Ultraviolet (UV) light especially UV-C has been used to sterilize fruits and vegetables. However, overdose of UV-C irradiation could cause brownish-red colouration to products such as banana fruit. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to: (1) examine the effect of UV-C irradiation at different doses on the surface colour of Berangan banana fruit during ripening; (2) determine polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity after irradiated with different doses of UV-C, and (3) examine the effectiveness of three browning assessment methods (subjective score, browning index derived from Lab colour space and optical density of 420 nm) in response to PPO activity of UV-C irradiated Berangan banana fruit. Mature green Berangan banana fruit were irradiated with 0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03 and 0.04 kJ/m2 UV-C. After irradiation, the fruit were initiated to ripening using 1 mL/L ethylene for 24 h. Then, the fruit were allowed to ripen in 27oC and fruit of day 0, 1, 3 and 5 were sampled for peel colour (L*, a*, b*, C* and ho), browning assessment (three methods) and PPO assay. The peel colour, browning assessment using subjective score and optical density, and PPO activity of Berangan banana fruit were affected significantly (P ≤ 0.05) by interaction of radiation dose x ripening day. The values of L*, b*, C* and ho decrease while a* values increase as fruit irradiated with 0.03 and 0.04 kJ/m2 UV-C indicating brownish-red has occurred. Fruit irradiated with 0.04 kJ/m2 UV-C discoloured by ripening day 3 while those irradiated with 0.03 kJ/m2 discolored by day 5. Similar result was obtained when fruit assessed for its browning using subjective score and optical density. A contrary result was obtained in PPO activity where UV-C irradiation has inhibited Berangan banana fruit PPO activity by ripening day 5. Correlation analysis showed that browning index that derived from colour space is highly related to PPO activity with coefficients of 0.93. As conclusion, the lethal dose causing browning for Berangan banana fruit is 0.03 kJ/m2 and browning index that derived from colour space is most effective to correlate browning with PPO activity.
The development of food products using composite flour has increased and is attracting much attention from researchers, especially in the production of bakery products and pastries. This article focuses on the use of composite flour to produce food products, namely bread, biscuits, and pasta, with looks at on its impact, following some improvements made, on the sensory quality, rheology characteristics, and nutritional values as well as its overall acceptance. The blending of wheat flour with various sources of tubers, legumes, cereals and fruit flour in different percentages to produce variety of food products are also reported in this review. It was found that composite flour used to produce food products is still able to maintain similar characteristics to products made from full-wheat flour. The positive effects of the use of composite flour can be seen in the final product related to the functional and physicochemical properties and health benefits of raw blended flour along with percentage blending. Overall, composite flour is a good new approach to utilizing uncommon food products as the application of composite flour produced products with different characteristics and quality, depending on the types and percentage of wheat flour used in the formulation.
An awareness of Escherichia coli as a foodborne pathogen and illness causing bacterium has been increased among consumers. Moreover, there is demand for natural product in order to reduce synthetic product that can cause toxic to the human. In this study, antibacterial activity, in term of MIC, MBC and killing-time curve of methanolic extract of Boesenbergia rotunda have been tested against a standard E. coli ATCC 25922 and two E. coli isolated from milk products using Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) methods. The results show that B. rotunda extract was susceptible to all E. coli strains. The MIC and MBC values of B. rotunda extract against E. coli ranged 0.019 mg/mL 2.5 mg/mL and 0.039 mg/mL – 5.0 µg/mL, respectively. Killing-time curves were constructed at concentrations of 0x MIC, 1/2x MIC, 1x MIC, and 2x MIC. All E. coli strains can be killed with concentration of 2x MIC after 2 hours. The results show that B. rotunda extract has potential antibacterial activity against E. coli.
