Displaying publications 21 - 40 of 79 in total

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  1. Zakaria ZA, Gopalan HK, Zainal H, Mohd Pojan NH, Morsid NA, Aris A, et al.
    Yakugaku Zasshi, 2006 Nov;126(11):1171-8.
    PMID: 17077618
    AIM: The present study was carried out to evaluate the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of chloroform extract of Solanum nigrum leaves using various animal models.

    METHODS: The extract was prepared by soaking (1:20; w/v) the air-dried powdered leaves (20 g) in chloroform for 72 hrs followed by evaporation (40 degrees C) under reduced pressure to dryness (1.26 g) and then dissolved (1:50; w/v) in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). The supernatant, considered as the stock solution with dose of 200 mg/kg, was diluted using DMSO to 20 and 100 mg/kg, and all doses were administered (s.c.; 10 ml/kg) in mice/rats 30 min prior to tests.

    RESULTS: The extract exhibited significant (p<0.05) antinociceptive activity when assessed using the abdominal constriction, hot plate and formalin tests. The extract also produced significant (p<0.05) anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities when assessed using the carrageenan-induced paw edema and brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia tests. Overall, the activities occurred in a dose-independent manner.

    CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated that the lipid-soluble extract of S. nigrum leaves possessed antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic properties and confirmed the traditional claims.

  2. Zakaria ZA, Wen LY, Abdul Rahman NI, Abdul Ayub AH, Sulaiman MR, Gopalan HK
    Med Princ Pract, 2007;16(6):443-9.
    PMID: 17917444
    The present study was carried out to determine the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of the aqueous extract of Bauhinia purpurea leaves using animal models.
  3. Somchit N, Wong CW, Zuraini A, Ahmad Bustamam A, Hasiah AH, Khairi HM, et al.
    Drug Chem Toxicol, 2006;29(3):237-53.
    PMID: 16777703
    Itraconazole and fluconazole are potent wide spectrum antifungal drugs. Both of these drugs induce hepatotoxicity clinically. The mechanism underlying the hepatotoxicity is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of phenobarbital (PB), an inducer of cytochrome P450 (CYP), and SKF 525A, an inhibitor of CYP, in the mechanism of hepatotoxicity induced by these two drugs in vivo. Rats were pretreated with PB (75 mg/kg for 4 days) prior to itraconazole or fluconazole dosing (20 and 200 mg/kg for 4 days). In the inhibition study, for 4 consecutive days, rats were pretreated with SKF 525A (50 mg/kg) or saline followed by itraconazole or fluconazole (20 and 200 mg/kg) Dose-dependent increases in plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma-glutamyl transferase (gamma-GT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities and in liver weight were detected in rats receiving itraconazole treatment. Interestingly, pretreatment with PB prior to itraconazole reduced the ALT and gamma-GT activities and the liver weight of rats. No changes were observed in rats treated with fluconazole. Pretreatment with SKF 525A induced more severe hepatotoxicity for both itraconazole and fluconazole. CYP 3A activity was inhibited dose-dependently by itraconazole treatment. Itraconazole had no effects on the activity of CYP 1A and 2E. Fluconazole potently inhibited all three isoenzymes of CYP. PB plays a role in hepatoprotection to itraconazole-induced but not fluconazole-induced hepatotoxicity. SKF 525A enhanced the hepatotoxicity of both antifungal drugs in vivo. Therefore, it can be concluded that inhibition of CYP may play a key role in the mechanism of hepatotoxicity induced by itraconazole and fluconazole.
  4. Zakaria ZA, Mustapha S, Sulaiman MR, Mat Jais AM, Somchit MN, Abdullah FC
    Med Princ Pract, 2007;16(2):130-6.
    PMID: 17303949
    The present study was carried out to investigate the antinociceptive activity of the aqueous extract of Muntingia calabura (MCAE) leaves and to determine the effect of temperature and the involvement of the opioid receptor on the said activity using the abdominal constriction test (ACT) and hot-plate test (HPT) in mice.
