METHODS: The extract was prepared by soaking (1:20; w/v) the air-dried powdered leaves (20 g) in chloroform for 72 hrs followed by evaporation (40 degrees C) under reduced pressure to dryness (1.26 g) and then dissolved (1:50; w/v) in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). The supernatant, considered as the stock solution with dose of 200 mg/kg, was diluted using DMSO to 20 and 100 mg/kg, and all doses were administered (s.c.; 10 ml/kg) in mice/rats 30 min prior to tests.
RESULTS: The extract exhibited significant (p<0.05) antinociceptive activity when assessed using the abdominal constriction, hot plate and formalin tests. The extract also produced significant (p<0.05) anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities when assessed using the carrageenan-induced paw edema and brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia tests. Overall, the activities occurred in a dose-independent manner.
CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated that the lipid-soluble extract of S. nigrum leaves possessed antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic properties and confirmed the traditional claims.
Objective: This study investigated the effects of prophylactic administration of zerumbone on allodynia and hyperalgesia in a mouse model of chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain.
Methods: Intraperitoneal administration of Zer (5-50 mg/kg) from day 1 post-surgery was carried out to identify the onset and progression of the pain condition. Responses toward mechanical and cold allodynia, and mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia were assessed on days 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, and 14 post-surgery. Blood plasma and spinal cord levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and IL-10 were screened using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay on day 15.
Results: Zer (10 and 50 mg/kg) attenuated pain symptoms on all days of behavioral testing without any signs of sedation in the rotarod test. ED50 values for mechanical allodynia, cold allodynia, thermal hyperalgesia, and mechanical hyperalgesia were 9.25, 9.507, 8.289, and 9.801 mg/kg, respectively. Blood plasma and spinal levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α but not IL-10 were significantly (p<0.05) suppressed by zer treatment.
Discussion and conclusion: Zer exhibits its antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic properties via reduced sensitization at nociceptor neurons possibly through the suppression of inflammatory mediators. Zer may prove to be a novel and beneficial alternative for the management of neuropathic pain.