Displaying publications 21 - 40 of 139 in total

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  1. Ee GC, Teo SH, Kwong HC, Mohamed Tahir MI, Silong S
    PMID: 21589606 DOI: 10.1107/S1600536810048592
    The title compound, Artonol B, C(24)H(20)O(7), isolated from the stem bark of Artocarpus kemando, consists of four six-membered rings and one five-membered ring. The tricyclic xanthone ring system is almost planar [maximum deviation 0.115 (5) Å], whereas the pyran-oid ring is in a distorted boat conformation·The furan ring is almost coplanar with the fused aromatic ring, making a dihedral angle of 3.76 (9)°. The phenol ring serves as a intra-molecular hydrogen-bond donor to the adjacent carbonyl group and also acts as an inter-molecular hydrogen-bond acceptor for the methyl groups of adjacent mol-ecules, forming a three-dimensional network in the crystal.
  2. Yip CH, Taib NA, Choo WY, Rampal S, Thong MK, Teo SH
    World J Surg, 2009 Oct;33(10):2077-81.
    PMID: 19649760 DOI: 10.1007/s00268-009-0146-8
    Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 confer an increased risk to breast and other cancers, but to date there have only been limited numbers of studies of BRCA1- and BRCA2-associated cancers among Asians. Malaysia is a multiracial country with three main races: Malays, Chinese, Indians. We determined whether tumor pathologic features and clinical features differ in patients with and without BRCA mutations in this Asian population.
  3. Kamal N, Sabaratnam V, Abdullah N, Ho AS, Teo SH, Lee HB
    Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek, 2009 Feb;95(2):179-88.
    PMID: 19125347 DOI: 10.1007/s10482-008-9301-8
    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising cancer treatment which involves activation of a photosensitizing drug with light to produce reactive oxygen species that kill tumors without causing damage to unirradiated normal tissues. To date, only Photofrin, Foscan and Levulan have been approved for clinical treatment of cancer. Tropical habitats such as those found in Malaysia are attractive sources of new therapeutic compounds as tremendous chemical diversity is found in a large number of plants, animals, marine- and micro-organisms. In our screening program for novel photosensitizers from nature, colorful strains of fungi (from Aspergillus and Penicillium genus) and bacteria (including actinomycetes and photosynthetic bacteria) were collected from various habitats in Peninsular Malaysia, such as coastal soil, peat soil, marine sponges and wastewater ponds. Methanolic extracts from a total of 85 different species were evaluated with a short-term cell viability assay for photo-cytotoxicity, where a promyelocytic leukemia cell-line, HL60 incubated with 20 microg/ml of extracts was irradiated with 9.6 J/cm(2) of a broad spectrum light. Two of these extracts, one from Rhodobacter sphaeroides (PBUM003) and one from Rhodopseudomonas palustris (PBUM001) showed moderate to strong photo-cytotoxicity. Subsequent bioassay guided isolation of the PBUM001 extract yielded known photosensitisers that are based on bacteriochlorophyll-a by comparing their molecular weight data, HPLC profiles and UV-vis absorption spectra with literature values, thereby demonstrating the validity of our screening approach.
  4. Tan GH, Taib NA, Choo WY, Teo SH, Yip CH
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2009 Jul-Sep;10(3):395-8.
    PMID: 19640180
    INTRODUCTION: Triple negative (TN) breast cancers are defined by a lack of expression of oestrogen, progesterone, and HER2 receptors. They tend to have a higher grade, with a poorer outcome compared to non-TN breast cancers.
    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to determine the incidence of TN breast cancer in an Asian country consisting of Malays, Chinese and Indians, and to determine the factors associated with this type of breast cancer.
    RESULTS: The incidence of TN breast cancer in the University Malaya Medical Center is 17.6%. There is no significant difference amongst the Malays, Chinese and Indians. In bivariate analysis, TN breast cancer was significantly associated with younger age and Grade 3. However, in multivariate analysis using logistic regression, TN breast cancer was only associated with Grade 3.
    CONCLUSION: The incidence of TN breast cancer in our study is similar to other studies, and associated with a higher grade.
    Study site: University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC)
  5. Abdullah A, Abdullah KL, Yip CH, Teo SH, Taib NA, Ng CJ
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(12):7143-7.
    PMID: 24460266
    BACKGROUND: The survival outcomes for women presenting with early breast cancer are influenced by treatment decisions. In Malaysia, survival outcome is generally poor due to late presentation. Of those who present early, many refuse treatment for complementary therapy.
    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the decision making experiences of women with early breast cancer.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A qualitative study using individual in-depth interviews was conducted to capture the decision making process of women with early breast cancer in Malaysia. We used purposive sampling to recruit women yet to undergo surgical treatment. A total of eight participants consented and were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. These women were recruited from a period of one week after they were informed of their diagnoses. A topic guide, based on the Ottawa decision support framework (ODSF), was used to facilitate the interviews, which were audio recorded, transcribed and analysed using a thematic approach.
    RESULTS: We identified four phases in the decision-making process of women with early breast cancer: discovery (pre-diagnosis); confirmatory ('receiving bad news'); deliberation; and decision (making a decision). These phases ranged from when women first discovered abnormalities in their breasts to them making final surgical treatment decisions. Information was vital in guiding these women. Support from family members, friends, healthcare professionals as well as survivors also has an influencing role. However, the final say on treatment decision was from themselves.
    CONCLUSIONS: The treatment decision for women with early breast cancer in Malaysia is a result of information they gather on their decision making journey. This journey starts with diagnosis. The women's spouses, friends, family members and healthcare professionals play different roles as information providers and supporters at different stages of treatment decisions. However, the final treatment decision is influenced mainly by women's own experiences, knowledge and understanding.
    Study site: Breast surgical units, Klang Valley, Malaysia
  6. Lee YS, Howell SM, Won YY, Lee OS, Lee SH, Vahedi H, et al.
    Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc, 2017 Nov;25(11):3467-3479.
    PMID: 28439636 DOI: 10.1007/s00167-017-4558-y
    PURPOSE: A systematic review was conducted to answer the following questions: (1) Does kinematically aligned (KA) total knee arthroplasty (TKA) achieve clinical outcomes comparable to those of mechanically aligned (MA) TKA? (2) How do the limb, knee, and component alignments differ between KA and MA TKA? (3) How is joint line orientation angle (JLOA) changed from the native knee in KA TKA compared to that in MA TKA?