  5. Zakaria ZA, Safarul M, Valsala R, Sulaiman MR, Fatimah CA, Somchit MN, et al.
    PMID: 16133487
    A series of preliminary studies was carried out to evaluate the antinociceptive (pain relief) activity of the aqueous extract of Corchorus olitorius L. leaves (COAE) and to determine the influence of temperature and opioid receptors on COAE activity using the abdominal constriction and hot plate tests in mice. COAE, at concentrations of 10, 25, 50, 75, and 100%, showed both peripheral and central antinociception that are non-concentration- and concentration-dependent respectively. The peripheral activity was clearly observed at a concentration of 25% and diminished at a concentration of 100%, while the central activity was observed at all the concentrations of COAE used. Furthermore, the insignificant results obtained indicated that this peripheral activity (at concentrations of 25 and 50%) was comparable to that of morphine (0.8 mg/kg). Pre-heating COAE at a temperature of 80 degrees C and 100 degrees C, or 60 degrees C and 80 degrees C was found to enhance its peripheral and central antinociception respectively. Pre-treatment with naloxone (10 mg/kg), a general opioid receptor antagonist, for 5 min, followed by COAE, was found to completely block its peripheral, but not central, antinociceptive activity. Based on this observation, we conclude that the antinociceptive activity exhibited by C. olitorius is enhanced by the increase in temperature and may be mediated peripherally, but not centrally, at least in part, via an opioid receptor.
  6. Somchit N, Norshahida AR, Hasiah AH, Zuraini A, Sulaiman MR, Noordin MM
    Hum Exp Toxicol, 2004 Nov;23(11):519-25.
    PMID: 15625777
    Itraconazole and fluconazole are oral antifungal drugs, which have a wide spectrum antifungal activity and better efficacy than the older drugs. However, both drugs have been associated with hepatotoxicity in susceptible patients. The mechanism of antifungal drug-induced hepatotoxicity is largely unknown. Therefore, the aim of this present study was to investigate and compare the hepatotoxicity induced by these drugs in vivo. Rats were treated intraperitoneally with itraconazole or fluconazole either single (0, 10, 100 and 200 mg/kg) or subchronic (0, 10, 50 and 100 mg/kg per day for 14 days) doses. Plasma and liver samples were taken at the end of the study. A statistically significant and dose dependent increase of plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities were detected in the subchronic itraconazole-treated group. In addition, dose-dependent hepatocellular necrosis, degeneration of periacinar and mizonal hepatocytes, bile duct hyperplasia and biliary cirrhosis and giant cell granuloma were observed histologically in the same group. Interestingly, fluconazole treated rats had no significant increase in transaminases for both single and subchronic groups. In the subchronic fluconazole treated rats, only mild degenerative changes of centrilobular hepatocytes were observed. These results demonstrated that itraconazole was a more potent hepatotoxicant than fluconazole in vivo in rats.
  7. Zakaria ZA, Sulaiman MR, Somchit MN, Jais AM, Ali DI
    J Pharm Pharm Sci, 2005;8(2):199-206.
    PMID: 16124931
    To determine the involvement of nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (NO/cGMP) pathway in aqueous supernatant of haruan (Channa striatus) fillet (ASH) antinociception using the acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction test.
  8. Israf DA, Tham CL, Syahida A, Lajis NH, Sulaiman MR, Mohamad AS, et al.
    Phytomedicine, 2010 Aug;17(10):732-9.
    PMID: 20378317 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2010.02.006
    In a previous communication we showed that atrovirinone, a 1,4-benzoquinone isolated from the roots of Garcinia atroviridis, was able to inhibit several major proinflammatory mediators of inflammation. In this report we show that atrovirinone inhibits NO and PGE(2) synthesis through inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 expression. We also show that atrovirinone inhibits the secretion of IL-1beta and IL-6 in a dose dependent fashion whereas the secretion of IL-10, the anti-inflammatory cytokine, was enhanced. Subsequently we determined that the inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine synthesis and inducible enzyme expression was due to a dose-dependent inhibition of phosphorylation of p38 and ERK1/2. We also showed that atrovirinone prevented phosphorylation of I-kappaBalpha, which resulted in a reduction of p65NF-kappaB nuclear translocation as demonstrated by expression analysis. We conclude that atrovirinone is a potential anti-inflammatory drug lead that targets both the MAPK and NF-kappaB pathway.
