Displaying publications 21 - 40 of 501 in total

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  1. Muhamad NA, Kamaluddin MA, Adon MY, Noh MA, Bakhtiar MF, Ibrahim Tamim NS, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2015;16(7):3067-72.
    PMID: 25854407
    Cervical cancer is the most common malignant cancer of the female reproductive organs worldwide. Currently, cervical cancer can be prevented by vaccination and detected at an early stage via various screening methods. Malaysia, as a developing country faces a heavy disease burden of cervical cancer as it is the second most common cancer among Malaysian women. This population based study was carried out to fulfil the primary aim of determining the survival rates of Malaysian women with cervical cancer and associated factors. Data were obtained from two different sources namely, the Malaysian National Cancer Registry (MNCR) and National Health Informatics Centre (NHIC) from 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2005. Kaplan Meier analyses were conducted to identify the overall survival rates and median survival time. Differences in survival among different ethnic and age group were compared using the log-rank test. A total of 5,859 patients were included. The median survival time for cervical cancer in this study was 65.8 months and the 5-year survival rate was 71.1%. The overall observed survival rates at 1, 3 and 5 years were 94.1%, 79.3% and 71.1% respectively. The log-rank test finding also showed that there were significant differences in the 5-year survival rate among different ethnic groups. Malays had the lowest survival rate of 59.2% followed by Indians (69.5%) and Chinese (73.8%). The overall 5-year survival rate among patients with cervical cancer in Malaysia is relatively good. Age and ethnic groups remain as significant determining factors for cervical cancer survival rate.
  2. Wong YF, Yusof MM, Wan Ishak WZ, Alip A, Phua VC
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2015;16(7):2903-8.
    PMID: 25854381
    BACKGROUND: Head and neck cancer (HNC) is the eighth most common cancer as estimated from worldwide data. The incidence of HNC in Peninsular Malaysia was reported as 8.5 per 100,000 population. This study was aimed to determine the treatment outcomes for HNC patients treated in the Oncology Unit of University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC).

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: All newly diagnosed patients with squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck (HNSCC) referred for treatment to the Oncology Unit at UMMC from 2003-2010 were retrospectively analyzed. Treatment outcomes were 5-year overall survival (OS), cause specific survival (CSS), loco-regional control (LRC) and radiotherapy (RT) related side effects. Kaplan-Meier and log rank analyses were used to determine survival outcomes, stratified according to American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage.

    RESULTS: A total of 130 cases were analysed. Most cases (81.5%) were at late stage (AJCC III-IVB) at presentation. The 5-year OS for the whole study population was 34.4% with a median follow up of 24 months. The 5-year OS according to AJCC stage was 100%, 48.2%, 41.4% and 22.0% for stage I, II, III and IVA-B, respectively. The 5-year overall CSS and LCR were 45.4% and 55.4%, respectively. Late effects of RT were documented in 41.4% of patients. The most common late effect was xerostomia.

    CONCLUSIONS: The treatment outcome of HNSCC at our centre is lagging behind those of developed nations. Efforts to increase the number of patients presenting in earlier stages, increase in the use of combined modality treatment, especially concurrent chemoradiotherapy and implementation of intensity modulated radiotherapy, may lead to better outcomes for our HNC patients.

  3. Abdull Razis AF, Konsue N, Ioannides C
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2015;16(7):2679-83.
    PMID: 25854346
    BACKGROUND: Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), the most comprehensively studied aromatic isothiocyanate, has been shown to act as an anti-cancer agent mainly through modulation of biotransformation enzymes responsible for metabolizing carcinogens in the human body. Humans are often exposed to carcinogenic factors, some of which through the diet, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo[a]pyrene via the consumption of over-cooked meats. Inhibition of the enzymes responsible for the bioactivation of this carcinogen, for example CYP1A1, the major enzyme required for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) bioactivation, is recognized as a chemoprevention strategy.