    METHODS: Nine full-text articles in English that reported the clinical and radiological outcomes of KA TKA were included. Five studies had a control group of patients who underwent MA TKA. Data on patient demographics, clinical scores, and radiological results were extracted. There were two level I, one level II, three level III, and three level IV studies. Six of the nine studies used patient-specific instrumentation, one study used computer navigation, and two studies used manual instrumentation.

    RESULTS: The clinical outcomes of KA TKA were comparable or superior to those of MA TKA with a minimum 2-year follow-up. Limb and knee alignment in KA TKA was similar to those in MA TKA, and component alignment showed slightly more varus in the tibial component and slightly more valgus in the femoral component. The JLOA in KA TKA was relatively parallel to the floor compared to that in the native knee and not oblique (medial side up and lateral side down) compared to that in MA TKA. The implant survivorship and complication rate of the KA TKA were similar to those of the MA TKA.

    CONCLUSION: Similar or better clinical outcomes were produced by using a KA TKA at early-term follow-up and the component alignment differed from that of MA TKA. KA TKA seemed to restore function without catastrophic failure regardless of the alignment category up to midterm follow-up. The JLOA in KA TKA was relatively parallel to the floor similar to the native knee compared to that in MA TKA. The present review of nine published studies suggests that relatively new kinematic alignment is an acceptable and alternative alignment to mechanical alignment, which is better understood. Further validation of these findings requires more randomized clinical trials with longer follow-up.

    LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level II.

  7. Lee YS, Teo SH, Ahn JH, Lee OS, Lee SH, Lee JH
    Arthroscopy, 2017 Oct;33(10):1884-1895.
    PMID: 28655477 DOI: 10.1016/j.arthro.2017.04.006
    PURPOSE: To evaluate the surgical treatment of the discoid lateral meniscus (DLM) with long-term follow-up and to search which factors are related to good clinical or radiological outcomes.