  9. Chia JSM, Omar Farouk AA, Mohamad AS, Sulaiman MR, Perimal EK
    Biomed. Pharmacother., 2016 Oct;83:1303-1310.
    PMID: 27570173 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2016.08.052
    Zerumbone, a bioactive sesquiterpene isolated from Zingiber zerumbet (Smith), has shown to exert antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic effects in neuropathic pain mice model in our recent study. The mechanism through which zerumbone alleviates neuropathic pain has yet to be elucidated. Thus, this study aimed to determine whether the serotonergic system, part of the descending pain modulation pathway, contributes to the antineuropathic effect of zerumbone. Participation of the serotonergic system in zerumbone-induced antiallodynia and antihyperalgesia was assessed using Dynamic Plantar Aesthesiometer von Frey test and Hargreaves plantar test respectively in chronic-constriction injury mice model. Administration of ρ-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA, 100mg/kg, i.p.) for four consecutive days to deplete serotonin (5-HT) prior to zerumbone administration blocked the antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic effects of zerumbone. Further investigation with 5-HT receptor antagonists methiothepin (5-HT1/6/7 receptor antagonist, 0.1mg/kg), WAY-100635 (5-HT1A receptor antagonist, 1mg/kg), isamoltane (5-HT1B receptor antagonist, 2.5mg/kg), ketanserin (5-HT2A receptor antagonist, 0.3mg/kg) and ondansetron (5-HT3 receptor antagonist, 0.5mg/kg) managed to significantly attenuate antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic effects of zerumbone (10mg/kg). These findings demonstrate that zerumbone alleviates mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia through the descending serotonergic system via 5-HT receptors 1A, 1B, 2A, 3, 6 and 7 in chronic constriction injury neuropathic pain mice.
  10. Sim TY, Harith HH, Tham CL, Md Hashim NF, Shaari K, Sulaiman MR, et al.
    Molecules, 2018 Jun 05;23(6).
    PMID: 29874809 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23061355
    Alveolar epithelial barrier dysfunction contributes to lung edema and can lead to acute lung injury (ALI). The features include increased epithelial permeability, upregulation of inflammatory mediators and downregulation of junctional complex molecules; these changes are often induced by inflammation. tHGA is an acetophenone analogue with therapeutic potential in asthma. Its therapeutic potential in ALI is presently unknown. Herein, the effects of tHGA on epithelial barrier dysfunction were determined in TNF-α-induced human alveolar epithelial cells. The anti-inflammatory properties of tHGA were assessed by monocyte adhesion assay and analysis of MCP-1 and ICAM-1 expression. The epithelial barrier function was assessed by paracellular permeability and transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) assays, and analysis of junctional complex molecules expression. To elucidate the mechanism of action, the effects of tHGA on the NF-κB and MAPK pathways were determined. Gene and protein expression were analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blotting or ELISA, respectively. tHGA suppressed leukocyte adhesion to TNF-α-induced epithelium and reduced MCP-1 and ICAM-1 gene expression and secretion. tHGA also increased TEER readings, reduced epithelial permeability and enhanced expression of junctional complex molecules (zona occludens-1, occludin and E-cadherin) in TNF-α-induced cells. Correspondingly, the NF-κB, ERK and p38 MAPK pathways were also inhibited by tHGA. These findings suggest that tHGA is able to preserve alveolar epithelial barrier function in response to acute inflammation, via its anti-inflammatory activity and stabilization of epithelial barrier integrity, mediated by NF-κB, ERK and p38 MAPK signaling.
