Pangasius production in Vietnam is widely known as a success story in aquaculture, the fastest growing global food system because of its tremendous expansion by volume, value and the number of international markets to which Pangasius has been exported in recent years. While certification schemes are becoming significant features of international fish trade and marketing, an increasing number of Pangasius producers have followed at least one of the certification schemes recognised by international markets to incorporate environmental and social sustainability practices in aquaculture, typically the Pangasius Aquaculture Dialogue (PAD) scheme certified by the Aquaculture Stewardship Council (ASC). An assessment of the environmental benefit of applying certification schemes on Pangasius production, however, is still needed. This article compared the environmental impact of ASC-certified versus non-ASC certified intensive Pangasius aquaculture, using a statistically supported LCA. We focused on both resource-related (water, land and total resources) and emissions-related (global warming, acidification, freshwater and marine eutrophication) categories. The ASC certification scheme was shown to be a good approach for determining adequate environmental sustainability, especially concerning emissions-related categories, in Pangasius production. However, the non-ASC certified farms, due to the large spread, the impact (e.g., water resources and freshwater eutrophication) was possibly lower for a certain farm. However, this result was not generally prominent. Further improvements in intensive Pangasius production to inspire certification schemes are proposed, e.g., making the implementation of certification schemes more affordable, well-oriented and facilitated; reducing consumed feed amounts and of the incorporated share in fishmeal, especially domestic fishmeal, etc. However, their implementation should be vetted with key stakeholders to assess their feasibility.
The continuous accumulation of microplastics in the environment poses ecological threats and has been an increasing problem worldwide. In this study, eight bacterial strains were isolated from mangrove sediment in Peninsular Malaysia to mitigate the environmental impact of microplastics and develop a clean-up option. The bacterial isolates were screened for their potential to degrade UV-treated microplastics from polyethylene (PE), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polypropylene (PP), and polystyrene (PS). Only two isolates, namely, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus gottheilii, grew on a synthetic medium containing different microplastic polymers as the sole carbon source. A shake flask experiment was carried out to further evaluate the biodegradability potential of the isolates. Degradation was monitored by recording the weight loss of microplastics and the growth pattern of the isolates in the mineral medium. The biodegradation extent was validated by assessment of the morphological and structural changes through scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses. The calculated weight loss percentages of the microplastic particles by B. cereus after 40 days were 1.6%, 6.6%, and 7.4% for PE, PET, and PS, respectively. B. gottheilii recorded weight loss percentages of 6.2%, 3.0%, 3.6%, and 5.8% for PE, PET, PP, and PS, respectively. The designated isolates degraded the microplastic material and exhibited potential for remediation of microplastic-contaminated environment. Biodegradation tests must be conducted to characterize the varied responses of microbes toward pollutants, such as microplastics. Hence, a novel approach for biodegradation of microplastics must be developed to help mitigate the environmental impact of plastics and microplastic polymers.
Silver barb Barbodes gonionotus fry were exposed to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) fragments at increasing concentrations of 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/L for 96 h, following which whole body histological evaluation and analysis of the digestive enzymes trypsin and chymotrypsin were performed. Whole body trypsin and chymotrypsin activities increased significantly in fish exposed to 0.5 and 1.0 mg/L PVC as compared those exposed to zero or 0.2 mg/L PVC. In fish exposed to all tested concentrations, PVCs were observed in both the proximal and distal intestine, and fish exposed to 0.5-1.0 and 1.0 mg/L PVC, respectively, and these particles were associated with localized thickening of the mucosal epithelium. No tissue damage was evident in any other internal organs or gills. This lack of damage may be attributed to the absence of contaminants associated with the PVC fragments and their relatively smooth surface. The increased whole body trypsin and chymotrypsin activities may indicate an attempt to enhance digestion to compensate for epithelial thickening of the intestine and/or to digest the plastics.