    METHODS: Search was performed using a MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane database, and each of the selected studies was evaluated for methodological quality using a risk of bias (ROB) covering 7 criteria. Clinical and radiological outcomes with more than 5 years of follow-up were evaluated after surgical treatment of DLM. They were analyzed according to the age, follow-up period, kind of surgery, DLM type, and alignment.

    RESULTS: Eleven articles (422 DLM cases) were included in the final analysis. Among 7 criteria, 3 criteria showed little ROB in all studies. However, 4 criteria showed some ROB ("Yes" in 63.6% to 81.8%). The minimal follow-up period was 5.5 years (weighted mean follow-up: 9.1 years). Surgical procedures were performed with open or arthroscopic partial central meniscectomy, subtotal meniscectomy, total meniscectomy, or partial meniscectomy with repair. The majority of the studies showed good clinical results. Mild joint space narrowing was reported in the lateral compartment, but none of the knees demonstrated moderate or advanced degenerative changes. Increased age at surgery, longer follow-up period, and subtotal or total meniscectomy could be related to degenerative change. The majority of the complications was osteochondritis dissecans at the lateral femoral condyle (13 cases) and reoperation was performed by osteochondritis dissecans (4 cases), recurrent swelling (2 cases), residual symptom (1 case), stiffness (1 case), and popliteal stenosis (1 case).

    CONCLUSIONS: Good clinical results were obtained with surgical treatment of symptomatic DLM. The progression of degenerative change was minimal and none of the knees demonstrated moderate or advanced degenerative changes. Increased age at surgery, longer follow-up period, and subtotal or total meniscectomy were possible risk factors for degenerative changes.

    LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV, systematic review of Level IV studies.

  8. Ng CH, Ripolles TS, Hamada K, Teo SH, Lim HN, Bisquert J, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2018 02 06;8(1):2482.
    PMID: 29410450 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-20228-0
    Perovskite solar cells based on series of inorganic cesium lead bromide and iodide mixture, CsPbBr3-xI x , where x varies between 0, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 molar ratio were synthesized by two step-sequential deposition at ambient condition to design the variations of wide band gap light absorbers. A device with high overall photoconversion efficiency of 3.98 % was obtained when small amount of iodide (CsPbBr2.9I0.1) was used as the perovskite and spiro-OMeTAD as the hole transport material (HTM). We investigated the origin of variation in open circuit voltage, Voc which was shown to be mainly dependent on two factors, which are the band gap of the perovskite and the work function of the HTM. An increment in Voc was observed for the device with larger perovskite band gap, while keeping the electron and hole extraction contacts the same. Besides, the usage of bilayer P3HT/MoO3 with deeper HOMO level as HTM instead of spiro-OMeTAD, thus increased the Voc from 1.16 V to 1.3 V for CsPbBr3 solar cell, although the photocurrent is lowered due to charge extraction issues. The stability studies confirmed that the addition of small amount of iodide into the CsPbBr3 is necessarily to stabilize the cell performance over time.
  9. Tan M, Mariapun S, Yip CH, Ng KH, Teo SH
    Phys Med Biol, 2019 Jan 31;64(3):035016.
    PMID: 30577031 DOI: 10.1088/1361-6560/aafabd
    Historically, breast cancer risk prediction models are based on mammographic density measures, which are dichotomous in nature and generally categorize each voxel or area of the breast parenchyma as 'dense' or 'not dense'. Using these conventional methods, the structural patterns or textural components of the breast tissue elements are not considered or ignored entirely. This study presents a novel method to predict breast cancer risk that combines new texture and mammographic density based image features. We performed a comprehensive study of the correlation of 944 new and conventional texture and mammographic density features with breast cancer risk on a cohort of Asian women. We studied 250 breast cancer cases and 250 controls matched at full-field digital mammography (FFDM) status for age, BMI and ethnicity. Stepwise regression analysis identified relevant features to be included in a linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier model, trained and tested using a leave-one-out based cross-validation method. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUC) and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were used as the two performance assessment indices in our study. For the LDA trained classifier, the adjusted OR was 6.15 (95% confidence interval: 3.55-10.64) and for Volpara volumetric breast density, 1.10 (0.67-1.81). The AUC for the LDA trained classifier was 0.68 (0.64-0.73), compared to 0.52 (0.47-0.57) for Volpara volumetric breast density (p   
  10. Ling JL, Teo SH, Mohamed Al-Fayyadh MZ, Mohamed Ali MR, Ng WM
    Arthroscopy, 2019 Feb;35(2):596-604.
    PMID: 30611592 DOI: 10.1016/j.arthro.2018.08.038
    PURPOSE: To assess the effectiveness of a low-cost self-made arthroscopic camera (LAC) in basic arthroscopic skills training compared with a commercial arthroscopic camera (CAC).

