.
    CONCLUSION: Recombinant factor IX fusion protein was well tolerated and effectively maintained haemostasis during and after surgery. Stable FIX activity was achieved with a prolonged dosing interval and reduced consumption compared to conventional or currently available long-acting recombinant FIX.
    KEYWORDS: albumin fusion proteins; factor IX; haemophilia B; orthopaedic surgery; recombinant fusion proteins
  9. Wang L, Li Y, Huang G, Zhang X, Pingguan-Murphy B, Gao B, et al.
    Crit Rev Biotechnol, 2016 Jun;36(3):553-65.
    PMID: 25641330 DOI: 10.3109/07388551.2014.993588
    Natural cellular microenvironment consists of spatiotemporal gradients of multiple physical (e.g. extracellular matrix stiffness, porosity and stress/strain) and chemical cues (e.g. morphogens), which play important roles in regulating cell behaviors including spreading, proliferation, migration, differentiation and apoptosis, especially for pathological processes such as tumor formation and progression. Therefore, it is essential to engineer cellular gradient microenvironment incorporating various gradients for the fabrication of normal and pathological tissue models in vitro. In this article, we firstly review the development of engineering cellular physical and chemical gradients with cytocompatible hydrogels in both two-dimension and three-dimension formats. We then present current advances in the application of engineered gradient microenvironments for the fabrication of disease models in vitro. Finally, concluding remarks and future perspectives for engineering cellular gradients are given.
  10. Keynan Y, Card CM, Ball BT, Li Y, Plummer FA, Fowke KR
    Clin Microbiol Infect, 2010 Aug;16(8):1179-86.
    PMID: 20670292 DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2010.03142.x
    Influenza vaccine provides protection against infection with matched strains, and this protection correlates with serum antibody titres. In addition to antibodies, influenza-specific CD8+ T-lymphocyte responses are important in decreasing disease severity and facilitating viral clearance. Because this response is directed at internal, relatively conserved antigens, it affords some cross-protection within a given subtype of influenza virus. With the possibility of a broader A(H1N1) Mexico outbreak in the fall of 2009, it appeared worthwhile studying the degree of cellular immune response-mediated cross-reactivity among influenza virus isolates. The composition of the 2006-2007 influenza vaccine included the A/New Caledonia/20/1999 strain (comprising a virus that has been circulating, and was included in vaccine preparations, for 6-7 years) and two strains not previously included (Wisconsin and Malaysia). This combination afforded us the opportunity to determine the degree of cross-reactive cellular immunity after exposure to new viral strains. We analysed the antibody responses and the phenotype and function of the T cell response to vaccine components. The results obtained show that antibody responses to A/New-Caledonia were already high and vaccination did not increase antibody or cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses. These data suggest that repeated exposure to the same influenza stain results in limited boosting of humoral and cellular immune responses.
  11. Lu J, Li Y, Hu D, Chen X, Liu Y, Wang L, et al.
    Saudi J Biol Sci, 2016 Jan;23(1):S22-31.
    PMID: 26858562 DOI: 10.1016/j.sjbs.2015.06.012
    A novel interpenetrating network hydrogel for drug controlled release, composed of modified poly(aspartic acid) (KPAsp) and carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCTS), was prepared in aqueous system. The surface morphology and composition of hydrogels were characterized by SEM and FTIR. The swelling properties of KPAsp, KPAsp/CMCTS semi-IPN and KPAsp/CMCTS IPN hydrogels were investigated and the swelling dynamics of the hydrogels was analyzed based on the Fickian equation. The pH, temperature and salt sensitivities of hydrogels were further studied, and the prepared hydrogels showed extremely sensitive properties to pH, temperature, the ionic salts kinds and concentration. The results of controlled drug release behaviors of the hydrogels revealed that the introduction of IPN observably improved the drug release properties of hydrogels, the release rate of drug from hydrogels can be controlled by the structure of the hydrogels and pH value of the external environment, a relative large amount of drug released was preferred under simulated intestinal fluid. These results illustrated high potential of the KPAsp/CMCTS IPN hydrogels for application as drug carriers.
  12. Ling W, Liew G, Li Y, Hao Y, Pan H, Wang H, et al.
    Adv. Mater. Weinheim, 2018 Jun;30(23):e1800917.
