Displaying publications 21 - 40 of 516 in total

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  1. Hassan BA, Yusoff ZB, Hassali MA, Othman SB, Weiderpass E
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(9):4373-8.
    PMID: 23167346
    INTRODUCTION: Hypercalcemia is mainly caused by bone resorption due to either secretion of cytokines including parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) or bone metastases. However, hypercalcemia may occur in patients with or without bone metastases. The present study aimed to describe the effect of chemotherapy treatment, regimens and doses on calcium levels among breast and lung cancer patients with hypercalcemia.

    METHODS: We carried a review of medical records of breast and lung cancer patients hospitalized in years 2003 and 2009 at Penang General Hospital, a public tertiary care center in Penang Island, north of Malaysia. Patients with hypercalcemia (defined as a calcium level above 10.5 mg/dl) at the time of cancer diagnosis or during cancer treatment had their medical history abstracted, including presence of metastasis, chemotherapy types and doses, calcium levels throughout cancer treatment, and other co-morbidity. The mean calcium levels at first hospitalization before chemotherapy were compared with calcium levels at the end of or at the latest chemotherapy treatment. Statistical analysis was conducted using the Chi-square test for categorical data, logistic regression test for categorical variables, and Spearman correlation test, linear regression and the paired sample t tests for continuous data.

    RESULTS: Of a total 1,023 of breast cancer and 814 lung cancer patients identified, 292 had hypercalcemia at first hospitalization or during cancer treatment (174 breast and 118 lung cancer patients). About a quarter of these patients had advanced stage cancers: 26.4% had mild hypercalcemia (10.5-11.9 mg/dl), 55.5% had moderate (12-12.9 mg/dl), and 18.2% severe hypercalcemia (13-13.9; 14-16 mg/dl). Chemotherapy lowered calcium levels significantly both in breast and lung cancer patients with hypercalcemia; in particular with chemotherapy type 5-flurouracil+epirubicin+cyclophosphamide (FEC) for breast cancer, and gemcitabine+cisplatin in lung cancer.

    CONCLUSION: Chemotherapy decreases calcium levels in breast and lung cancer cases with hypercalcemia at cancer diagnosis, probably by reducing PTHrP levels.

  2. Karimi G, Shahar S, Homayouni N, Rajikan R, Abu Bakar NF, Othman MS
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(9):4249-53.
    PMID: 23167323
    While associations between trace elements and heavy metals with prostate cancer are still debatable, they have been considered as risk factors for prostate cancer. Thus, this study aimed to detect any links between selected minerals and heavy metals including Se, Zn, Cu, Mn and Fe with prostate cancer. A case control study was carried out among 100 subjects (case n=50, control n=50), matched for age and ethnicity. Trace elements and heavy metals level in hair and nail samples were determined by ICP-MS. Mean selenium levels in hair and nail of the cases were significantly lower as compared to controls. A similar trend was noted for zinc in both hair and nail samples, whereas the mean level of copper was significantly higher in cases than controls. Similar elevation was noted for iron and manganese (p<0.05 for all parameters). Low levels of selenium and zinc and high levels of copper, iron and manganese appear to be associated with the risk of prostate cancer. Further studies to elucidate the causal mechanisms and appropriate chemopreventive measures are needed.
  3. Alabsi AM, Ali R, Ali AM, Al-Dubai SA, Harun H, Abu Kasim NH, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(10):5131-6.
    PMID: 23244123
    Cancer is one of the major health problems worldwide and its current treatments have a number of undesired adverse side effects. Natural compounds may reduce these. Currently, a few plant products are being used to treat cancer. In this study, goniothalamin, a natural occurring styryl-lactone extracted from Goniothalamus macrophyllus, was investigated for cytotoxic properties against cervical cancer (HeLa), breast carcinoma (MCF-7) and colon cancer (HT29) cells as well as normal mouse fibroblast (3T3) using MTT assay. Fluorescence microscopy showed that GTN is able to induce apoptosis in HeLa cells in a time dependent manner. Flow cytometry further revealed HeLa cells treated with GTN to be arrested in the S phase. Phosphatidyl serine properties present during apoptosis enable early detection of the apoptosis in the cells. Using annexin V/PI double staining it could be shown that GTN induces early apoptosis on HeLa cells after 24, 48 and 72 h. It could be concluded that goniothalamin showing a promising cytotoxicity effect against several cancer cell lines including cervical cancer cells (HeLa) with apoptosis as the mode of cell death induced on HeLa cells by Goniothalamin was.
  4. Ling WY, Razali SM, Ren CK, Omar SZ
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(9):4651-4.
    PMID: 23167396
    Organized introduction of prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination can reduce the burden of cervical cancer in developing countries. One of the most effective ways is through a national school-based program. Information on teachers is therefore important since this group may have a disproportionate influence in the success of any implementation.