    METHODS: One hundred fifty-three orthopaedic residents were recruited and randomly assigned to either the LAC or CAC. They were allocated 2 practice sessions, with 20 minutes each, to practice 4 given arthroscopic tasks: task 1, transferring objects; task 2, stacking objects; task 3, probing numbers; and task 4, stretching rubber bands. The time taken for participants to complete the given tasks was recorded in 3 separate tests; before practice, immediately after practice, and after a period of 3 months. A comparison of the time taken between both groups to complete the given tasks in each test was measured as the primary outcome.

    RESULTS: Significant improvements in time completion were seen in the post-practice test for both groups in all given arthroscopic tasks, each with P < .001. However, there was no significant difference between the groups for task 1 (P = .743), task 2 (P = .940), task 3 (P = .932), task 4 (P = .929), and total (P = .944). The outcomes of the tests (before practice, after practice, and at 3 months) according to repeated measures analysis of variance did not differ significantly between the groups in task 1 (P = .475), task 2 (P = .558), task 3 (P = .850), task 4 (P = .965), and total (P = .865).

    CONCLUSIONS: The LAC is equally as effective as the CAC in basic arthroscopic skills training with the advantage of being cost-effective.

    CLINICAL RELEVANCE: In view of the scarcity in commercial arthroscopic devices for trainees, this low-cost device, which trainees can personally own and use, may provide a less expensive and easily available way for trainees to improve their arthroscopic skills. This might also cultivate more interest in arthroscopic surgery among junior surgeons.

