Displaying publications 21 - 40 of 872 in total

  1. Balami, A. A., Dauda S. M., Mohammed, I. S., Agunsoye, J. K., Abu, H., 1 Abubakar, Ahmad, D.
    The processing of cocoyam tubers for industrial or human use involves different operations
    of which peeling is the major problem. This study was aimed at designing, fabricating and
    carrying out performance evaluation of a cocoyam peeling machine, taking into consideration
    some physical and mechanical properties of the cocoyam tubers. The machine was evaluated
    based on the following parameters which includes; throughput capacity and peeling efficiency
    at the speeds of 400 rpm, 700 rpm and 933 rpm. Results revealed that, for all the speeds tested
    in the experiment, the corresponding peeling efficiencies of the machine were 50%, 64% and
    68% respectively while that of the throughput capacities were 63.20 kg/hr, 84.90 kg/hr and
    112.92 kg/hr respectively. It was observed that 933 rpm speed was the most suitable speed for
    the operation of this machine, as it had higher peeling efficiency of 68% with a throughput
    capacity of 112.92 kg/hr. These results showed appreciable improvement over manual method
    which is 20 – 35 kg/hr.
  2. Chattha, S.H., Hasfalina, C.M., Mirani, B.N., Mahadi, M.R., Lee, T.S.
    The deterioration of wheat grains in terms of various quality parameters was observed during
    storage in traditional and designed structures for 12 months. As a result of the laboratory analysis
    and statistical data evaluation, protein (11.78%), lipid (2.4%), ash (1.76%) and starch (64.87%)
    were found maximum in grain samples taken from straw-clay bin followed by concrete block
    bin, ferrocement bin, earthen bin, bulk covered and room type store after 12 months of storage.
    The highest moisture (15.12%), insect-damage (26%), fungi (25%) and aflatoxin (13.3 μg kg-1)
    was observed in grains stored in room store followed by bulk covered, earthen bin, ferrocement
    bin, concrete bin and straw-clay bin.
  3. Ibrahim, M. G., Ahmad, D., Shehu, A. A., Dauda, S.M.
    Sheanut (Butyrospernum paradoxum) is an oil rich tropical tree crop, which is indigenous to
    the West African savannah zone. In Nigeria, most of the sheanuts shelling are done manually
    by rural women and children, which is labour demanding and tedious. This research work
    was carried out to determine some physical and mechanical properties of sheanut in order
    to minimize economic losses associated with its processing. The mean values recorded
    for the physical properties at 25% moisture content (wb) are; major diameter (29.20 mm),
    intermediate diameter (21.90 mm), minor diameter (15.00 mm), geometric mean diameter
    (21.90 mm), arithmetic mean diameter (21.20 mm), angle of repose (30.280). The mean
    values for the mechanical properties are; linear limit force (0.80 kN), linear limit deformation
    (4.60 mm), bioyield point force (1.40 kN), bioyield point deformation (6.50 mm), rupture
    point force (2.10 kN) and rupture point deformation (9.60 mm). Based on the physical and
    mechanical properties, a sheanut shelling machine was developed that is capable of addressing
    the aforementioned problems. Putting into consideration better shelling and efficient separation
    of shea nuts so as to encourage more utilization and processing of shea nuts and its products.
    The machine was designed to be powered by 5 hp electric motor. It was tested to shell, separate
    and clean sheanuts. The result of the performance evaluation showed that the machine had
    shelling efficiency of 96%; cleaning efficiency of the machine was 69.56% while the recovery
    efficiency was 82.7%. The successful development of this machine will reduce drudgery and
    time taken associated with the traditional method of sheanut shelling and therefore will increase
    productivity and utilization.
  4. Zolfagharnassab, S., Vong, C.N.,, Ehsani, R.,, Jaafar, H.Z.E., Mohamed Shariff, A.R., Aris, I.
    Thermal imaging is widely utilized in agricultural applications such as examining plant
    physiology, yield prediction, irrigation scheduling, bruises and pathogen determination in
    fruits and vegetables. There is a need for a cost effective thermal device for this wide range
    of applications. In this study, a low-cost prototype thermal device was used to measure the
    temperature of FFBs at three maturity levels, that are under-ripe, ripe and over-ripe. The
    experiment was repeated using a commercial thermal camera. Then, the mean temperature
    obtained from both the prototype and commercial thermal sensors was compared. Our results
    showed the prototype thermal device is capable of estimating the mean temperature of oil palm
    FFBs with the values analogous to the mean temperature from commercial thermal camera
    with R2 = 0.71.