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the inhibitory effects of PEITC against benzo[a]pyrene-induced rise in rat liver CYP1A1 mRNA and apoprotein levels.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Precision cut rat liver slices were treated with benzo[a]pyrene at 1 and 5 μM in the presence of PEITC (1-25 μM) for 24 hours, followed by determination of CYP1A1 mRNA and apoprotein levels using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting.

    RESULTS: Findings revealed that PEITC inhibited benzo[a]pyrene-induced rise in rat liver CYP1A1 mRNA in a dose-dependent manner as well as the apoprotein levels of CYP1A.

    CONCLUSIONS: It was demonstrated that PEITC can directly inhibit the bioactivation of benzo[a]pyrene, indicating chemopreventive potential.

  4. Hassan AS, Naicker M, Yusof KH, Wan Ishak WZ
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2015;16(6):2237-43.
    PMID: 25824744
    BACKGROUND: Adjuvant chemotherapy improves survival in Dukes C colon cancers post-curative resection. However, the evidence for a role with Dukes B lesions remains unproven despite frequent use for disease characterized by poor prognostic features. In view of limited Asia-specific data, this study aimed to determine survival outcomes and identify prognostic factors in a tertiary teaching hospital in Malaysia.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 116 subjects who underwent curative surgery with and without adjuvant chemotherapy for Duke B and C primary colon adenocarcinomas diagnosed from 2004-2009 were recruited and data were collected retrospectively. Five-year overall survival (OS) and disease free survival (DFS) were analysed using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and log-rank (Mantel-Cox) test. Prognostic factors were determined using Cox proportional hazards regression with both univariate and multivariate analyses.

    RESULTS: The survival analysis demonstrated a 5-year OS of 74.0% for all patients, with 74.9% for Dukes C subjects receiving chemotherapy compared to 28.6% in those not receiving chemotherapy (p=0.001). For Dukes B disease, the 5-year survival rate was 82.6% compared to 75.0% for subjects receiving and not receiving chemotherapy, respectively (p=0.17). Independent prognostic factors identified included a CEA level more than 3.5 ng/ml (hazard ratio (HR)=4.78; p=0.008), serosal involvement (HR=3.75; p=0.028) and completion of chemotherapy (HR= 0.20; p=0.007).

    CONCLUSIONS: In a regional context, this study supports current evidence from the West that adjuvant chemotherapy improves survival in Dukes C colon cancers post curative surgery. However, although a clear benefit has yet to be proven for Dukes B disease, our results suggest survival improvement in selected cases.

  5. Alblazi KM, Siar CH
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2015;16(6):2187-91.
    PMID: 25824735
    BACKGROUND: Protrusive structures formed by migrating and invading cells are termed lamellipodia, filopodia, invadopodia and podosomes. Lamellipodia and filopodia appear on the leading edges of migrating cells and function to command the direction of the migrating cells. Invadopodia and podosomes are special F-actin-rich matrix-degrading structures that arise on the ventral surface of the cell membrane. Invadopodia are found in a variety of carcinomatous cells including squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck region whereas podosomes are found in normal highly motile cells of mesenchymal and myelomonocytic lineage. Invadopodia-associated protein markers consisted of 129 proteins belonging to different functional classes including WASP, NWASP, cortactin, Src kinase, Arp 2/3 complex, MT1-MMP and F-actin. To date, our current understanding on the role(s) of these regulators of actin dynamics in tumors of the orofacial region indicates that upregulation of these proteins promotes invasion and metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma, is associated with poor/worst prognostic outcome in laryngeal cancers, contributes to the persistent growth and metastasis characteristics of salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma, is a significant predictor of increased cancer risk in oral mucosal premalignant lesions and enhances local invasiveness in jawbone ameloblastomas.
  6. Nalliah S, Karikalan B, Kademane K
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2015;16(6):2145-50.
    PMID: 25824730
    HPV viruses are integral to the development of cervical cancer. The pathogenesis has been extensively studied. To date, numerous HPV tests and products have been developed and successfully utilized in diagnosis, treatment and prevention of cervical cancer. The HPV DNA test, when combined with other routine cervical cancer screening and diagnostic tests namely exfoliative cytology, visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and colposcopy has increased the detection rate of cervical cancer. HPV DNA products could also be measured in other body fluids like urine, lymph node tissue, and serum. HPV association could also be quantified by measuring other parameters like HPV mRNA, viral load, viral integration and methylation status. Vaccination against HPV has been found to decrease the incidence of cervical cancer. Further, therapeutic vaccines for cervical cancer against HPV continue to evolve. All these findings pertaining to HPV could possibly decrease the incidence of cervical cancer in the near future. This review aims to give an overview of the HPV tests and products in use and those under trial currently.
  7. Ameli F, Rose IM, Masir N
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2015;16(6):2385-90.
    PMID: 25824769
    BACKGROUND: Invasive ductal (IDC) and lobular (ILC) carcinomas are the common histological types of breast carcinoma which are difficult to distinguish when poorly differentiated. Discoidin domain receptor (DDR1) and Drosophila dishevelled protein (DVL1) were recently suggested to differentiate IDC from ILC.