  11. Chai SJ, Yap YY, Foo YC, Yap LF, Ponniah S, Teo SH, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(11):e0130464.
    PMID: 26536470 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0130464
    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is highly prevalent in South East Asia and China. The poor outcome is due to late presentation, recurrence, distant metastasis and limited therapeutic options. For improved treatment outcome, immunotherapeutic approaches focusing on dendritic and autologous cytotoxic T-cell based therapies have been developed, but cost and infrastructure remain barriers for implementing these in low-resource settings. As our prior observations had found that four-jointed box 1 (FJX1), a tumor antigen, is overexpressed in NPCs, we investigated if short 9-20 amino acid sequence specific peptides matching to FJX1 requiring only intramuscular immunization to train host immune systems would be a better treatment option for this disease. Thus, we designed 8 FJX1-specific peptides and implemented an assay system to first, assess the binding of these peptides to HLA-A2 molecules on T2 cells. After, ELISPOT assays were used to determine the peptides immunogenicity and ability to induce potential cytotoxicity activity towards cancer cells. Also, T-cell proliferation assay was used to evaluate the potential of MHC class II peptides to stimulate the expansion of isolated T-cells. Our results demonstrate that these peptides are immunogenic and peptide stimulated T-cells were able to induce peptide-specific cytolytic activity specifically against FJX1-expressing cancer cells. In addition, we demonstrated that the MHC class II peptides were capable of inducing T-cell proliferation. Our results suggest that these peptides are capable of inducing specific cytotoxic cytokines secretion against FJX1-expressing cancer cells and serve as a potential vaccine-based therapy for NPC patients.
  12. Ng PS, Wen WX, Fadlullah MZ, Yoon SY, Lee SY, Thong MK, et al.
    Clin. Genet., 2016 10;90(4):315-23.
    PMID: 26757417 DOI: 10.1111/cge.12735
    Although an association between protein-truncating variants and breast cancer risk has been established for 11 genes, only alterations in BRCA1, BRCA2, TP53 and PALB2 have been reported in Asian populations. Given that the age of onset of breast cancer is lower in Asians, it is estimated that inherited predisposition to breast cancer may be more significant. To determine the potential utility of panel testing, we investigated the prevalence of germline alterations in 11 established and 4 likely breast cancer genes in a cross-sectional hospital-based cohort of 108 moderate to high-risk breast cancer patients using targeted next generation sequencing. Twenty patients (19%) were identified to carry deleterious mutations, of whom 13 (12%) were in the BRCA1 or BRCA2, 6 (6%) were in five other known breast cancer predisposition genes and 1 patient had a mutation in both BRCA2 and BARD1. Our study shows that BRCA1 and BRCA2 account for the majority of genetic predisposition to breast cancer in our cohort of Asian women. Although mutations in other known breast cancer genes are found, the functional significance and breast cancer risk have not yet been determined, thus limiting the clinical utility of panel testing in Asian populations.
  13. Mohamad S, Isa NM, Muhammad R, Emran NA, Kitan NM, Kang P, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(1):e0117104.
    PMID: 25629968 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0117104
    CHEK2 is a protein kinase that is involved in cell-cycle checkpoint control after DNA damage. Germline mutations in CHEK2 gene have been associated with increase in breast cancer risk. The aim of this study is to identify the CHEK2 gene germline mutations among high-risk breast cancer patients and its contribution to the multiethnic population in Malaysia. We screened the entire coding region of CHEK2 gene on 59 high-risk breast cancer patients who tested negative for BRCA1/2 germline mutations from UKM Medical Centre (UKMMC), Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL) and Hospital Putrajaya (HPJ). Sequence variants identified were screened further in case-control cohorts consisting of 878 