    PMID: 29633379 DOI: 10.1002/adma.201800917
    The combination of novel materials with flexible electronic technology may yield new concepts of flexible electronic devices that effectively detect various biological chemicals to facilitate understanding of biological processes and conduct health monitoring. This paper demonstrates single- or multichannel implantable flexible sensors that are surface modified with conductive metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) such as copper-MOF and cobalt-MOF with large surface area, high porosity, and tunable catalysis capability. The sensors can monitor important nutriments such as ascorbicacid, glycine, l-tryptophan (l-Trp), and glucose with detection resolutions of 14.97, 0.71, 4.14, and 54.60 × 10-6 m, respectively. In addition, they offer sensing capability even under extreme deformation and complex surrounding environment with continuous monitoring capability for 20 d due to minimized use of biological active chemicals. Experiments using live cells and animals indicate that the MOF-modified sensors are biologically safe to cells, and can detect l-Trp in blood and interstitial fluid. This work represents the first effort in integrating MOFs with flexible sensors to achieve highly specific and sensitive implantable electrochemical detection and may inspire appearance of more flexible electronic devices with enhanced capability in sensing, energy storage, and catalysis using various properties of MOFs.
  13. Li Y, Huang CX, Xu GS, Lundholm N, Teng ST, Wu H, et al.
    Harmful Algae, 2017 07;67:119-130.
    PMID: 28755714 DOI: 10.1016/j.hal.2017.06.008
    The genus Pseudo-nitzschia has attracted attention because of production of the toxin, domoic acid (DA), causing Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP). Pseudo-nitzschia blooms occur frequently in Chinese coastal waters, and DA has been detected in several marine organisms, but so far no Pseudo-nitzschia strains from Chinese waters have been shown to produce DA. In this study, monoclonal Pseudo-nitzschia strains were established from Chinese coastal waters and examined using light microscopy, electron microscopy and molecular markers. Five strains, sharing distinct morphological and molecular features differentiating them from other Pseudo-nitzschia species, represent a new species, Pseudo-nitzschia simulans sp. nov. Morphologically, the taxon belongs to the P. pseudodelicatissima group, cells possessing a central nodule and each stria comprising one row of poroids. The new species is characterized by the poroid structure, which typically comprises two sectors, each sector located near opposite margins of the poroid. The production of DA was examined by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analyses of cells in stationary growth phase. Domoic acid was detected in one of the five strains, with concentrations around 1.05-1.54 fg cell-1. This is the first toxigenic diatom species reported from Chinese waters.
  14. Li Y, Dong HC, Teng ST, Bates SS, Lim PT
    J Phycol, 2018 12;54(6):918-922.
    PMID: 30270437 DOI: 10.1111/jpy.12791
    Pseudo-nitzschia nanaoensis sp. nov. is described from waters around Nan'ao Island (South China Sea), using morphological data and molecular evidence. This species is morphologically most similar to P. brasiliana, but differs by a denser arrangement of fibulae, interstriae, and poroids, as well as by the structure of the valvocopula and the narrow second band. Pseudo-nitzschia nanaoensis constitutes a monophyletic lineage and is well differentiated from other species on the LSU and ITS2 sequence-structure trees. Pseudo-nitzschia nanaoensis makes up the basal node on the LSU tree, and forms a sister clade with a group of P. pungens and P. multiseries on the ITS2 tree. The ability of cultured strains to produce domoic acid was assessed, including its possible induction by the presence of a copepod and brine shrimp, by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. However, no strains showed detectable domoic acid.
  15. Du YH, Li Y, Wang RL, Wang HF, Su J, Xu BL, et al.
    Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi, 2018 Nov 06;52(11):1164-1167.
    PMID: 30419702 DOI: 10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-9624.2018.11.013
    Objective: To confirm the laboratory diagnosis of dengue bordline cases reported in Henan Province and trace its origin from molecular level in 2017. Methods: The study samples were blood samples (3-5 ml), which came from 8 suspected cases of dengue fever reported in the 2017 direct reporting system of Henan provincial infectious disease monitoring network. Meanwhile, case investigation was conducted according to National dengue fever surveillance programme. Serum were separated from blood samples and tested for Dengue NS1 antigen, IgM & IgG antibodies, and dengue RNA. According to dengue diagnosis criteria, confirmed cases were identified by testing results. Samples carried dengue RNA performed for real-time PCR genotyping and amplification of E gene. Then, the amplicons were sequenced and homological and phylogenetic analyses were constructed. Results: 8 serum samples of suspected dengue cases were collected in Henan Province, 2017. Six of them were diagnosed as dengue confirmed cases. All the dengue confirmed cases belonged to outside imported cases, 5 of them were positive by dengue RNA testing. Genotyping results showed there were 1 DENV1 case, 2 DENV2 cases and 2 DENV3 cases. A DENV2 case and a DENV3 case of this study were traced its origin successfully. The sequence of Pakistan imported DENV2 case belongs to cosmopolitan genotype, which was the most consistent with Pakistan's DENV2 KJ010186 in 2013 (identity 99.0%). The sequence of Malaysia imported DENV3 case belongs to genotype I, which was the most consistent with Singapore's DENV3 KX224276 in 2014(identity 99.0%). Conclusion: The laboratory diagnosis and molecular traceability of dengue cases in Henan Province in 2017 confirmed that all cases were imported and did not cause local epidemics.