Sea turtles are globally endangered and face daily anthropogenic threats, including pollution. However, there is a lack of ecotoxicological information on sea turtles, especially in the Asia-Pacific region. This study aims to determine pollutant levels of foraging green turtles (Chelonia mydas) in South China, including Hong Kong, Guangdong and Taiwan, as a basis for their conservation. Scute, liver and muscle tissues of stranded green turtles were analysed for levels of 17 trace elements and methylmercury (MeHg) (n = 86 for scute and n = 14 for liver) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) (n = 11 for muscle and n = 13 for liver). Ten-fold higher levels of Pb, Ba, V and Tl and 40-fold greater Cd levels were measured in green turtle livers in South China relative to other studies conducted over 10 years ago. Measured PBDE levels were also 27-fold and 50-fold greater than those reported in Australia and Japan. These results warrant further investigation of potential toxicological risks to green turtles in South China and their source rookeries in Malaysia, Micronesia, Indonesia, Marshall Islands, Japan and Taiwan. Research should target monitoring pollutant levels in sea turtles within the West Pacific/Southeast Asia regional management unit spanning East Asia to Southeast Asia to fill in knowledge gaps, in particular in areas such as Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines where less or no data is available and where foraging grounds of sea turtles have been identified.
Fossil fuel combustion leads to increased levels of air pollution, which negatively affects human health as well as the environment. Documented data for Southeast Asia (SEA) show a strong increase in fossil fuel consumption since 1980, but information on coal and oil combustion before 1980 is not widely available. Spheroidal carbonaceous particles (SCPs) and heavy metals, such as mercury (Hg), are emitted as by-products of fossil fuel combustion and may accumulate in sediments following atmospheric fallout. Here we use sediment SCP and Hg records from several freshwater lentic ecosystems in SEA (Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore) to reconstruct long-term, region-wide variations in levels of these two key atmospheric pollution indicators. The age-depth models of Philippine sediment cores do not reach back far enough to date first SCP presence, but single SCP occurrences are first observed between 1925 and 1950 for a Malaysian site. Increasing SCP flux is observed at our sites from 1960 onward, although individual sites show minor differences in trends. SCP fluxes show a general decline after 2000 at each of our study sites. While the records show broadly similar temporal trends across SEA, absolute SCP fluxes differ between sites, with a record from Malaysia showing SCP fluxes that are two orders of magnitude lower than records from the Philippines. Similar trends in records from China and Japan represent the emergence of atmospheric pollution as a broadly-based inter-region environmental problem during the 20th century. Hg fluxes were relatively stable from the second half of the 20th century onward. As catchment soils are also contaminated with atmospheric Hg, future soil erosion can be expected to lead to enhanced Hg flux into surface waters.
The increase of annual organic wastes generated worldwide has become a major problem for many countries since the mismanagement could bring about negative effects on the environment besides, being costly for an innocuous disposal. Recently, insect larvae have been investigated to valorize organic wastes. This entomoremediation approach is rising from the ability of the insect larvae to convert organic wastes into its biomass via assimilation process as catapulted by the natural demand to complete its lifecycle. Among the insect species, black soldier fly or Hermetia illucens is widely researched since the larvae can grow in various environments while being saprophagous in nature. Even though black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) can ingest various decay materials, some organic wastes such as sewage sludge or lignocellulosic wastes such as waste coconut endosperm are destitute of decent nutrients that could retard the BSFL growth. Hence, blending with nutrient-rich low-cost substrates such as palm kernel expeller, soybean curd residue, etc. is employed to fortify the nutritional contents of larval feeding substrates prior to administering to the BSFL. Alternatively, microbial fermentation can be adopted to breakdown the lignocellulosic wastes, exuding essential nutrients for growing BSFL. Upon reaching maturity, the BSFL can be harvested to serve as the protein and lipid feedstock. The larval protein can be made into insect meal for farmed animals, whilst the lipid source could be extracted and transesterified into larval biodiesel to cushion the global energy demands. Henceforth, this review presents the influence of various organic wastes introduced to feed BSFL, targeting to reduce wastes and producing biochemicals from mature larvae through entomoremediation. Modification of recalcitrant organic wastes via fermentation processes is also unveiled to ameliorate the BSFL growth. Lastly, the sustainable applications of harvested BSFL biomass are as well covered together with the immediate shortcomings that entail further researches.