  11. Lee YZ, Shaari K, Cheema MS, Tham CL, Sulaiman MR, Israf DA
    Eur. J. Pharmacol., 2017 Feb 15;797:53-64.
    PMID: 28089919 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2017.01.011
    2,4,6-Trihydroxy-3-geranyl acetophenone (tHGA) is a synthetic compound that is naturally found in Melicope ptelefolia. We had previously demonstrated that parenteral administration of tHGA reduces pulmonary inflammation in OVA-sensitized mice. In this study, we evaluated the effect of orally administered tHGA upon airway remodeling in a murine model of chronic asthma. Female BALB/C mice were sensitized intraperitoneally with ovalbumin (OVA) on day 0, 7 and 14, followed by aerosolized 1% OVA 3 times per week for 6 weeks. Control groups were sensitized with saline. OVA sensitized animals were either treated orally with vehicle (saline with 1% DMSO and Tween 80), tHGA (80, 40, 20mg/kg) or zileuton (30mg/kg) 1h prior to each aerosolized OVA sensitization. On day 61, mice underwent methacholine challenge to determine airway hyperresponsiveness prior to collection of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and lung samples. BAL fluid inflammatory cell counts and cytokine concentrations were evaluated while histological analysis and extracellular matrix protein concentrations were determined on collected lung samples. Oral tHGA treatment attenuated airway hyperresponsiveness and inhibited airway remodeling in a dose-dependent fashion. tHGA's effect on airway remodeling could be attributed to the reduction of inflammatory cell infiltration and decreased expression of cytokines associated with airway remodeling. Oral administration of tHGA attenuates airway hyperresponsiveness and remodeling in OVA-induced BALB/c mice. tHGA is an interesting compound that should be evaluated further for its possible role as an alternative non-steroidal pharmacological approach in the management of asthma.
  12. Sambasevam Y, Omar Farouk AA, Tengku Mohamad TA, Sulaiman MR, Bharatham BH, Perimal EK
    Eur. J. Pharmacol., 2017 Feb 05;796:32-38.
    PMID: 27988285 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2016.12.020
    Neuropathic pain arises from the injury of nervous system. The condition is extremely difficult to be treated due to the ineffectiveness and presence of various adverse effects of the currently available drugs. In the present study, we investigated the antiallodynic and antihyperlagesic properties of cardamonin, a naturally occurring chalcone in chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain mice model. Our findings showed that single and repeated dose of intra-peritoneal administration of cardamonin (3, 10, 30mg/kg) significantly inhibited (P<0.001) the chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain using the Hargreaves plantar test, Randall-Selitto analgesiometer test, dynamic plantar anesthesiometer test and the cold plate test in comparison with the positive control drug used (amitriptyline hydrochloride, 20mg/kg, i.p.). Pre-treatment with naloxone hydrochloride (1mg/kg, i.p.) and naloxone methiodide (1mg/kg, s.c) significantly reversed the antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic effects of cardamonin in dynamic plantar anesthesiometer test and Hargreaves plantar test, respectively. In conclusion, the current findings demonstrated novel antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic effects of cardamonin through the activation of the opioidergic system both peripherally and centrally and may prove to be a potent lead compound for the development of neuropathic pain drugs in the future.
  13. Gopalsamy B, Farouk AAO, Tengku Mohamad TAS, Sulaiman MR, Perimal EK
    J Pain Res, 2017;10:2605-2619.
    PMID: 29184437 DOI: 10.2147/JPR.S143024
    Background: Neuropathic pain is a debilitating condition that severely affects the quality of life for those with this pain condition, and treatment for pain relief is greatly sought-after. Zerumbone (Zer), a sesquiterpene compound isolated from the rhizomes of a Southeast Asian ginger plant, Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Roscoe ex Smith. (Zingiberaceae), showed antinociceptive and antiinflammatory properties when previously tested on models of nociception and inflammation.

    Objective: This study investigated the effects of prophylactic administration of zerumbone on allodynia and hyperalgesia in a mouse model of chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain.