    OBJECTIVE: To assess teachers' knowledge and perception of HPV, cervical cancer and HPV vaccine prior to commencing a school-based HPV vaccination program in a multiethnic, predominantly Muslim country. Factors associated with acceptability of the vaccine were identified.

    METHOD: A bilingual questionnaire was applied to 1,500 secondary school teachers from 20 urban schools in Malaysia. Data collected were analyzed using SPSS version 17.

    RESULTS: 1,166 questionnaires were returned. From this group, 46.1% had never heard of HPV while 50.9% had never had a pap smear. However, 73.8% have heard of the HPV vaccine with 75% agreeing to have it. 96% considered themselves religious with 79.8% agreeing to have the vaccine.

    CONCLUSIONS: A national school-based HPV immunization program can be implemented effectively in a multiethnic, cultural and religious country despite limited knowledge of HPV-related pathology among teachers. In addition, the perception that religion has a negative influence on such a program is unwarranted.

  5. Phua CE, Bustam AZ, Yusof MM, Saad M, Yip CH, Taib NA, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(9):4623-6.
    PMID: 23167391
    BACKGROUND: The risk of treatment-related death (TRD) and febrile neutropaenia (FN) with adjuvant taxane- based chemotherapy for early breast cancer is unknown in Malaysia despite its widespread usage in recent years. This study aims to determine these rates in patients treated in University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC).

    PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients who were treated with adjuvant taxane-based chemotherapy for early breast cancer stages I, II or III from 2007-2011 in UMMC were identified from our UMMC Breast Cancer Registry. The TRD and FN rates were then determined retrospectively from medical records. TRD was defined as death occurring during or within 30 days of completing chemotherapy as a consequence of the chemotherapy treatment. FN was defined as an oral temperature >38.5°C or two consecutive readings of >38.0°C for 2 hours and an absolute neutrophil count <0.5x109/L, or expected to fall below 0.5x109/L.

    RESULTS: A total of 622 patients received adjuvant chemotherapy during this period. Of these patients 209 (33.6%) received taxane-based chemotherapy. 4 taxane-based regimens were used namely the FEC-D, TC, TAC and AC-PCX regimens. The commonest regimen employed was the FEC-D regimen accounting for 79.9% of the patients. The FN rate was 10% and there was no TRD.

    CONCLUSION: Adjuvant taxane-based chemotherapy in UMMC for early breast cancer has a FN rate of 10%. Primary prophylactic G-CSF should be considered for patients with any additional risk factor for FN.

  6. Yusof AS, Isa ZM, Shah SA
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(9):4713-7.
    PMID: 23167408
    OBJECTIVES: This systematic review of cohort studies aimed to identify any association between specific dietary patterns and risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Dietary patterns involve complex interactions of food and nutrients summarizing the total diet or key aspects of the diet for a population under study.

    METHODS AND MATERIALS: This review involves 6 cohort studies of dietary patterns and their association with colorectal cancer. An exploratory or a posteriori approach and a hypothesis-oriented or a priori approach were employed to identify dietary patterns.

    RESULTS: The dietary pattern identified to be protective against CRC was healthy, prudent, fruits and vegetables, fat reduced/diet foods, vegetables/fish/poultry, fruit/wholegrain/dairy, healthy eating index 2005, alternate healthy eating index, Mediterranean score and recommended food score. An elevated risk of CRC was associated with Western diet, pork processed meat, potatoes, traditional meat eating, and refined grain pattern.

    CONCLUSION: The Western dietary pattern which mainly consists of red and processed meat and refined grains is associated with an elevated risk of development of CRC. Protective factors against CRC include a healthy or prudent diet, consisting of vegetables, fruits, fish and poultry.