Mangrove sediments are prone to anthropogenic activities that could enrich antibiotics resistance genes (ARGs). The emergence and dissemination of ARGs are of serious concern to public health worldwide. Therefore, a comprehensive resistome analysis of global mangrove sediment is of paramount importance. In this study, we have implemented a deep machine learning approach to analyze the resistome of mangrove sediments from Brazil, China, Saudi Arabia, India, and Malaysia. Geography (RANOSIM = 39.26%; p 0.05). Several genes including multidrug efflux pumps were significantly (p
In predicting palm oil mill effluent (POME) degradation efficiency, previous developed quadratic model quantitatively evaluated the effects of O2 flowrate, TiO2 loadings and initial concentration of POME in labscale photocatalytic system, which however suffered from low generalization due to the overfitting behaviour. Evidently, high RMSE (131.61) and low R2 (-630.49) obtained indicates its insufficiency in describing POME degradation at unseen factor ranges, hence verified the fact of poor generalization. To overcome this issue, several models were developed via machine learning-assisted techniques, namely Gaussian Process Regression (GPR), Linear Regression (LR), Decision Tree (DT), Supported Vector Machine (SVM) and Regression Tree Ensemble (RTE), subsequently being assessed systematically. To achieve high generalization, all models were subjected to 'train-all-test-all' strategy, 5-fold and 10-fold cross validation. Specifically, GPR model was furnished with high accuracy in 'train-all-test-all' strategy, judging from its low RMSE (1.0394) and high R2 (0.9962), which however menaced by the risk of overfitting. In contrast, despite relatively poorer RMSE and R2 (1.7964 and 0.9886) obtained in 5-fold cross validation, GPR model was rendered with highest generalization, while sufficiently preserving its accuracy in development process. Besides, SVM and RTE models were also demonstrated promising R2 (0.9372 and 0.9208), which however shadowed by their high RMSEs (4.2174 and 4.7366). Furthermore, the extraordinary generalization of GPR model was coincidentally verified in 10-fold cross validation. The lowest RMSE (2.1624) and highest R2 (0.9835) obtained with feature number of 36 asserted its sufficiency in both generalization and accuracy prospect. Other models were all rendered with slight lower R2 (> 0.9), plausibly due to the higher RMSE (> 4.0). According to GPR model, optimized POME degradation (52.52%) can be obtained at 70 mL/min of O2, 70.0 g/L of TiO2 and 250 ppm of POME concentration, with only ∼3% error as compared to the actual data.
Acceleration of urbanization and industrialization has resulted in the drastic rise of waste generation with majority of them being biowaste. This constitutes a global challenge since conventional waste management methods (i.e., landfills) present environmental issues including greenhouse gases emissions, leachate formation and toxins release. A sustainable and effective approach to treat biowaste is through composting. Various aspects of composting such as compost quality, composting systems and compost pelletization are summarized in this paper. Common application of compost as fertilizer or soil amendment is presented with focus on the low adoption level of organic waste compost in reality. Rarely known, compost which is easily combustible can be utilized to generate electricity. With the analysis on critical approaches, this review aims to provide a comprehensive study on energy content of compost pellets, which has never been reviewed before. Environmental impacts and future prospects are also highlighted to provide further insights on application of this technology to close the loop of circular bioeconomy.
Emerging pollutants known as endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) are a contemporary global issue, especially in aquatic ecosystems. As aquaculture production through mariculture activities in Malaysia supports food production, the concentration and distribution of EDCs in estuarine water ecosystems may have changed. Therefore, this current study aims to prepare a suitable and reliable method for application on environmental samples. Besides, this study also presented the occurrence of EDCs pollutant in Pulau Kukup, Johor, where the biggest and most active mariculture site in Malaysia takes place. Analytical methods based on a combination of solid-phase extraction with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (Solid-phase extraction (SPE)-LC-MS/MS) have been modified and optimised to examine the level of targeted EDCs contaminant. In the current study, this method displays high extraction recovery for targeted EDCs, ranging from 92.02% to 132.32%. The highest concentration detected is diclofenac (<0.47-79.89 ng/L) followed by 17β-estradiol (E2) (<5.28-31.43 ng/L) and 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) (<0.30-7.67 ng/L). The highest percentage distribution for the targeted EDCs in the current study is diclofenac, followed by EE2 and dexamethasone with the percentages of 99.44%, 89.53% and 73.23%, respectively. This current study can be a baseline assessment to understand the pollution profile of EDCs and their distribution in the estuarine water of the mariculture site throughout the world, especially in Malaysia. Owing to the significant concentration of targeted EDCs detected in water samples, the need for further monitoring in the future is required.