  5. Shapi’i, R. A., Othman, S. H.
    Recently, incorporation of natural filler such as chitosan into edible film to produce food
    packaging material is of particular interest due to the improvement in the properties of the
    film such as mechanical, morphological and optical properties of the edible film. In this work,
    tapioca starch-based edible film was prepared with different concentrations of chitosan; 0, 20,
    40, 60, 80% w/w of dry starch solid weight. The effects of varying the chitosan concentration
    on the mechanical properties (tensile strength (TS), elongation at break (EAB), and Young
    modulus (YM)), morphological and optical properties (color and transparency) of the edible
    films were investigated. There was 492% increment in TS value of the edible films when
    chitosan was added up to 60% w/w (21.23 MPa) compared to neat starch film (3.58 MPa). The
    60% w/w chitosan films exhibited smooth and even structure which indicated both chitosan
    and tapioca starch compounds were blended homogeneously. However, 60% w/w chitosan
    film exhibited very high YM value (2842.5 MPa) and low EAB value (2.46%) which might
    limit its application. Effects of chitosan concentration on optical properties could be considered
    negligible. The improvements in TS and morphological structure of the edible films will be
    beneficial for the potential application of film as food packaging material in which high TS is
    important to protect the structure of food and while morphological structure can be related to
    the aesthetical appearance of the food packaging materials.
  6. Ismail, M.H., Law, C.L., Hii, C.L.
    This paper presents a transparency phenomenon that occurred in hot air and heat pump dried flatrice
    noodles, which is explained by the higher colour changes, glassy puffing microstructures,
    and lower fat content in comparison to the freeze dried flat-rice noodles. Hot air drying and
    heat pump drying recorded the colour changes at an average of 43.87 ± 1.5 twice than colour
    change caused by freeze drying at 19.33 ± 1.12 to verify the transparency caused by employing
    high temperature to eventually increase the sample lightness. However, the microstructures
    study suggested that freeze drying produced distinct pores ranging from 2.05 μm to 27.68
    μm whereby hot air drying and heat pump drying merely produced glossy transparent texture.
    Indeed, the pores disclose the fat content recorded by freeze drying in flat-rice noodles at 5.62%
    ± 0.2 twice than the fat content recorded by hot air and heat pump drying at 2.48% ± 0.49.
    Therefore, by learning the transparency phenomenon in hot air and heat pump dried noodles
    approves that freeze drying eventually preserves the quality attributes of flat-rice noodles as
    closest to the fresh flat-rice noodles in terms of colour, microstructures, and fat content.
  7. Rajendran, N., Tey, Y.S., Ahmad Sidique, S.F., Abdul Hadi, A.H.I., Brindal, M., Shamsudin, M.N., et al.
    Farm sustainability issues are diverse but interconnected and complex. Many organizations
    have begun to promote packaged sustainable agricultural practices (SAPs). Some of these
    bundled SAPs (i.e. organic agriculture and integrated pest management) have long been
    employed by farmers, and studied by scientists seeking to understand their response to these
    alternative agricultural approaches. This paper reviews and synthesizes recent research in this
    area. It identifies key explanatory factors, which frequently lead to the adoption of bundled
    SAPs. Vote count analysis reveals that variables implying economic motivation and facilitation
    regularly explain farmers’ behaviour. In addition, a new finding emerged, in which factors
    inferring higher learning and superior management capacity provided further indicators to
    adoption. In particular, the training that provided by non-governmental organizations and rural
    institutions complements change agents (i.e. public extension services). While this finding is
    novel, more research is required to generate better understanding of farmer reaction to bundled
    SAPs, particularly dynamic ones (i.e. private standards) in which farm business sustainability
    depends upon good agricultural practices being implemented.
  8. Ho, L.-H., Tang, J.Y.H., Mazaitul Akma, S., Mohd Aiman, H., Roslan, A.
    The objective of this research is to develop an “energy” snack bar supplying energy and
    electrolytes in one bar by utilizing local Malaysian ingredients. The local ingredients used to make
    this snack bar were banana, glutinous rice flour, and coconut milk. It is a wholesome nutritious
    food for different age groups from adolescents to elderly people. Proximate composition, total
    carbohydrate, energy value, and sensory quality of prototype were determined. The developed
    snack bar contains 13.23% of moisture, 1.13% of ash, 6.36% of crude protein, 22.39% of
    crude fat, 1.16% of crude fibre, 56.89% of total carbohydrate, and 454.51 kcal of energy. The
    “energy” snack bar was highly acceptable with desirable sensory quality by all consumers.