unselected invasive breast cancer patients (180 Malays, 526 Chinese and 172 Indian) and 270 healthy individuals (90 Malays, 90 Chinese and 90 Indian). By screening the entire coding region of the CHEK2 gene, two missense mutations, c.480A>G (p.I160M) and c.538C>T (p.R180C) were identified in two unrelated patients (3.4%). Further screening of these missense mutations on the case-control cohorts unveiled the variant p.I160M in 2/172 (1.1%) Indian cases and 1/90 (1.1%) Indian control, variant p.R180C in 2/526 (0.38%) Chinese cases and 0/90 Chinese control, and in 2/180 (1.1%) of Malay cases and 1/90 (1.1%) of Malay control. The results of this study suggest that CHEK2 mutations are rare among high-risk breast cancer patients and may play a minor contributing role in breast carcinogenesis among Malaysian population.
  14. Ariffin H, Chan AS, Oh L, Abd-Ghafar S, Ong GB, Mohamed M, et al.
    Clin. Genet., 2015 Nov;88(5):450-5.
    PMID: 25318593 DOI: 10.1111/cge.12525
    Type of cancer and age of onset in individuals with inherited aberrations in the tumour suppressor gene TP53 are variable, possibly influenced by genetic modifiers and different environmental exposure. Since 2009, the modified Chompret criteria (MCC) have been used to identify individuals for TP53 mutation screening. Using the TP53 mutation database maintained by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), we investigated if the MCC, mainly developed for a Caucasian population, was also applicable in Asia. We identified several differences in Asian families compared with similar Caucasian cohorts, suggesting that identification and management of Li-Fraumeni syndrome in Asia do not completely mirror that of North America and Western Europe. Early gastric cancer (<40 years) may be considered a new addition to the MCC especially for Asian families.
  15. Lim KP, Chun NA, Gan CP, Teo SH, Rahman ZA, Abraham MT, et al.
    Hum Vaccin Immunother, 2014;10(11):3214-23.
    PMID: 25483651 DOI: 10.4161/hv.29226
    The ever-increasing number of tumor-associated antigens has provided a major stimulus for the development of therapeutic peptides vaccines. Tumor-associated peptides can induce high immune response rates and have been developed as vaccines for several types of solid tumors, and many are at various stages of clinical testing. MAGED4B, a melanoma antigen, is overexpressed in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and this expression promotes proliferation and cell migration. In this study, we have identified 9 short peptides derived from MAGED4B protein that are restricted in binding to the HLA subtypes common in the Asian population (HLA-A2, A11, and A24). The peptides had good binding affinity with the MHC-Class I molecules and stimulated ex-vivo IFN-gamma and Granzyme-B production in blood samples from OSCC patients, suggesting that they are immunogenic. Further, T cells stimulated with peptide-pulsed dendritic cells showed enhanced T-cell cytotoxic activity against MAGED4B-overexpressing OSCC cell lines. In summary, we have identified MAGED4B peptides that induce anti-tumor immune responses advocating that they could be further developed as vaccine candidates for the treatment of OSCC.
  16. Gan CP, Hamid S, Hor SY, Zain RB, Ismail SM, Wan Mustafa WM, et al.
    Head Neck, 2012 Mar;34(3):344-53.
    PMID: 21438066 DOI: 10.1002/hed.21734
    There are limited studies on the effects of drugs that modulate epigenetic regulation for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). This study determined the effect of valproic acid (VPA) on HNSCC.
  17. Lai KN, Ho WK, Kang IN, Kang PC, Phuah SY, Mariapun S, et al.
    BMC Cancer, 2017 02 22;17(1):149.
    PMID: 28222693 DOI: 10.1186/s12885-017-3099-6
    BACKGROUND: Genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 has led to the accurate identification of individuals at higher risk of cancer and the development of new therapies. Approximately 10-20% of the genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 leads to the identification of variants of uncertain significance (VUS), with higher proportions in Asians. We investigated the functional significance of 7 BRCA1 and 25 BRCA2 variants in a multi-ethnic Asian cohort using a case-control approach.