    Methods: Intraperitoneal administration of Zer (5-50 mg/kg) from day 1 post-surgery was carried out to identify the onset and progression of the pain condition. Responses toward mechanical and cold allodynia, and mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia were assessed on days 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, and 14 post-surgery. Blood plasma and spinal cord levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and IL-10 were screened using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay on day 15.

    Results: Zer (10 and 50 mg/kg) attenuated pain symptoms on all days of behavioral testing without any signs of sedation in the rotarod test. ED50 values for mechanical allodynia, cold allodynia, thermal hyperalgesia, and mechanical hyperalgesia were 9.25, 9.507, 8.289, and 9.801 mg/kg, respectively. Blood plasma and spinal levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α but not IL-10 were significantly (p<0.05) suppressed by zer treatment.

    Discussion and conclusion: Zer exhibits its antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic properties via reduced sensitization at nociceptor neurons possibly through the suppression of inflammatory mediators. Zer may prove to be a novel and beneficial alternative for the management of neuropathic pain.

  14. Lee YZ, Yap HM, Shaari K, Tham CL, Sulaiman MR, Israf DA
    Front Pharmacol, 2017;8:837.
    PMID: 29201006 DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2017.00837
    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is currently recognized as the main cellular event that contributes to airway remodeling. Eosinophils can induce EMT in airway epithelial cells via increased transforming growth factor (TGF)-β production. We assessed the effect of synthetic 2,4,6-trihydroxy-3-geranyl acetophenone (tHGA) upon eosinophil-induced EMT in a cellular model. The human eosinophil cell line EoL-1 was used to induce EMT in BEAS-2B human bronchial epithelial cells. The induction of EMT was dose-dependently suppressed following tHGA treatment in which the epithelial morphology and E-cadherin expression were not altered. Protein and mRNA expression of vimentin, collagen I and fibronectin in eosinophil-induced epithelial cells were also significantly suppressed by tHGA treatment. Following pathway analysis, we showed that tHGA suppressed eosinophil-induced activator protein-1-mediated TGF-β production by targeting c-Jun N-terminal kinase and phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling pathways. These findings corroborated previous findings on the ability of tHGA to inhibit experimental murine airway remodeling.
  15. Sulaiman MR, Zakaria ZA, Kamaruddin A, Meng TF, Ali DI, Moin S
    Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol, 2008 Nov;30(9):691-6.
    PMID: 19229377 DOI: 10.1358/mf.2008.30.9.1305824
    Trigonopleura malayana L. (Euphorbiaceae) resin, locally known as Gambir Sarawak, has been used traditionally to alleviate pain associated with insect bites, muscle ache, toothache and minor injuries. The present study was carried out using various animal models to determine the antinociceptive and antiinflammatory activities of the T. malayana resin aqueous extract. Antinociceptive activity was measured using the abdominal constriction, hot plate and formalin tests, while antiinflammatory activity was measured using the carrageenan-induced paw edema test. The extract, obtained after 24 h of soaking the dried resin in distilled water, was prepared in doses of 0.3, 3 and 10 mg/kg and administered subcutaneously 30 min prior to the assays. The mechanism of action was also determined by prechallenging with naloxone (10 mg/kg), a nonselective opioid antagonist. The extract was found to exhibit significant (P < 0.05) and dose-dependent antinociceptive and antiinflammatory activities; naloxone failed to inhibit the former activity. In conclusion, the aqueous extract of T. malayana resin possesses nonopioid antinociceptive and antiinflammatory activities, thus supporting previous claims regarding its traditional use by the Malays to treat various ailments, particularly those related to pain.
  16. Sulaiman MR, Zakaria ZA, Chiong HS, Lai SK, Israf DA, Azam Shah TM
    Med Princ Pract, 2009;18(4):272-9.
    PMID: 19494533 DOI: 10.1159/000215723
    The present study was carried out to explore the antinociceptive as well as the anti-inflammatory effects of an ethanol extract of Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl (EESJ) using 3 models of nociception and 2 models of inflammation in experimental animals.