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the expression of DDR1 and DVL1 and their association with histological type, grading and hormonal status of IDC and ILC.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross sectional study was conducted on IDC and ILC breast tumours. Tumours were immunohistochemically stained for (DDR1) and (DVL1) as well as estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and C-erbB2 receptor. Demographic data including age and ethnicity were obtained from patient records.

    RESULTS: A total of 51 cases (30 IDCs and 21 ILCs) were assessed. DDR1 and DVL1 expression was not significantly associated with histological type (p=0.57 and p=0.66 respectively). There was no association between DDR1 and DVL1 expression and tumour grade (p=0.32 and p=1.00 respectively), ER (p=0.62 and 0.50 respectively), PR (p=0.38 and p=0.63 respectively) and C-erbB2 expression (p=0.19 and p=0.33 respectively) in IDC. There was no association between DDR1 and DVL1 expression and tumour grade (p=0.52 and p=0.33 respectively), ER (p=0.06 and p=0.76 respectively), PR (p=0.61 and p=0.43 respectively) and C-erbB2 expression (p=0.58 and p=0.76 respectively) in ILC.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that DDR1 and DVL1 are present in both IDC and ILC regardless of the tumour differentiation. More studies are needed to assess the potential of these two proteins in distinguishing IDC from ILC in breast tumours.

  8. Tang WH, Alip A, Saad M, Phua VC, Chandran H, Tan YH, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2015;16(5):1901-6.
    PMID: 25773842
    BACKGROUND: Brain metastases occur in about 20-40% of patients with non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), and are usually associated with a poor outcome. Whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) is widely used but increasingly, more aggressive local treatments such as surgery or stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) or stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) are being employed. In our study we aimed to describe the various factors affecting outcomes in NSCLC patients receiving local therapy for brain metastases.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The case records of 125 patients with NSCLC and brain metastases consecutively treated with radiotherapy at two tertiary centres from January 2006 to June 2012 were analysed for patient, tumour and treatment-related prognostic factors. Patients receiving SRS/SRT were treated using Cyberknife. Variables were examined in univariate and multivariate testing.

    RESULTS: Overall median survival was 3.4 months (95%CI: 1.7-5.1). Median survival for patients with multiple metastases receiving WBRT was 1.5 months, 1-3 metastases receiving WBRT was 3.6 months and 1-3 metastases receiving surgery or SRS/SRT was 8.9 months. ECOG score (≤2 vs >2, p=0.001), presence of seizure (yes versus no, p=0.031), treatment modality according to number of brain metastases (1-3 metastases+surgery or SRS/SRT±WBRT vs 1-3 metastases+WBRT only vs multiple metastases+WBRT only, p=0.007) and the use of post-therapy systemic treatment (yes versus no, p=0.001) emerged as significant on univariate analysis. All four factors remained statistically significant on multivariate analysis.

    CONCLUSIONS: ECOG ≤2, presence of seizures, oligometastatic disease treated with aggressive local therapy (surgery or SRS/SRT) and the use of post-therapy systemic treatment are favourable prognostic factors in NSCLC patients with brain metastases.