  9. Tan, S.B., Shamsudin, R., Mohammed, M. A., Rahman, N. A.
    Sesame Cracker or Kuih Bijan is a popular traditional Malays snack in Malaysia. The simplest
    formulation of Sesame Cracker dough includes glutinous rice flour, sugar, and water. In order
    to reduce the negative effect caused by dough stickiness, the effect of mixing period (3 to 7
    minutes), water (41.6 to 45.6%) and sugar (1 to 9%) on dough stickiness of sesame cracker
    dough were studied using Texture Analyzer and Chen-Hoseney methodologies (i.e. Chen-
    Hoseney Dough Stickiness Cell). The result obtained showing that the increment of mixing
    time, water and sugar addition, increased the dough stickiness, work of adhesion/adhesiveness
    and dough strength/cohesiveness. However, overmixing of dough had led to the decrease of
    these parameters.
  10. Azman, N., Jamil, N., Bejo-Khairunniza, S.
    Rice production depends on good quality of paddy. In this research, the capability of thermal
    imaging to determine the quality of paddy based on the properties used in a Deduction Schedule
    namely moisture content, immature condition and foreign material is presented. First, the
    heating and cooling treatment was applied to the samples. FLIR E60 thermal camera was used
    to acquire images of the sample. Therefore, each samples were represented by a thermal index
    calculated based on the average value of pixels in the thermal image. Results of the experiment
    have shown that highly significant relationship were exist between thermal index and maturity
    stage and moisture content of paddy with r = -0.948 and 0.896, respectively. It also worked
    well in detecting foreign material (chaff) at 25s after cooling. The method gave accurate results
    with 92% for moisture content determination, 90% for maturity stage prediction and 100% for
    chaff detection.
  11. Nor Hasni, H., Noranizan, M.A., Roselina, K.
    Pulsed light (PL) treatment is a non-thermal method for microbial decontamination on the
    surfaces of fresh-cut produce. The effect of pulsed light fluencies on microbiological stability
    and quality changes of fresh-cut yardlong beans were determined. Pulsed light treatments were
    carried out using an automatic laboratory flash lamp system (Steribeam XeMaticA-2L Kehl,
    Germany) at different fluencies (1.8 J/cm2, 5.4 J/cm2, 9.0 J/cm2 and 12.6 J/cm2). Microbiological
    quality (colour changes and textural changes) of fresh-cut yardlong beans stored at 4±1°C were
    monitored over 14 days. Results show that, the application of PL treatment at high fluencies
    allowed extension of microbiological shelf life up to 3-7 days in comparison to untreated
    samples. Apart from that, PL treated sample has no significant difference on the texture and
    colour as compared to untreated sample of fresh-cut yardlong bean. As a conclusion, the
    application of PL at dose 9.0 J/cm2 has increased the shelf life of fresh-cut yardlong bean while
    maintaining the quality when stored at 4±1°C.
  12. Uthumporn, U., Nadiah, N.I., Koh, W.Y., Zaibunnisa, A.H., Azwan, L.
    The effect of microwave heating and conventional heating towards the physicochemical and
    functional properties of corn and rice flour with 30% moisture content in water suspension at
    temperature of 50°C and 60°C were investigated. Conventional heat treatment was carried out
    at 50°C and 60°C respectively by direct heating the moisture treated flour. Microwave heating
    treatment was carried out by using domestic microwave oven at 50°C and 60°C respectively.
    The amylose content, particle size diameter, and gelatinization temperature are increasing in
    microwave and conventional heat treated corn and rice flour. Decreasing of pasting temperature,
    swelling power and solubility of all the heat-treated starches compared to control were detected.
    X-ray diffraction pattern of all control and heat treated corn and rice flour exhibit typical A-type
    pattern. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) has revealed the heat treated corn and rice flour
    showed rougher surface, porous granules and rupture granules. There are no significance effect
    of temperature differences on corn and rice flour carried out at 50°C and 60°C. Evidently,
    microwave heating was effective to alter the physicochemical and functional properties of corn
    and rice flour.
  13. Jaswir, I., Alotaibi, A., Jamal, P., Octavianti, F., Lestari, W., Hendri, R., et al.
    Gelatin is one of the most widely used food ingredients, with wide applications in the food
    industry. It was reported that 41% of the gelatin produced in the world is sourced from pig
    skin, 28.5% from bovine hides and 29.5% from bovine bones. However, factors such as the
    outbreak of BSE (a.k.a. mad cow disease) and increasing demand for non-mammalian gelatin
    for halal and kosher food markets have revived interest in gelatin replacers from plant sources.