Methylene blue (MB) is a dye pollutant commonly present in textile wastewater. We investigate and critically evaluate the applicability of BaTiO3/GO composite for photodegradation of MB in synthetic wastewater under UV-vis irradiation. To enhance its performance, the BaTiO3/GO composite is varied based on the BaTiO3 weight. To compare and evaluate any changes in their morphologies and crystalline structures before and after treatment, BET (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller), XRD (X-ray diffraction), FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and TEM (transmission electron microscopy) tests are conducted, while the effects of reaction time, pH, dose of photocatalyst and initial MB concentration on its photodegradation by the composite are also investigated under identical conditions. The degradation pathways and removal mechanisms of MB by the BaTiO3/GO are elaborated. It is evident from this study that the BaTiO3/GO composite is promising for MB photodegradation through ·OH. Under optimized conditions (0.5 g/L of dose, pH 9.0, and 5 mg/L of MB concentration), the composite with 1:2 dose ratio of BaTiO3/GO has the highest MB degradation rate (95%) after 3 h of UV vis irradiation. However, its treated effluents still could not comply with the discharge standard limit of less than 0.2 mg/L imposed by national environmental legislation. This suggests that additional biological treatments are still required to deal with the remaining oxidation by-products of MB, still present in the wastewater samples such as 3,7-bis (dimethyl-amino)-10H-phenothiazine 5-oxide.
Satellite observations for regional air quality assessment rely on comprehensive spatial coverage, and daily monitoring with reliable, cloud-free data quality. We investigated spatiotemporal variation and data quality of two global satellite Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) products derived from MODIS and VIIRS imagery. AOD is considered an essential atmospheric parameter strongly related to ground Particulate Matter (PM) in Southeast Asia (SEA). We analyze seasonal variation, urban/rural area influence, and biomass burning effects on atmospheric pollution. Validation indicated a strong relationship between AERONET ground AOD and both MODIS AOD (R2 = 0.81) and VIIRS AOD (R2 = 0.68). The monthly variation of satellite AOD and AERONET AOD reflects two seasonal trends of air quality separately for mainland countries including Myanmar, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, Vietnam, and Taiwan, Hong Kong, and for maritime countries consisting of Indonesia, Philippines, Malaysia, Brunei, Singapore, and Timor Leste. The mainland SEA has a pattern of monthly AOD variation in which AODs peak in March/April, decreasing during wet season from May-September, and increasing to the second peak in October. However, in maritime SEA, AOD concentration peaks in October. The three countries with the highest annual satellite AODs are Singapore, Hong Kong, and Vietnam. High urban population proportions in Singapore (40.7%) and Hong Kong (21.6%) were associated with high AOD concentrations as expected. AOD values in SEA urban areas were a factor of 1.4 higher than in rural areas, with respective averages of 0.477 and 0.336. The AOD values varied proportionately to the frequency of biomass burning in which both active fires and AOD peak in March/April and September/October. Peak AOD in September/October in some countries could be related to pollutant transport of Indonesia forest fires. This study analyzed satellite aerosol product quality in relation to AERONET in SEA countries and highlighted framework of air quality assessment over a large, complicated region.
In this study, the synthesis of Fe3O4@GO@g-C3N4 ternary nanocomposite for enhanced photocatalytic degradation of phenol has been investigated. The surface modification of Fe3O4 was performed through layer-by-layer electrostatic deposition meanwhile the heterojunction structure of ternary nanocomposite was obtained through sonicated assisted hydrothermal method. The photocatalysts were characterized for their crystallinity, surface morphology, chemical functionalities, and band gap energy. The Fe3O4@GO@g-C3N4 ternary nanocomposite achieved phenol degradation of ∼97%, which was significantly higher than that of Fe3O4@GO (∼75%) and Fe3O4 (∼62%). The enhanced photoactivity was due to the efficient charge carrier separation and desired band structure. The photocatalytic performance was further enhanced with the addition of hydrogen peroxide, in which phenol degradation up to 100% was achieved in 2 h irradiation time. The findings revealed that operating parameters have significant influences on the photocatalytic activities. It was found that lower phenol concentration promoted higher activity. In this study, 0.3 g of Fe3O4@GO@g-C3N4 was found to be the optimized photocatalyst for phenol degradation. At the optimized condition, the reaction rate constant was reported as 6.96 × 10-3 min-1. The ternary photocatalyst showed excellent recyclability in three consecutive cycles, which confirmed the stability of this ternary nanocomposite for degradation applications.