  9. Phua CE, Tang WH, Yusof MM, Saad M, Alip A, See MH, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(23):10263-6.
    PMID: 25556458
    BACKGROUND: The risk of febrile neutropaenia (FN) and treatment related death (TRD) with first line palliative chemotherapy for de novo metastatic breast cancer (MBC) remains unknown outside of a clinical trial setting despite its widespread usage. This study aimed to determine rates in a large cohort of patients treated in the University of Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC).

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients who were treated with first line palliative chemotherapy for de novo MBC from 2002-2011 in UMMC were identified from the UMMC Breast Cancer Registry. Information collected included patient demographics, histopathological features, treatment received, including the different chemotherapy regimens, and presence of FN and TRD. FN was defined as an oral temperature >38.5° or two consecutive readings of >38.0° for 2 hours and an absolute neutrophil count <0.5x109/L, or expected to fall below 0.5x109/L (de Naurois et al, 2010). TRD was defined as death occurring during or within 30 days of the last chemotherapy treatment, as a consequence of the chemotherapy treatment. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS version 18.0 software. Survival probabilities were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and differences in survival compared using log-rank test.

    RESULTS: Between 1st January 2002 and 31st December 2011, 424 patients with MBC were treated in UMMC. A total of 186 out of 221 patients with de novo MBC who received first line palliative chemotherapy were analyzed. The mean age of patients in this study was 49.5 years (range 24 to 74 years). Biologically, ER status was negative in 54.4% of patients and Her-2 status was positive in 31.1%. A 5-flourouracil, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide (FEC) chemotherapy regimen was chosen for 86.6% of the cases. Most patients had multiple metastatic sites (58.6%). The main result of this study showed a FN rate of 5.9% and TRD rate of 3.2%. The median survival (MS) for the entire cohort was 19 months. For those with multiple metastatic sites, liver only, lung only, bone only and brain only metastatic sites, the MS was 18, 24, 19, 24 and 8 months respectively (p-value= 0.319).

    CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, we surmise that FEC is a safe regimen with acceptable FN and TRD rates for de novo MBC.

  10. Samah AA, Ahmadian M
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(21):9499-503.
    PMID: 25422246
    This study aimed to examine the relationship between body image satisfaction and breast self-screening behavior and intentions. The sample for this cross-sectional study consisted of 842 female university students who were recruited from a number of public and private universities. Data were obtained between the months of November and December, 2013, using multistage random cluster sampling. Main research variables were breast cancer screening behavior and intentions, demographic factors, and the total scores on each of the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ-Appearance Scales) subscales. Results of multivariate analysis showed that having higher satisfaction and more positive evaluation of appearance were related to having performed breast self-examination more frequently in the last year and intending to perform breast self-examination more frequently in the next year. Longitudinal research can potentially provide detailed information about overall body image satisfaction and breast cancer screening behavior among various communities.
  11. Zahrina AK, Norsa'adah B, Hassan NB, Norazwany Y, Norhayati I, Roslan MH, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(21):9225-32.
    PMID: 25422205
    Ensuring adherence to chemotherapy is important to prevent disease progression, prolong survival and sustain good quality of life. Capecitabine is a complex chemotherapeutic agent with many side effects that might affect patient adherence to treatment. This cross sectional study aimed to determine adherence to capecitabine and its contributing factors among cancer outpatients in Malaysia. One hundred and thirteen patients on single regime capecitabine were recruited from Hospital Sultan Ismail and Hospital Kuala Lumpur from October 2013 to March 2014. Adherence was determined based on adherence score using validated Medication Compliance Questionnaire. Patient socio-demographics, disease, and treatment characteristics were obtained from medical records. Satisfaction score was measured using the validated Patient Satisfaction with Healthcare questionnaire. The mean adherence score was 96.1% (standard deviation: 3.29%). The significant contributing factors of adherence to capecitabine were Malay ethnicity [β=1.3; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.21, 2.43; p value=0.020], being female [β=1.8; 95%CI: 0.61, 2.99; p value=0.003]), satisfaction score [β=0.08; 95%CI: 0.06, 1.46; p value=0.035], presence of nausea or vomiting [β=2.3; 95%CI: 1.12, 3.48; p value <0.001] and other side effects [β=1.45; 95%CI: 0.24, 2.65; p value=0.019]. Adherence to capecitabine was generally high in our local population. Attention should be given to non-Malay males and patients having nausea, vomiting or other side effects. Sufficient information, proactive assessment and appropriate management of side effects would improve patient satisfaction and thus create motivation to adhere to treatment plans.
  12. Nurul-Syakima AM, Learn-Han L, Yoke-Kqueen C
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(21):9071-5.
    PMID: 25422181
    BACKGROUND: microRNAs are small non-coding RNA that control gene expression by mRNA degradation or translational inhibition. These molecules are known to play essential roles in many biological and physiological processes. miR-205 may be differentially expressed in head and neck cancers; however, there are conflicting data and localization of expression has yet to be determined.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: miR-205 expression was investigated in 48 cases of inflammatory, benign and malignant tumor tissue array of the neck, oronasopharynx, larynx and salivary glands by Locked Nucleic Acid in situ hybridization (LNA-ISH) technology.