    In this study, we have successfully extracted valuable pectin—as gelatin replacer--from various
    types of plant wastes. Pectin is a high value functional food ingredient widely used as a gelling
    agent and stabilizer. It is also an abundant, ubiquitous and multifunctional component of the
    cell walls of all land plants. Mango peel was screened as the ideal source for high-yield (36.6%)
    pectin of satisfactory quality. The results indicate that citric acid was the best solution for
    recovery of pectin from mango peels. An extraction temperature of 90°C and pH 2 provided
    the optimum conditions for maximum yield of pectin. The resulting crude mango peel pectin
    (CMPP) was analyzed for physicochemical parameters. The results indicated values for ash
    content (0.0412%), moisture content (0.303%), viscosity (45.18%), galacturonic acid content
    (36.8-37.2-40%) and degree of esterification (38.3-41%). Following analysis of its gelling
    properties and sensory evaluation, CMPP has good potential to be applied in the food industry
    as a low-methoxyl pectin and a cheap source of gelatin replacer for jam preparations.
  14. Farah, A.A., Sukor, R., Fatimah, A.B., Jinap, S.
    Nanotechnology contribute to significant impacts in every way in our daily life. Recently,
    the application of nanotechnology in biosensors has been a trend in developing a highly
    sensitive, selective, quick response, inexpensive, high volume production, great reliability
    and miniaturized sensors. High demands on the production of rapid sensors for food safety
    and quality control purposes are increasingly become the interest for researchers all over the
    world. This is because, in food sector, the quality of a certain product is based on their periodic
    chemical and microbilogical analysis. The uses of nanomaterials in biosensors are very
    promising because they mediate current flow. Surface modification of the electrode based on
    various nanomaterials including nanoparticle, nanofiber, nanowire and nanotube significantly
    increase the performance of the biosensor. Ultimately, this implementation will enhance the
    sensor’s sensitivity and stability. This review explores the previous research and development
    work on nanomaterials-based sensors for food applications.
  15. Nathan, S., Chowdhury, M.E.H., Anuar, Z.M.Z., Iekhsan, O., Sharifah, S.H., Ahmed, N.
    Meat quality is always subject to consumer scrutiny when purchasing from retail markets on
    mislabeling as fresh meat. Repeated cycles of ‘freeze-thaw’ degrade the quality of meat. Existing
    studies have primarily embarked on physical, chemical and biochemical changes induced by
    variable storage conditions. The authentication of fresh versus thawed meat quality can be
    further explored with the data involving a series of biochemical pathways that were largely
    well-studied in living muscle tissues. However, these pathways are less predictable in postslaughter
    condition where muscle turns to meat. In addition, there is far less known about how
    various management or environmental stimuli impact these pathways, either by substrate load
    or altered cellular environment during storage. Though the rate of post-slaughter metabolism
    is quite important in driving meat quality development, it is also fairly well established.
    Alternatively, the biochemical mechanisms responsible for the cessation of postmortem
    metabolism, or protracted carbohydrate metabolism are particularly puzzling. Likewise,
    there is little information about the relationship between volatility profiles of biomolecules
    with regards to functional groups, enzymatic activity, protein solubility and protein surface
    properties in meat during storage. The studies of these changes could be used to distinguish
    between fresh and thawed meat.
  16. Noramaliza, M.N., Maryam, A.J., Hassan, S., Wan Saffiey, W.A., Nizam, T., Faizal, M., et al.
    Food irradiation is a process carried out in order to improve hygienic quality and germination
    control, retarding sprouting, also enhancing physical attributes of the food product. In order to
    provide for food safety, radiation dosimetry in irradiated foods is required. In present studies
    use is made of germanium doped (Ge-doped) optical fibres of various form and dimensions.
    The fibres are irradiated using a gamma source irradiator (Gamma Cell 220 Excel), with doses
    from 1 kGy up to 10 kGy. For the particular Ge-doped optical fibres, investigation has been
    made of linearity with dose, reproducibility, and fading, intercomparisons being made. The
    fibres all exhibit TL yields that are linear with dose from 1 kGy up to 10 kGy, exceeding the
    dose range of all commercial high dose dosimeters used in the food irradiation industry. In
    respect of the flat fibre dosimeters, the mean reproducibility was found to be within 0.53%
    to 4.96%, also offering low signal loss (fading), within 13.41% (for fibres of cross-sectional
    dimensions 60 x 180 µm) to 20.12% (for fibres of cross-sectional dimensions 200 x 750µm),
    after 22 days of storage.