  7. Maharajan MK, Rajiah K, Num KS, Yong NJ
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2015;16(14):5733-9.
    PMID: 26320444
    The primary objective of this study was to assess the knowledge of medical students and determine variation between different cultural groups. A secondary aim was to find out the willingness to pay for cervical cancer vaccination and the relationships between knowledge and attitudes towards Human Papillomavirus vaccination. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a private medical university between June 2014 and November 2014 using a convenient sampling method. A total of 305 respondents were recruited and interviewed with standard questionnaires for assessment of knowledge, attitudes and practice towards human papilloma virus and their willingness to pay for HPV vaccination. Knowledge regarding human papilloma virus, human papilloma virus vaccination, cervical cancer screening and cervical cancer risk factors was good. Across the sample, a majority (90%) of the pupils demonstrated a high degree of knowledge about cervical cancer and its vaccination. There were no significant differences between ethnicity and the participants' overall knowledge of HPV infection, Pap smear and cervical cancer vaccination. Some 88% of participants answered that HPV vaccine can prevent cervical cancer, while 81.5% of medical students said they would recommend HPV vaccination to the public although fewer expressed an intention to receive vaccination for themselves.
  8. Hussin F, Eshkoor SA, Rahmat A, Othman F, Akim A, Eshak Z
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2015;16(14):6047-53.
    PMID: 26320494
    BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Its prevalence is increasing in many countries. Plant products can be used to protect against cancer due to natural anticancer and chemopreventive constituents. Strobilanthes crispus is one of plants with potential chemopreventive ability.

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the anticancer effects of Strobilanthes crispus juice on hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: MTT assays, flow cytometry, comet assays and the reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to determine the effects of juice on DNA damage and cancer cell numbers.

    RESULTS: This juice induced apoptosis after exposure of the HepG2 cell line for 72 h. High percentages of apoptotic cell death and DNA damage were seen at the juice concentrations above 0.1%. It was found that the juice was not toxic for normal cells. In addition, juice exposure increased the expression level of c-myc gene and reduced the expression level of c-fos and c-erbB2 genes in HepG2 cells. The cytotoxic effects of juice on abnormal cells were in dose dependent.

    CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that the Strobilanthes crispus juice may have chemopreventive effects on hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

  9. Abdull Razis AF, Noor NM
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2015;16(14):5801-5.
    PMID: 26320454
    As a cytosolic transcription factor, the aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor is involved in several patho- physiological events leading to immunosuppression and cancer; hence antagonists of the Ah receptor may possess chemoprevention properties. It is known to modulate carcinogen-metabolising enzymes, for instance the CYP1 family of cytochromes P450 and quinone reductase, both important in the biotransformation of many chemical carcinogens via regulating phase I and phase II enzyme systems. Utilising chemically-activated luciferase expression (CALUX) assay it was revealed that intact glucosinolates, glucoraphanin and glucoerucin, isolated from Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala sabellica and Eruca sativa ripe seeds, respectively, are such antagonists. Both glucosinolates were poor ligands for the Ah receptor; however, they effectively antagonised activation of the receptor by the avid ligand benzo[a]pyrene. Indeed, intact glucosinolate glucoraphanin was a more potent antagonist to the receptor than glucoerucin. It can be concluded that both glucosinolates effectively act as antagonists for the Ah receptor, and this may contribute to their established chemoprevention potency.
  10. Akhtari-Zavare M, Latiff LA
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2015;16(14):5595-7.
    PMID: 26320422
    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a new non-invasive, mobile screening method which does not use ionizing radiation to the human breast. It is based on the theory that cancer cells display altered local dielectric properties, thus demonstrating measurably higher conductivity values. This article reviews the utilisation of EIT in breast cancer detection. It could be used as an adjunct to mammography and ultrasonography for breast cancer screening.
  11. Akhtari-Zavare M, Latiff LA, Juni MH, Said SM, Ismail IZ
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2015;16(15):6231-5.
    PMID: 26434821
    BACKGROUND: In Malaysia, breast cancer is the first cancer among females regardness of race.

    AIM: The purpose of this study was to identify the knowledge and BSE practice among undergraduate female students at four public universities in Klang Valley, Malaysia.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 820 undergraduate female students using a self-administered questionnaire covering socio-demographic data, knowledge of breast cancer and BSE practice.