Anthropogenic activities and population growth have resulted in a reduced availability of drinking water. To ensure consistency in the existence of drinking water, it is inevitable to establish wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). 70% of India's rural population was found to be without WWTP, waste disposal, and good sanitation. Wastewater has emerged from kitchens, washrooms, etc., with industry activities. This scenario caused severe damage to water resources, leading to degradation of water quality and pathogenic insects. Thus, it is a need of an hour to prompt for better WWTPs for both rural and urban areas. Many parts of the world have started to face severe water shortages in recent years, and wastewater reuse methods need to be updated. Clean water supply is not enough to satisfy the needs of the planet as a whole, and the majority of freshwater in the polar regions takes the form of ice and snow. The increasing population requires clean water for drinks, hygiene, irrigation, and various other applications. Lack of water and contamination of water result from human activities. 90% of wastewater is released to water systems without treatment in developing countries. Studies show that about 730 megatons of waste are annually discharged into water from sewages and other effluents. The sustenance of water resources, applying wastewater treatment technologies, and calling down the percentage of potable water has to be strictly guided by mankind. This review compares the treatment of domestic sewage to its working conditions, energy efficiency, etc. In this review, several treatment methods with different mechanisms involved in waste treatment, industrial effluents, recovery/recycling were discussed. The feasibility of bioaugmentation should eventually be tested through data from field implementation as an important technological challenge, and this analysis identifies many promising areas to be explored in the future.
Biodiesel side stream waste glycerol was identified as a cheap carbon source for rhamnolipids (RLs) production which at the same time could improve the management of waste. The present study aimed to produce RLs by using Pseudomonas aeruginosa RS6 utilizing waste glycerol as a substrate and to evaluate their physico-chemicals properties. Fermentation conditions such as temperature, initial medium pH, waste glycerol concentration, nitrogen sources and concentrations resulted in different compositions of the mono- and di-RLs produced. The maximum RLs production of 2.73 g/L was obtained when P. aeruginosa RS6 was grown in a basal salt medium supplemented with 1% waste glycerol and 0.2 M sodium nitrate at 35 °C and pH 6.5. At optimal fermentation conditions, the emulsification index (E24) values of cooking oil, diesel oil, benzene, olive oil, petroleum, and kerosene were all above E24=50%. The surface tension reduction obtained from 72.13 mN/m to 29.4-30.4 mN/m was better than the surface activity of some chemical-based surfactants. The RLs produced possessed antimicrobial activities against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria with values ranging from 37% to 77% of growth inhibition when 1 mg/mL of RLs was used. Concentrations of RLs below 1500 μg/mL did not induce phytotoxicity effects on the tested seeds (Vigna radiata) compared to the chemical-based- surfactant, SDS. Furthermore, RLs tested on zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos only exhibited low acute toxicity with an LC50 value of 72.97 μg/mL at 48 h of exposure suggesting a green and eco-biochemical worthy of future applications to replace chemical-based surfactants.
Recently Xiamen (China) has encountered various challenges of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) such as lack of a complete garbage sorting and recycling system, the absence of waste segregation between organic and dry waste at source, and a shortage of complete and clear information about the MSW generated. This article critically analyzes the existing bottlenecks in its waste management system and discusses the way forward for the city to enhance its MSWM by drawing lessons from Hong Kong's effectiveness in dealing with the same problems over the past decades. Solutions to the MSWM problem are not only limited to technological options, but also integrate environmental, legal, and institutional perspectives. The solutions include (1) enhancing source separation and improving recycling system; (2) improving the legislation system of the MSWM; (3) improvement of terminal disposal facilities in the city; (4) incorporating digitization into MSWM; and (5) establishing standards and definitions for recycled products and/or recyclable materials. We also evaluate and compare different aspects of MSWM in Xiamen and Hong Kong SAR (special administrative region) under the framework of 'One Country, Two Systems' concerning environmental policies, generation, composition, characteristics, treatment, and disposal of their MSW. The nexus of society, economics of the MSW, and the environment in the sustainability sphere are established by promoting local recycling industries and the standardization of recycled products and/or recyclable materials. The roles of digitization technologies in the 4th Industrial Revolution for waste reduction in the framework of circular economy (CE) are also elaborated. This technological solution may improve the city's MSWM in terms of public participation in MSW separation through reduction, recycle, reuse, recovery, and repair (5Rs) schemes. To meet top-down policy goals such as a 35% recycling rate for the generated waste by 2030, incorporating digitization into the MSWM provides the city with technology-driven waste solutions.