    RESULTS: miR-205 expression was significantly differentially expressed across all of the inflammatory, benign and malignant tumor tissues of the neck. A significant increase in miR-205 staining intensity (p<0.05) was observed from inflammation to benign and malignant tumors in head and neck tissue array, suggesting that miR-205 could be a biomarker to differentiate between cancer and non-cancer tissues.

    CONCLUSIONS: LNA-ISH revealed that miR-205 exhibited significant differential cytoplasmic and nuclear staining among inflammation, benign and malignant tumors of head and neck. miR-205 was not only exclusively expressed in squamous epithelial malignancy. This study offers information and a basis for a comprehensive study of the role of miR-205 that may be useful as a biomarker and/or therapeutic target in head and neck tumors.

  13. Kwang NB, Yee CM, Shan LP, Teik CK, Chandralega KN, Abdul Kadir AK
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(21):9117-23.
    PMID: 25422188
    BACKGROUND: To evaluate the knowledge, perception and attitudes towards human papilloma virus (HPV) among pre-university students in Malaysia.

    STUDY DESIGN: In this cross sectional study, between November 2013 to March 2014, in a public university, a convenient sampling method was used. A total of 716 respondents were recruited and interviewed with a set of standard questionnaires for assessment of knowledge, perception and attitudes towards HPV and predictor variables associated with level of knowledge.

    RESULTS: Almost half (48.9%) of the respondents scored less than 5 and were categorised as having poor knowledge. Three hundred and twelve (43.6%) respondents had moderate knowledge and only 54 (7.5%) respondents exhibited good knowledge with the score of 11 and above. Only 142 (20%) students perceived themselves to be vulnerable to HPV infection though 560 (78.2%) students thought that HPV infection is a serious disease. Perceived benefits and desire to be vaccinated were significantly associated with gender (p=0.000) and knowledge of HPV vaccine and cervical cancer (p=0.000).

    CONCLUSIONS: The level of knowledge regarding HPV among the pre-university students was low. However, student intention for vaccination increased with increasing level of knowledge. Thus, efforts to improve knowledge and awareness should be prioritised to increase uptake of the HPV vaccination programme and hence reduce morbidity and mortality from consequences of HPV infection, including cervical carcinoma.