    METHODS: The MassARRAY genotyping was conducted in 1,394 Chinese, 406 Malay and 310 Indian breast cancer cases and 1,071 Chinese, 167 Malay and 255 Indian healthy controls. The association of individual variant with breast cancer risk was analyzed using logistic regression model adjusted for ethnicity, age and family history.

    RESULTS: Our study confirmed BRCA2 p.Ile3412Val is presented in >2% of unaffected women and is likely benign, and BRCA2 p.Ala1996Thr which is predicted to be likely pathogenic by in-silico models is presented in 2% of healthy Indian women suggesting that it may not be associated with breast cancer risk. Single-variant analysis suggests that BRCA1 p.Arg762Ser may be associated with breast cancer risk (OR = 7.4; 95% CI, 0.9-62.3; p = 0.06).

    CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that BRCA2 p.Ile3412Val and p.Ala1996Thr are likely benign and highlights the need for population-specific studies to determine the likely functional significance of population-specific variants. Our study also suggests that BRCA1 p.Arg762Ser may be associated with increased risk of breast cancer but other methods or larger studies are required to determine a more precise estimate of breast cancer risk.

  18. Saleh A, Zain RB, Hussaini H, Ng F, Tanavde V, Hamid S, et al.
    Oral Oncol., 2010 May;46(5):379-86.
    PMID: 20371203 DOI: 10.1016/j.oraloncology.2010.02.022
    Despite the advances in cancer treatment, the 5-year survival rate for oral cancer has not changed significantly for the past 40 years and still remains among the worst of all anatomic sites. Gene expression microarrays have been used successfully in the identification of genetic alterations in cancer development, however, these have hitherto been limited by the need for specimens with good quality intact RNA. Here, we demonstrated the use of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues in microarray experiments to identify genes differentially expressed between cancerous and normal oral tissues. Forty-three tissue samples were macrodissected and gene expression analyses were conducted using the Illumina DASL assay. We report RNA yield of 2.4 and 0.8 microg/mm(3) from tumour and normal tissues, respectively and this correlated directly with the tissue volume used for RNA extraction. Using unsupervised hierarchical clustering, distinct gene expression profiles for tumour and normal samples could be generated, and differentially expressed genes could be identified. The majority of these genes were involved in regulation of apoptosis and cell cycle, metastasis and cell adhesion including BCL2A1, BIRC5, MMP1, MMP9 and ITGB4. Representative genes were further validated in independent samples suggesting that these genes may be directly associated with oral cancer development. The ability to conduct microarrays on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens represents a significant advancement that could open up avenues for finding genes that could be used as prognostication and predictive tools for cancer.
  19. Cheong SC, Chandramouli GV, Saleh A, Zain RB, Lau SH, Sivakumaren S, et al.
    Oral Oncol., 2009 Aug;45(8):712-9.
    PMID: 19147396 DOI: 10.1016/j.oraloncology.2008.11.002
    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a world health problem and is associated with exposure to different risk factors. In the west, smoking and alcohol consumption are considered to be the main risk factors whilst in India and southeast Asia, betel quid (BQ) chewing is predominant. In this study, we compared the gene expression patterns of oral cancers associated with BQ chewing to those caused by smoking using Affymetrix microarrays. We found that 281 genes were differentially expressed between OSCC and normal oral mucosa regardless of aetiological factors including MMP1, PLAU, MAGE-D4, GNA12, IFITM3 and NMU. Further, we identified 168 genes that were differentially expressed between the BQ and smoking groups including CXCL-9, TMPRSS2, CA12 and RNF24. The expression of these genes was validated using qPCR using independent tissue samples. The results demonstrate that whilst common genes/pathways contribute to the development of oral cancer, there are also other gene expression changes that are specific to certain risk factors. The findings suggest that different carcinogens activate or inhibit specific pathways during cancer development and progression. These unique gene expression profiles should be taken into consideration when developing biomarkers for future use in prognostic or therapeutic applications.
  20. Ong CY, Ling SK, Ali RM, Chee CF, Samah ZA, Ho AS, et al.
    J. Photochem. Photobiol. B, Biol., 2009 Sep 4;96(3):216-22.
    PMID: 19647445 DOI: 10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2009.06.009
    One hundred and fifty-five extracts from 93 terrestrial species of plants in Peninsula Malaysia were screened for in vitro photo-cytotoxic activity by means of a cell viability test using a human leukaemia cell-line HL60. These plants which can be classified into 43 plant families are diverse in their type of vegetation and their natural habitat in the wild, and may therefore harbour equally diverse metabolites with potential pharmaceutical properties. Of these, 29 plants, namely three from each of the Clusiaceae, Leguminosae, Rutaceae and Verbenaceae families, two from the Piperaceae family and the remaining 15 are from Acanthaceae, Apocynaceae, Bignoniaceae, Celastraceae, Chrysobalanaceae, Irvingiaceae, Lauraceae, Lythraceae, Malvaceae, Meliaceae, Moraceae, Myristicaceae, Myrsinaceae, Olacaceae and Sapindaceae. Hibiscus cannabinus (Malvaceae), Ficus deltoidea (Moraceae), Maranthes corymbosa (Chrysobalanaceae), Micromelum sp., Micromelum minutum and Citrus hystrix (Rutaceae), Cryptocarya griffithiana (Lauraceae), Litchi chinensis (Sapindaceae), Scorodocarpus bornensis (Olacaceae), Kokoona reflexa (Celastraceae), Irvingia malayana (Irvingiaceae), Knema curtisii (Myristicaceae), Dysoxylum sericeum (Meliaceae), Garcinia atroviridis, Garcinia mangostana and Calophyllum inophyllum (Clusiaceae), Ervatamia hirta (Apocynaceae), Cassia alata, Entada phaseoloides and Leucaena leucocephala (Leguminosae), Oroxylum indicum (Bignoniaceae), Peronema canescens,Vitex pubescens and Premna odorata (Verbenaceae), Piper mucronatum and Piper sp. (Piperaceae), Ardisia crenata (Myrsinaceae), Lawsonia inermis (Lythraceae), Strobilanthes sp. (Acanthaceae) were able to reduce the in vitro cell viability by more than 50% when exposed to 9.6J/cm(2) of a broad spectrum light when tested at a concentration of 20 microg/mL. Six of these active extracts were further fractionated and bio-assayed to yield four photosensitisers, all of which are based on the pheophorbide-a and -b core structures. Our results suggest that the main photosensitisers from terrestrial plants are likely based on the cyclic tetrapyrrole structure and photosensitisers with other structures, if present, are present in minor amounts or are not as active as those with the cyclic tetrapyrrole structure.
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