    RESULTS: The mean age of the respondents was 21.7±1.2 years. The majority of them were single (96.8%), Malay (91.9%) and 16.5% of respondents had a family history of breast cancer. This study showed low level of knowledge on breast cancer and breast self-examination among participants. Only 19.6% participants were performing BSE regularly. Knowledge of breast self-examination was significantly associated with BSE practice (p=0.00). Also, there were significant associations between performing BSE with age, marital status and being trained by a doctor for doing BSE (p<0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings showed that the rate of BSE practice and knowledge of breast cancer is inadequate among young Malaysian females. A public health education program is essential to improve breast cancer prevention among this group.

  12. Wee LH, Morad NA, Aan GJ, Makpol S, Wan Ngah WZ, Mohd Yusof YA
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2015;16(15):6549-56.
    PMID: 26434873
    The PI3K-Akt-mTOR, Wnt/β-catenin and apoptosis signaling pathways have been shown to be involved in genesis of colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of this study was to elucidate whether combination of Gelam honey and ginger might have chemopreventive properties in HT29 colon cancer cells by modulating the mTOR, Wnt/β-catenin and apoptosis signaling pathways. Treatment with Gelam honey and ginger reduced the viability of the HT29 cells dose dependently with IC50 values of 88 mg/ml and 2.15 mg/ml respectively, their while the combined treatment of 2 mg/ml of ginger with 31 mg/ml of Gelam honey inhibited growth of most HT29 cells. Gelam honey, ginger and combination induced apoptosis in a dose dependent manner with the combined treatment exhibiting the highest apoptosis rate. The combined treatment downregulated the gene expressions of Akt, mTOR, Raptor, Rictor, β-catenin, Gsk3β, Tcf4 and cyclin D1 while cytochrome C and caspase 3 genes were shown to be upregulated. In conclusion, the combination of Gelam honey and ginger may serve as a potential therapy in the treatment of colorectal cancer through inhibiton of mTOR, Wnt/β catenin signaling pathways and induction of apoptosis pathway.
  13. Hasan TN, Shah SA, Hassan MR, Safian N, Azhar ZI, Syed Abdul Rahim SS, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2015;16(15):6669-72.
    PMID: 26434892
    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers among females worldwide. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and practice about breast cancer and its related factors among women in Baghdad city, Iraq.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 508 women aged 18 to 55 years from four non-governmental organizations (NGO) in Baghdad city, Iraq. A self-administered questionnaire on breast cancer knowledge and practice was distributed to participants during weekly activity of the NGO.

    RESULTS: A total of 61.2% of the respondents had poor knowledge, only 30.3% performed breast self-examination (BSE) and 41.8% said that they did not know the technique to perform BSE. Associations between knowledge and marital status and age were significant. For practice, working status, education, age and family income were significant. After controlling for cofounders, the most important contributing factors for poor knowledge among respondents were marital status and not performing BSE, with adjusted odds ratio of 1.6 and 1.8 respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: Breast cancer knowledge and practice of BSE are poor among women in Baghdad city, Iraq. More promotion regarding breast cancer signs and symptoms and also how to perform BSE should be conducted using media such as television and internet as these constituted the main sources of information for most women in our study.

  14. Nagashekhara M, Murthy V, Mruthyunjaya AT, Li Ann L
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2015;16(15):6237-41.
    PMID: 26434822
    Usage of traditional, complementary and alternative medicine (TCAM) has gained popularity over the past few years. However, very little is known about TCAM use among Malaysian cancer patients. This study aimed to identify the determinants of TCAM usage among cancer patients with determination of relationships between demographic factors, patient satisfaction with conventional treatment, knowledge on TCAM and healthcare professional influence. Patient's perceptions towards TCAM were also determined. A simple random convenient sampling method was used to recruit 354 patients from Hospital Kuala Lumpur between February to April 2013. All were directly interviewed with a structured questionnaire. In this study, 172 respondents were TCAM users. There was no significant differences between demographic background of respondents in the usage of TCAM. Minimal correlation was found between patient satisfaction with the conventional treatment and usage of TCAM (r=0.091). A poor correlation was found between healthcare professional's influence and TCAM usage (r=-0.213) but the results suggested that increase in influence would decrease TCAM usage. Patient TCAM knowledge correlated negatively with the TCAM usage (r=-0.555) indicated that cancer patients are less likely to use TCAM when they have more TCAM knowledge. Healthcare professionals should be fully equipped with the necessary TCAM knowledge while maintaining patient satisfaction with the conventional treatment. They should also intervene on patient TCAM usage where a potential drug interaction or a harmful adverse event can occur.
  15. Azrif M, Leong YK, Aslan NM, Fong KV, Ismail F
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(6):2467-71.
    PMID: 22938405
    INTRODUCTION: Although bleomycin/etoposide/cisplatinum (BEP) chemotherapy is established as the standard treatment for germ cell tumours, it requires significant experience in administration and toxicity management to maintain optimal dose intensity. A retrospective review of 30 patients was conducted at UKMMC to study treatment outcomes.