  14. Goh LP, Chong ET, Chua KH, Chuah JA, Lee PC
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(17):7377-81.
    PMID: 25227845
    CYP2E1 PstI polymorphism G-1259C (rs3813867) genotype distributions vary significantly among different populations and are associated with both diseases, like cancer, and adverse drug effects. To date, there have been limited genotype distributions and allele frequencies of this polymorphism reported in the three major indigenous ethnic groups (KadazanDusun, Bajau, and Rungus) in Sabah, also known as North Borneo. The aim of this study was to investigate the genotype distributions and allele frequencies of the CYP2E1 PstI polymorphism G-1259C in these three major indigenous peoples in Sabah. A total of 640 healthy individuals from the three dominant indigenous groups were recruited for this study. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) at G-1259C polymorphic site of CYP2E1 gene was performed using the Pst I restriction enzyme. Fragments were analyzed using agarose gel electrophoresis and confirmed by direct sequencing. Overall, the allele frequencies were 90.3% for c1 allele and 9.7% for c2 allele. The genotype frequencies for c1/c1, c1/c2 and c2/c2 were observed as 80.9%, 18.8%, and 0.3%, respectively. A highly statistical significant difference (p<0.001) was observed in the genotype distributions between indigenous groups in Sabah with all Asian and non-Asian populations. However, among these three indigenous groups, there was no statistical significant difference (p>0.001) in their genotype distributions. The three major indigenous ethnic groups in Sabah show unique genotype distributions when compared with other populations. This finding indicates the importance of establishing the genotype distributions of CYP2E1 PstI polymorphism in the indigenous populations.
  15. Han YW, Mohammad M, Liew SM
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(17):7287-90.
    PMID: 25227830
    BACKGROUND: Brief physician counselling has been shown to be effective in improving smokers' behaviour. If the counselling sessions can be given at the workplace, this would benefit a larger number of smokers. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a ten-minute physician counseling session at the workplace in improving smoking behaviour.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective randomised control trial was conducted on smokers in a factory. A total of 163 participants were recruited and randomised into control and intervention groups using a table of random numbers. The intervention group received a ten-minute brief physician counselling session to quit smoking. Stages of smoking behaviour were measured in both groups using a translated and validated questionnaire at baseline, one month and three months post intervention.

    RESULTS: There was a significant improvement in smoking behaviour at one-month post intervention (p=0.024, intention to treat analysis; OR=2.525; CI=1.109-5.747). This was not significant at three-month post intervention (p=0.946, intention to treat analysis; OR=1.026; 95% CI=0.486-2.168).

    CONCLUSIONS: A session of brief physician counselling was effective in improving smokers' behaviour at workplace, but the effect was not sustained.

  16. Che CC, Coomarasamy JD, Suppayah B
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(17):7175-80.
    PMID: 25227810
    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in Malaysia, about one in 19 women being at risk. This study aimed to investigate knowledge and practice of breast self-examination (BSE), as well as knowledge of risk factors for breast cancer amongst female adolescents in Malaysia. Subsequently, relationships between demographic characteristics and knowledge level of BSE, risk factors for breast cancer and BSE practice were assessed.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A descriptive, cross sectional survey was conducted using a sample of 500 Malaysian adolescents from the age of 15 to 19 years. A self-administered questionnaire was used to gather socio- demographic characteristics, knowledge of BSE, knowledge of risk factors for breast cancer and BSE practices.

    RESULTS: The findings of this study indicated that female adolescents in Malaysia demonstrated an inadequate knowledge level of BSE and risk factors for breast cancer. Only 27.8% of female adolescents performed BSE regularly. BSE practice, knowledge of BSE and knowledge of risk factors for breast cancer showed significant positive relationships.

    CONCLUSIONS: The study highlighted the importance of planning and implementing breast health education programs for female students in secondary schools in Malaysia. It will also provide the health care providers an avenue to stress on the importance of imparting breast health education to adolescents.

  17. Loh SY, Lee SY, Murray L
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(19):8127-34.
    PMID: 25338995
    BACKGROUND: Qigong is highly favoured among Asian breast cancer survivors for enhancing health. This study examined the hypothesis that quality of life (QoL) in the Qigong group is better than the placebo (aerobic) or usual care group.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 197 participants were randomly assigned to either the 8-week Kuala Lumpur Qigong Trial or control groups in 2010-2011. Measurement taken at baseline and post- intervention included QoL, distress and fatigue. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and Kruskal Wallis were used to examine for differences between groups in the measurements.