  16. Zhu J, Li Y, Jiang H, Liu C, Lu W, Dai W, et al.
    Ecotoxicology, 2018 May;27(4):411-419.
    PMID: 29404868 DOI: 10.1007/s10646-018-1904-x
    The novel mesoionic insecticide triflumezopyrim was highly effective in controlling both imidacloprid-susceptible and resistant planthopper populations in Malaysia. However, the toxicity of triflumezopyrim to planthopper populations and their natural enemies has been under-investigated in China. In this study, the median lethal concentrations (LC50) of triflumezopyrim were determined in eight field populations of Nilaparvata lugens and one population of Sogatella furcifera from China under laboratory conditions. Triflumezopyrim showed higher toxicity to planthopper populations than the commonly-used insecticide, imidacloprid. Furthermore, the lethal effect of triflumezopyrim on eight beneficial arthropods of planthoppers was investigated in the laboratory and compared with three commonly-used insecticides, thiamethoxam, chlorpyrifos and abamectin. Triflumezopyrim was harmless to Anagrus nilaparvatae, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis and Paederus fuscipes, while thiamethoxam, chlorpyrifos and abamectin were moderately harmful or harmful to the insect parasitoid and predators. Triflumezopyrim and thiamethoxam were harmless to the predatory spiders Pirata subpiraticus, Ummeliata insecticeps, Hylyphantes graminicola and Pardosa pseudoannulata, and slightly harmful to Theridion octomaculatum. Chlorpyrifos caused slight to high toxicity to four spider species except U. insecticeps. Abamectin was moderately to highly toxic to all five spider species. Our results indicate that triflumezopyrim has high efficacy for rice planthoppers populations and is compatibile with their natural enemies in China.
  17. Wang SQ, Ying J, Zhang ML, Shi Y, Li Y, Xing ZJ, et al.
    Jpn J Nurs Sci, 2018 Oct;15(4):285-297.
    PMID: 29363255 DOI: 10.1111/jjns.12201
    AIM: With the rapid development of science and technology, the pace of life has accelerated. Health and life satisfaction issues of persons are gaining more attention. China, Japan, Malaysia, and Taiwan conducted international cooperative research on health of four regional populations. This research was a part of the study in mainland China, which aimed to explore health-related life satisfaction and its influencing factors on large samples in mainland China.

    METHODS: A random group of 1404 persons from universities, factories, companies, and elderly centers in Changchun completed a structured questionnaire. This study centered on life satisfaction indicators, which included the current whole life, income, family relationships, peer relationships, relationships with the neighbors, living environment, personal health, family health, spare time, and housework share. Other collected data included the Body Mass Index, blood pressure, self-rated health, Breslow's seven health practices, medical treatment within the past 6 months, physical examinations, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)-12 Scale, social activities, networking relationships with persons around the community, social support, and sociodemographic variables. Associations between life satisfaction, demographics, and health-related variables were analyzed through a multiway ANOVA.

    RESULTS: The living environment and income of Chinese persons were related to their low life satisfaction. The multiway ANOVA showed that the independent relationship of self-rated health, regular physical examinations, GHQ-12 Scale, trust in the community, communication with the neighbors, education, and age related with life satisfaction accounting for 20.3% of the variance. Education and age showed interactive effects on life satisfaction.

    CONCLUSION: This study identified seven factors that influenced the life satisfaction of persons in mainland China. Life satisfaction can be enhanced through interventions to improve self-rated health, regular physical examinations, mental health, trust in the community, communication with the neighbors, education, and improvement in the health service.