    METHODS AND MATERIALS: Patients with GCTs and treated with at least two cycles of BEP chemotherapy between January 2003 and Oct 2009 were eligible for this study. Patients received 4-6 cycles of bleomycin 30,000IU IV D1, D8 and D15 and either etoposide 100mg/m2 IV D1- D5 and cisplatin 20mg/m2 IV D1- D5 (5 day BEP regimen) or etoposide 165 mg/m2 D1- D3 and cisplatin 50mg/m2 D1-3 (3 day BEP regimen) every three weeks per cycle. All patients received prophylactic granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) from days 6 to 10 of each cycle. The overall response rates, 2 year progression-free survival and overall survival of the whole cohort were assessed.

    RESULTS: Thirty patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Non-seminomatous GCTs comprised 93.3% of cases and gonadal and mediastinal primary sites were the most common. Sixty percent were classified as IGCCCG poor risk disease. Median follow-up was 26.6 months. The overall response rate (CR+PR) was 70%. The two year PFS and OS were 70% and 66%. There was a significant difference in terms of the overall response rate (85% vs 40%, p = 0.03) and in PFS (94.7% vs 50%, p = 0.003) between gonadal and extragonadal primary sites.

    CONCLUSION: It is possible to achieve outcomes similar to those in international clinical trials with close monitoring and good supportive care of patients undergoing BEP chemotherapy. There is a strong argument for patients with IGCCCG poor prognosis disease to be treated in specialist tertiary centres to optimize treatment outcomes.

  16. Ng KL, Htun TH, Dublin N, Ong TA, Razack AH
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(6):2515-8.
    PMID: 22938414
    AIM: To study the causes and significance of both microscopic and macroscopic haematuria in adult patients and assess possible relevance to early detection of urological cancers.

    METHODS: 417 patients presenting with haematuria were assessed in our Urology Unit. Following confirmation of haematuria, these patients were subjected to imaging techniques and flexible cystoscopy. Parameters analysed included clinical characteristics, imaging results, flexible cystoscopy findings, time delay to diagnoses and eventual treatment and final diagnoses of all cases.

    RESULTS: 390 haematuria cases were analysed from 417 consecutive patients with haematuria. After 27 cases were excluded as they had previous history, 245 microscopic and 145 macroscopic. Age range was 17 to 95 years old with predominance of 152 females to 239 males. The racial distribution included 180 Chinese, 100 Indians,95 Malays and 15 other races. The final diagnoses were benign prostatic hyperplasia (22.6%), no cause found (22.3%), other causes (18.7%), urolithiasis (11.5%), urinary tract infection UTI (10.8%), non specific cystitis (10.3%), bladder tumours (2.8%) and other genitourinary tumours (1%). 11 new cases (2.8%) of bladder cancers were diagnosed, with a mean age of 59 years. Only 3 of 245 (1.2%) patients with microscopic haematuria had newly diagnosed bladder tumour compared with 8 of 145 (5.5%) patients with frank haematuria (p=0.016). Mean time taken from onset of symptoms to diagnosis of bladder cancer was 53.3 days with definitive treatment (TURBT) in 20.1 days from diagnosis.

    CONCLUSION: - This study has highlighted the common causes of haematuria in our local setting. We recommend that full and appropriate investigations be carried out on patients with frank haematuria especially those above 50 years old in order to provide earlier detection and prompt management of bladder diseases especially tumours.