  17. Shafie, B., Cheng, S.C., Lee, H.H., Yiu, P.H.
    Classification of whole grain rice using only amylose content is not practical to predict starch
    viscosity for end product recommendation. This study aims to characterize and categorize
    whole-grain rice based on pasting profile of Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA). The rice cultivars
    showed a wide range of peak viscosity (89.98 to 280.95 RVU), hold viscosity (59.97 to 211.56
    RVU), breakdown viscosity (-0.33 to 130.67 RVU), final viscosity (111.25 to 390.75 RVU),
    setback viscosity (-44.47 to 205.67 RVU) and pasting temperature (74.17 – 91.15o
    C). Stability ratio and final viscosity explained 68.8% of total variance in the RVA profiles. The rice cultivars
    could be grouped into high (>0.95), medium (0.65-0.95) and low (< 0.65) stability ratio,
    followed by high (>300 RVU), medium (140 – 250 RVU) and low (< 140 RVU) final viscosity.
    The classification could serve as a basis for effective rice selection according to functional
    properties of whole grain rice.
  18. Kamarul Zaman, A. A., Shamsudin, R., Mohd Adzahan, N.
    Quality and alimental contents of single fruit juice can be ameliorated through mixing or blending process with other fruit juices. Pineapple and mango are the most popular tropical fruits in Malaysia with good characteristic taste. Color properties of pineapple and mango juice blends at ratio of 70P:30M; 50P:50M; 30P:70M was evaluated in term of L*, a*, b* hue, Chroma, color difference (ΔE). Blends ratio 70P:30M juice give the best color performance in terms of hue, chroma and ΔE. Physicochemical properties of juice blends ratio of 70P:30M also give more perishable results of pH (4.32) titratable acidity (0.66% malic acid), total soluble solid (13.67), vitamin C (54.25 mg ascorbic acid/100 ml), and turbidity (438 NTU).
  19. Mohd-Hanif, H.A., Shamsudin, R., Mohd Adzahan, N.
    Tamarind juice is commonly treated with thermal treatment to inactivate microorganisms.
    However, thermal treatment deteriorates the appearance and flavor of tamarind juice. In this
    study, the performance of UVC treatment on clear and turbid tamarind juice as an alternative to
    thermal treatment was investigated. Results showed that UVC treatment was able to reduce E.
    coli O157:H7 by 7-log reduction but unable to completely remove the total bacterial population
    as observed in thermally treated clear and turbid tamarind juices. The pH of treated tamarind
    juices was comparable to each other. Nonetheless, UVC treatment caused significant changes
    on the flavor of the juice as it significantly reduced the total soluble solids of tamarind juices
    and decreased the titratable acidity of turbid tamarind juice. However, UVC treatments retained
    the appearance i.e. turbidity and color of tamarind juices better than thermal treatment.
  20. Mhd Abd Kader, K. A., Ab. Aziz, N., Aziz, A., Talib, A. T., Ahmad, N. H., Tan, C. P., et al.
    Pink Guava Puree (PGP) factory produces tons of residues from its unit operation [refiner (R),
    siever (S), and decanter (D)]. These residues represent a waste of nutrients and can contribute
    to environmental problem. However, it can benefit related industries if the properties of the
    residues are known. Thus, this research aims to determine the compositions of the residues
    from PGP processing factory in order to evaluate possible value-added by-product and energy
    sources. The residues from each unit operation were being tested for proximate composition,
    dietary fibre components, pH value, emulsifying activity (EA) and emulsifying stability (ES),
    carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) ratio, and sugar analysis. The sugar content was analysed using High
    Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC-RI detector). Results showed that the residues
    have good composition of carbohydrate (11.82–12.18%), and thus potential as carbon source
    and can be a good substrate for fermentation. These residues may also benefit the food industry
    as a good source of dietary fibre (18.63–29.86%). The pH value for these PGP residues is 4;
    thus they were considered as acidic food by-product. The low pH value also contributed to the
    low EA and ES value other than the low content of protein in the sample. C/N ratio for PGP
    residue from R (46:1) is the lowest compared to the C/N ratio from S (84:1) and D (115:1). The
    amount of sugars detected in the PGP residues in descending order were fructose > glucose >
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