  17. Sulaiman MR, Zakaria ZA, Abdul Rahman A, Mohamad AS, Desa MN, Stanslas J, et al.
    Biol Res Nurs, 2010 Jan;11(3):293-301.
    PMID: 19689990 DOI: 10.1177/1099800409343311
    The current study was performed to evaluate the antinociceptive and antiedematogenic properties of andrographolide isolated from the leaves of Andrographis paniculata using two animal models. Antinociceptive activity was evaluated using the acetic acid- induced writhing and the hot-plate tests, while antiedematogenic activity was measured using the carrageenan-induced paw edema test. Subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of andrographolide (10, 25, and 50 mg/kg) did not affect the motor coordination of the experimental animals but produced significant (p < .05) antinociceptive activity when assessed using both tests. However, 2 mg/kg naloxone failed to affect the 25 mg/kg andrographolide activity in both tests, indicating that the activity was modulated via nonopioid mechanisms. Furthermore, andrographolide showed significant (p < .05) antiedematogenic activity. In conclusion, the results obtained suggest that andrographolide has antinociceptive and antiedematogenic activities; it may be useful for treating pain and inflammation once human studies are conducted.
  18. Sulaiman MR, Zakaria ZA, Adilius M, Mohamad AS, Ismail M, Israf DA
    Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol, 2009 May;31(4):241-7.
    PMID: 19557202 DOI: 10.1358/mf.2009.31.4.1371198
    The ethanolic extract of Alpinia conchigera Griff. leaves (EACL) was evaluated for its antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities in several in vivo experimental models. Antinociceptive activity was determined using the acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing test, the hot plate test and the formalin test. Anti-inflammatory activity was determined using the carrageenan-induced paw edema test. The extract (30, 100 and 300 mg/kg i.p.) was found to possess significant, dose-dependent inhibitory activity in all test models. In addition, the antinociceptive effect of the extract in the acetic acid-induced writhing and hot plate tests was reversed by naloxone, suggesting that this activity is mediated through activation of the opioid system. These findings suggest that EACL presents notable analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities, which support its folkloric use for painful and inflammatory conditions.
  19. Sulaiman MR, Perimal EK, Zakaria ZA, Mokhtar F, Akhtar MN, Lajis NH, et al.
    Fitoterapia, 2009 Jun;80(4):230-2.
    PMID: 19535012 DOI: 10.1016/j.fitote.2009.02.002
    We have investigated the antinociceptive activity of zerumbone (1), a natural cyclic sesquiterpene isolated from Zingiber zerumbet Smith, in acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing test and hot plate test in mice. 1 given by intraperitoneal route produced significant dose-dependent antinociceptive effect in all the test models used. In addition, the antinociceptive effect of 1 in the hot plate test was reversed by the non-selective opioid receptor antagonist naloxone, suggesting that the opioid system is involved in its analgesic mechanism of action.
  20. Zakaria ZA, Sulaiman MR, Morsid NA, Aris A, Zainal H, Pojan NH, et al.
    Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol, 2009 Mar;31(2):81-8.
    PMID: 19455262 DOI: 10.1358/mf.2009.31.2.1353876
    The present study was carried out to evaluate the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of the aqueous extract of Solanum nigrum leaves using various animal models. The extract, at concentrations of 10, 50 and 100%, was prepared by soaking (1:20; w/v) air-dried powdered leaves (20 g) in distilled water (dH2O) for 72 h. The extract solutions were administered subcutaneously in mice/rats 30 min prior to the tests. The extract exhibited significant (P < 0.05) antinociceptive activity when assessed using the abdominal constriction, hot plate and formalin tests. The extract also produced significant (P < 0.05) anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities when assessed using the carrageenan-induced paw edema and brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia tests, respectively. Overall, these activities occurred in a concentration-dependent manner, except for the 50% concentration of the extract, which was not effective in the abdominal constriction test. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that S. nigrum leaves possessed antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects and thus supported traditional claims of its medicinal uses.
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