Most palm oil mills adopted conventional ponding system, including anaerobic, aerobic, facultative and algae ponds, for the treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME). Only a few mills installed a bio-polishing plant to treat POME further before its final discharge. The present study aims to determine the quality and toxicity levels of POME final discharge from three different mills by using conventional chemical analyses and fish (Danio rerio) embryo toxicity (FET) test. The effluent derived from mill A which installed with a bio-polishing plant had lower values of BOD, COD and TSS at 45 mg/L, 104 mg/L, and 27 mg/L, respectively. Only mill A nearly met the industrial effluent discharge standard for BOD. In FET test, effluent from mill A recorded low lethality and most of the embryos were malformed after hatching (half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) = 20%). The highest toxicity was observed from the effluent of mill B and all embryos were coagulated after 24 h in samples greater than 75% of effluent (38% of half-maximal lethal concentration (LC50) at 96 h). The embryos in the effluent from mill C recorded high mortality after hatching, and the survivors were malformed after 96 h exposure (LC50 = 26%). Elemental analysis of POME final discharge samples showed Cu, Zn, and Fe concentrations were in the range of 0.10-0.32 mg/L, 0.01-0.99 mg/L, and 0.94-4.54 mg/L, respectively and all values were below the effluent permissible discharge limits. However, the present study found these metals inhibited D. rerio embryonic development at 0.12 mg/L of Cu, and 4.9 mg/L of Fe for 96 h-EC50. The present study found that bio-polishing plant installed in mill A effectively removing pollutants especially BOD and the FET test was a useful method to monitor quality and toxicity of the POME final discharge samples.
The remarkable journey of progression of mankind has created various impacts in the form of polluted environment, amassed heavy metals and depleting resources. This alarming situation demands sustainable energy resources and approaches to deal with these environmental hazards and power deficit. Pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis address both energy and environmental issues caused by civilization and industrialization. The processes use hazardous waste materials including waste tires, plastic and medical waste, and biomass waste such as livestock waste and agricultural waste as feedstock to produce gas, char and pyrolysis oil for energy production. Usage of hazardous materials as pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis feedstock reduces disposal of harmful substances into environment, reducing occurrence of soil and water pollution, and substituting the non-renewable feedstock, fossil fuels. As compared to combustion, pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis have less emission of air pollutants and act as alternative options to landfill disposal and incineration for hazardous materials and biomass waste. Hence, stabilizing heavy metals and solving the energy and waste management problems. This review discusses the pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of biomass and harmful wastes to strive towards circular economy and eco-friendly, cleaner energy with minimum waste disposal, reducing negative impact on the planet and creating future possibilities.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a highly valuable component of syngas which could be used to synthesize various chemicals and fuels. Conventionally, syngas is derived from fossil-based natural gas and coal which are non-renewable. To curb the problem, CO2 gasification offers a win-win solution in which CO2 is converted with wastes to CO, achieving carbon emission mitigation and addressing waste disposal issue simultaneously. In this review, gasification of various wastes by CO2 with particular focus given to generation of CO-rich syngas is presented and critically discussed. This includes the effects of operating parameters (temperature, pressure and physicochemical properties of feedstocks) and advanced CO2 gasification techniques (catalytic CO2 gasification, CO2 co-gasification and microwave-driven CO2 gasification). Furthermore, associated technological challenges are highlighted and way forward in this field are proposed.
Surface functionalization and shape modifications are the key strategies being utilized to overcome the limitations of semiconductors in advanced oxidation processes (AOP). Herein, the uniform α-Fe2O3 nanocrystals (α-Fe2O3-NCs) were effectively synthesized via a simple solvothermal route. Meanwhile, the sulfonic acid functionalization (SAF) and the impregnation of α-Fe2O3-NCs on g-C3N4 (α-Fe2O3-NCs@CN-SAF) were achieved through complete solvent evaporation technique. The surface functionalization of the sulfonic acid group on g-C3N4 accelerates the faster migration of electrons to the surface owing to robust electronegativity. The incorporation of α-Fe2O3-NCs with CN-SAF significantly enhances the optoelectronic properties, ultrafast spatial charge separation, and rapid charge transportation. The α-Fe2O3-HPs@CN-SAF and α-Fe2O3-NPs@CN-SAF nanocomposites attained 97.41% and 93.64% of Cr (VI) photoreduction in 10 min, respectively. The photocatalytic efficiency of α-Fe2O3-NCs@CN-SAF nanocomposite is 2.4 and 2.1 times higher than that of pure g-C3N4 and α-Fe2O3, respectively. Besides, the XPS, PEC and recycling experiments confirm the excellent photo-induced charge separation via Z-scheme heterostructure and cyclic stability of α-Fe2O3-NCs@CN-SAF nanocomposites.