  17. Tan GH, Azrif M, Shamsul AS, Ho CC, Praveen S, Goh EH, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(10):2727-30.
    PMID: 22320982
    INTRODUCTION: Testicular cancer mainly affects young men worldwide. There is lack of published data on patients with this malignant condition from the Southeast Asian region. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the clinicopathologic features of testicular cancer patients treated in a Southeast Asian university hospital and their overall survival rate.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study of testicular cancer patients treated between January 2001 and February 2011. Their epidemiological data, clinical presentation, pathologic diagnosis, stage of disease and treatment were gathered and the overall survival rate of this cohort was analyzed.

    RESULTS: Thirty-one patients were included in this study. The majority of them were of Malay ethnicity. The average age at presentation was 33.7 years. The commonest testicular cancer was non-seminomatous germ cell tumour, followed by seminoma, lymphoma and rhabdomyosarcoma. More than half of all testicular germ cell tumour (GCT) patients had some form of metastasis at diagnosis. All the patients were treated with radical orchidectomy. Adjuvant chemotherapy was given to those with metastatic disease. Four seminoma patients received radiotherapy to the para-aortic lymph nodes. The 5-year survival rate for all testicular cancers in this cohort was 83.9%. The survival rate was 88.9% in 5 years when GCT were analyzed separately.

    CONCLUSION: GCT affects patients in their third and fourth decades of life while lymphoma patients are generally older. Most of the patients treated for GCT are of Malay ethnicity. The majority have late presentation for treatment. The survival rate of GCT patients treated here is comparable to other published series in other parts of the world.

  18. Hassan BA, Yusoff ZB, Hassali MA, Othman SB
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(10):2753-8.
    PMID: 22320987
    INTRODUCTION: Anemia is considered as one of the most frequent hematological demonstration of malignant diseases, which lead to momentous impairment in every tissues and organs of cancer patients and put them under serious stress. This major problem may arise because of the underlining diseases (i.e., cancer diseases) or radiotherapy or chemotherapy treatment received. This present study tries to find the association between anemia onset and severity with different chemotherapeutics regimens used in the treatment of several solid cancers and to find the association of anemia onset and severity with different doses of these chemotherapeutics drugs.

    METHODS: This retrospective observational study was conducted in Penang General Hospital on 534 anemic solid cancer patients who were admitted between 2003 and 2009. The main statistical tests used were Chi-square test and Logistic regression test for categorical data. While for continues data the main statistical tests were Linear regression and correlation test. The significance of the result will be when the P<0.05, while the confidence interval for this study was 95%.

    RESULTS: FEC, 5-FU+5-FU, Docetaxel and Cisplatin+ 5-FU regimen has strong association and correlation with anemia onset and severity. However the associations and correlations with anemia severity were stronger than those with the onset. Different doses of 5-FU, cyclophosphamide, docetaxel and cisplatin play a critical role in anemia onset and severity.

    CONCLUSION: Monitoring and determination of hemoglobin levels for cancer patients treated with FEC, 5-FU+5-FU, Docetaxel, Cisplatin+ 5-FU specifically with high doses must be emphasized and a focus of particular attention.

  19. Yasin SM, Retneswari M, Moy FM, Koh D, Isahak M
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(9):2193-8.
    PMID: 22296355
    BACKGROUND: There is an unclear relationship between smoker's early motivation and success rates. Here we aimed to explore the correlates of motivation and smoking abstinence and relapse in worksite smoking cessation programmes.
    METHODS: This prospective cohort study involved employees from two major public universities in Malaysia. Participants were actively recruited into a smoking cessation programme. At the start of treatment, participants were administered a questionnaire on sociodemographic variables, smoking habits and 'stage of change'. Behaviour therapy with free nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) was given as treatment for two months. A similar stage of change questionnaire was given at six months, and their smoking status was determined.
    RESULTS: There were 185 smokers from both Universities, who joined the programme. At six months, 24 smokers reported sustained abstinence while the others had relapsed. Prior to the programme, the majority of smokers were seriously planning on quitting (59.5%--preparation stage), but over a third had no plans to quit (35.5%--contemplation stage). There was no significant difference noted in changes of motivation stage among the relapsers and the non quitters. In addition, logistic regression showed that sustained abstinence was not predicted by pre-session motivation stage, but this did predict higher relapse for the participants, compared to those in the preparation stage.
    CONCLUSION: It is possible to help smokers in the lower motivation groups to quit, provided extra caution is taken to prevent relapse. Healthcare providers' recruitment strategies for cessation programmes should thus encompass smokers in all motivation stages.
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