  18. Guan Q, Yu J, Zhu W, Yang B, Li Y, Zhang L, et al.
    Gene, 2018 Mar 01;645:60-68.
    PMID: 29274907 DOI: 10.1016/j.gene.2017.12.045
    Ultraviolet-B (UVB) irradiation induces oxidative stress in plant cells due to the generation of excessive reactive oxygen species. Morus alba L. (M. abla) is an important medicinal plant used for the treatment of human diseases. Also, its leaves are widely used as food for silkworms. In our previous research, we found that a high level of UVB irradiation with dark incubation led to the accumulation of secondary metabolites in M. abla leaf. The aim of the present study was to describe and compare M. alba leaf transcriptomics with different treatments (control, UVB, UVB+dark). Leaf transcripts from M. alba were sequenced using an Illumina Hiseq 2000 system, which produced 14.27Gb of data including 153,204,462 paired-end reads among the three libraries. We de novo assembled 133,002 transcripts with an average length of 1270bp and filtered 69,728 non-redundant unigenes. A similarity search was performed against the non-redundant National Center of Biotechnology Information (NCBI) protein database, which returned 41.08% hits. Among the 20,040 unigenes annotated in UniProtKB/SwissProt database, 16,683 unigenes were assigned 102,232 gene ontology terms and 6667 unigenes were identified in 287 known metabolic pathways. Results of differential gene expression analysis together with real-time quantitative PCR tests indicated that UVB irradiation with dark incubation enhanced the flavonoid biosynthesis in M. alba leaf. Our findings provided a valuable proof for a better understanding of the metabolic mechanism under abiotic stresses in M. alba leaf.
  19. Yong KW, Li Y, Huang G, Lu TJ, Safwani WK, Pingguan-Murphy B, et al.
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, 2015 Aug 15;309(4):H532-42.
    PMID: 26092987 DOI: 10.1152/ajpheart.00299.2015
    Cardiac myofibroblast differentiation, as one of the most important cellular responses to heart injury, plays a critical role in cardiac remodeling and failure. While biochemical cues for this have been extensively investigated, the role of mechanical cues, e.g., extracellular matrix stiffness and mechanical strain, has also been found to mediate cardiac myofibroblast differentiation. Cardiac fibroblasts in vivo are typically subjected to a specific spatiotemporally changed mechanical microenvironment. When exposed to abnormal mechanical conditions (e.g., increased extracellular matrix stiffness or strain), cardiac fibroblasts can undergo myofibroblast differentiation. To date, the impact of mechanical cues on cardiac myofibroblast differentiation has been studied both in vitro and in vivo. Most of the related in vitro research into this has been mainly undertaken in two-dimensional cell culture systems, although a few three-dimensional studies that exist revealed an important role of dimensionality. However, despite remarkable advances, the comprehensive mechanisms for mechanoregulation of cardiac myofibroblast differentiation remain elusive. In this review, we introduce important parameters for evaluating cardiac myofibroblast differentiation and then discuss the development of both in vitro (two and three dimensional) and in vivo studies on mechanoregulation of cardiac myofibroblast differentiation. An understanding of the development of cardiac myofibroblast differentiation in response to changing mechanical microenvironment will underlie potential targets for future therapy of cardiac fibrosis and failure.
  20. Xi S, Li Y, Yue L, Gong Y, Qian L, Liang T, et al.
    Front Pharmacol, 2020;11:582322.
    PMID: 33192523 DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2020.582322
    Viral pneumonia is one kind of acute respiratory tract infection caused by the virus. There have been many outbreaks of viral pneumonia with high contagiousness and mortality both in China and abroad, such as the great influenza in 1918, the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus in 2003, the Influenza A (H1N1) virus in 2009, and the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012 and the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in 2019. These outbreaks and/or pandemic have significant impact on human life, social behaviors, and economic development. Moreover, no specific drug has been developed for these viruses. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) plays an important role in the treatment of viral pneumonia during these outbreaks especially in SARS and SARS-CoV-2 because studies suggest that TCM formulations may target several aspects of the disease and may have lesser side effects than manufactured pharmaceuticals. In recent years, a lot of clinicians and researchers have made a series of in-depth explorations and investigations on the treatment of viral pneumonia with TCM, which have understood TCM therapeutic mechanisms more specifically and clearly. But critical analysis of this research in addition to further studies are needed to assess the potential of TCM in the treatment of viral pneumonia.
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