    RESULTS: There were 95 consenting participants in this 8week trial. The adherence rates were 63% for Qigong and 65% for the placebo group. The Qigong group showed significant marginal improvement in Quality of life scores compared to placebo (mean difference=7.3 unit; p=0.036), compared to usual care (mean difference=6.7 unit; p=0.048) on Functional Assessment Cancer Therapy-Breast measure. There were no significant changes between the placebo and usual care groups in fatigue or distress at post intervention (8-week).

    CONCLUSIONS: Cancer survivors who participated in the Qigong intervention showed slightly better QOL. Follow up studies are greatly needed to evaluate which subgroups may best benefit from Qigong. With a steep rise of cancer survivors, there is an urgent need to explore and engage more cultural means of physical activity to fight side effects of treatment and for cancer control in developing countries.

  18. Yusof A, Chia YC, Hasni YM
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(19):8095-9.
    PMID: 25338990
    BACKGROUND: Worldwide, over half a million women died of breast cancer in 2011 alone. Mammography screening is associated with a reduction of 20 to 35% in breast cancer mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the awareness and practice of mammography screening and predictors of its uptake in Malaysian women attending a primary care clinic.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out among women aged 40 to 74 years attending a primary care clinic in Selangor, Malaysia. An assisted structured questionnaire included questions on socio-demography, source of information and level of knowledge. An adapted version of the revised Champion Health Belief Model Scale plus other associated factors for mammography screening up-take were also included as part of the questionnaire. Predictors for mammography screening uptake were only determined in those who were aware about mammography screening. Significant predictors were determined by logistic regression.

    RESULTS: 447 women were recruited for this study; 99.1% of them (n: 411) were aware about breast cancer. Only 50.1% (n: 206) had knowledge about mammography screening. Prevalence of clinical breast-examination (CBE) was 23.3% (n: 104) and mammography screening up-take was 13.2% (n: 59). The predictors for the latter were those who have had clinical breast-examination (aOR=17.58, 95%CI: 7.68-39.82) and those aged between 50 to 59 years (aOR=3.94, 95%CI: 1.61-9.66) as well as those aged 60 years and above (aOR=6.91, 95%CI: 2.28-20.94). Good knowledge and positive beliefs about mammography screening were not associated with mammography screening uptake.

    CONCLUSIONS: Half of our Malaysian women were aware about mammography screening. However, the uptake of mammography was low. Previous CBE and older age were significant predictors of mammography screening uptake. Increasing CBE services may increase compliance with guidelines.

  19. Athirajan V, Razak IA, Thurairajah N, Ghani WM, Ching HN, Yang YH, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(19):8183-9.
    PMID: 25339003
    BACKGROUND: A comparative cross-sectional study involving oral cancer patients and healthy individuals was designed to investigate associations between retinol, α-tocopherol and β-carotene with the risk of oral cancer.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included a total of 240 matched cases and controls where subjects were selected from the Malaysian Oral Cancer Database and Tissue Bank System (MOCDTBS). Retinol, α-tocopherol and β-carotene levels and intake were examined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) respectively.

    RESULTS: It was found that results from the two methods applied did not correlate, so that further analysis was done using the HPLC method utilising blood serum. Serum levels of retinol and α-tocopherol among cases (0.177±0.081, 1.649±1.670μg/ml) were significantly lower than in controls (0.264±0.137, 3.225±2.054μg/ml) (p<0.005). Although serum level of β-carotene among cases (0.106±0.159 μg/ml) were lower compared to controls (0.134±0.131μg/ml), statistical significance was not observed. Logistic regression analysis showed that high serum level of retinol (OR=0.501, 95% CI=0.254-0.992, p<0.05) and α-tocopherol (OR=0.184, 95% CI=0.091-0.370, p<0.05) was significantly related to lower risk of oral cancer, whereas no relationship was observed between β-carotene and oral cancer risk.

    CONCLUSIONS: High serum levels of retinol and α-tocopherol confer protection against oral cancer risk.

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