Rice is a carbohydrate, one of the plant-based foods that can accumulate heavy metal from soil and the irrigation water. Since total heavy metal always overestimates the amount of heavy metal available in rice, bioavailability of heavy metal is always preferred. Many studies have been done and found that in vitro methods offer an appealing alternative to human and animal studies. They can be simple, rapid, low in cost and may provide insights which not achievable in the in vivo studies. In vitro digestion model for rice may differ from other in vitro digestion models applied in soil or other type of foods studies. This review aims to provide an overview of in vitro digestion model used to determine bioavailability of heavy metal in rice, summarize health risk assessment application of heavy metal in rice studies and highlight the importance of health risk assessment to be included in the studies. Future exploration of in vitro digestion model and health risk assessment application on the bioavailability of heavy metal in rice was also suggested.
Momordica charantia, also known as bitter melon or ‘peria katak’ in Malaysia, is a member of the family Cucurbitaceae. Bitter melon is an excellent source of vitamins and minerals that made it extensively nutritious. Moreover, the seed, fruit and leave of the plant contain bioactive compounds with a wide range of biological activities that have been used in traditional medicines in the treatment of several diseases, including inflammation, infections, obesity and diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in urinary metabolite profile of the normal, streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes and M. charantia treated diabetic rats using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) -based metabolomics profiling. Study had been carried out by inducing diabetes in the rats through injection of streptozotocin, which exhibited type 1 diabetes. M. charantia extract (100 and 200 mg/kg body weight) was administrated to the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats for one week. Blood glucose level after administration was measured to examine hypoglycemic effect of the extract. The results obtained indicated that M. charantia was effective in lowering blood glucose level of the diabetic rats. The loading plot of Partial Least Square (PLS) component 1 showed that diabetic rats had increased levels of lactate and glucose in urine whereas normal and the extract treated diabetic rats had higher levels of succinate, creatine, creatinine, urea and phenylacetylglycine in urine. While the loading plot of PLS component 2 showed a higher levels of succinate, citrate, creatine, creatinine, sugars, and hippurate in urine of normal rat compared to the extract treated diabetic rat. Administration of M. charantia extract was found to be able to regulate the altered metabolic processes. Thus, it could be potentially used to treat the diabetic patients.
The aim of this study is to determine the total phenolic content and primary antioxidant activity of methanolic and ethanolic extracts of four aromatic plants’ leaves namely knotweed (Polygonum minus), curry (Murraya koenigii), kaffir lime (Citrus hysrix) and fragrant screwpine (Pandanus odurus). Total phenolic content (TPC) assay using Folin-Ciocalteu method was used to assess the presence and level of phenolic compounds in each sample. The present study showed that both methanolic and ethanolic extracts of P. minus had the highest TPC and followed by M. koenigii, C. hystrix and P. odorus. Primary antioxidant activity in terms of free radical scavenging activities of both methanolic and ethanolic extracts was then measured by 2, 2, diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity assay. The lowest EC50 values based on the DPPH. radical scavenging activity were shown by P. minus extracts as compared to the other samples. For both ethanolic and methanolic extracts, the correlations between TPC and EC50 based on the DPPH. radical scavenging activity assay were negative and weak. Relatively, the present results suggest that of the four aromaticplants, P. minus and M. koenigii have shown potential as sources of natural antioxidants.
Melicope ptelefolia (MP) is one of the alternative herbal resources which have a great potential to be marketed worldwide. Because of its exploratory nature, this study used qualitative research methodology, which is natural and highly interpretive in order to gain consumer insights. This preliminary qualitative study used an in-depth personal interview approach for data collection. Informants for this study were 30 regular consumers of MP, aged from 18 years old and above. From the findings, it is reported that MP had a slightly bitter taste, crunchy young leaves, pungent, and lemon-lime aroma. In terms of its physical characteristics, it is said that MP has trifoliate, green, thick, broad leaves and has small white and greenish flowers. Respondents have varying levels of awareness and knowledge regarding MP but most of them believed that medicinal products can be produced from this herb. Respondents also stressed the importance of scientific research to properly develop MP into medicinal products and turn it into alternative treatment that has commercial values in the market.
Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) is an important foodborne pathogen which can cause foodborne listeriosis with high mortality rates especially in susceptible population groups such as pregnant women, elderly and immunocompromised individuals. The biosafety level of L. monocytogenes in chicken offal has becomes a great concern as chicken offal is a cheap source of protein and it is often served as side dishes in South East Asian countries. In Malaysia, the consumption of chicken offal has almost doubled from 5 g per capita per day in the early 1980s to 9 g per capita per day in 2009. In this study, risk assessment was conducted to estimate the risk of acquiring listeriosis from consumption of chicken offal in Malaysia. A microbial survey on the prevalence and concentration of L. monocytogenes in chicken offal were carried out in Selangor, Malaysia over a one-year period (November 2010 to October 2011). It was assumed that there were no seasonal changes in the prevalence and consumption pattern all year round. Assuming that 5.6 million people in Selangor, Malaysia consume a single serving (125 g) of chicken offal per week, it is estimated that in a year there could be 0.61 cases and 1.98 × 10-4 cases of listeriosis per 100,000 population of pregnant woman and immunocompromised individual, respectively. However, the potential for getting listeriosis among the healthy population was very low, only 1.39 × 10-8 cases per 100,000 population. This study demonstrated risk assessment model not only used as a tool to estimate the risk of acquiring illness but it can influence public health surveillance and providing data in setting appropriate level of protection.
The halal logo(s) issued by JAKIM tend to confuse consumers as they greatly lacked information about the genuine halal logo. This was found by conducting open ended, but structured interviews from 20 Malays and showing them 10 halal logos (9 original and 1 fake) to see whether they could recognize the fake from the originals. This research found that while all the respondents had difficulty in differentiating the real halal logo from the fake, they all preferred a single, unified halal logo to end the confusion. This finding holds serious implications for JAKIM: it needs to extend efforts to educate people about the in-practice halal logo, without which many people would remain in the same confusion. This bears particular importance for the religious food requirements of Muslims as genuine halal logo determines the permissibility of food being taken.
It is crucial to determine several protein-related parameters at the initial stages of proteomic analysis of any biological samples. In this study, crude protein content, total soluble protein, total phenolic content and the SDS-PAGE profile of fifteen varieties of seaweed from Semporna, Sabah, Malaysia were analysed. The crude protein, total soluble protein and total phenolic content of all seaweed samples were in the range of 3.99 to 13.18 % of dry weight, 0.52 to 1.45 mg/mL in acetone dried powder samples and 8.59 to 48.98 mg PGE/g dry weight, respectively. In general, the differences (crude protein, total soluble protein and total phenolic content) among all fifteen varieties of seaweeds were significant (p< 0.05). There was also a strong positive correlation between crude protein and total soluble protein concentration (Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient (r)=0.923; p=0.01) in these fifteen varieties of seaweed. A distinctive protein pattern was observed in the SDS-PAGE gels between three different seaweed classes of green, red and brown colours. All of these results are important in sample preparations (extractions) before furthering proteomic analysis in order to identify and characterize seaweed proteomes.
This study was conducted to determine the cholesterol and alpha-tocopherol contents of 20 marine fish and four other seafood from the Straits of Malacca. Cholesterol and alphatocopherol contents of the fish and other seafood were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that most of the fish contained low amounts of cholesterol, except sixbar grouper (Epinephelus fasciatus), long-tailed butterfly ray (Gymnura sp.), yellowstripe scad (Selaroides leptolepis), cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis), large-scale tongue sole (Cynoglossus arel), and longtail shad (Hilsa macrura) that contained high amounts of cholesterol (119.39-353.97 mg/100 g wet samples). Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta), giant seaperch (Lates calcarifer), prawn (Metapenaeus affinis), and moonfish (Trachinotus blochii) had high alpha-tocopherol contents (462-989 μg/100 g wet sample). Regular consumption of fish and other seafood is highly recommended partly due to the high alphatocopherol content. Due to the high cholesterol in certain types of fish, consumption of the fish fillets of sixbar grouper, long-tailed butterfly ray, yellowstripe scad, cuttlefish, and large scale tongue sole should be < 100 g per day and < 50 per day for longtail shad. Validation of the analytical method also showed a high accuracy and reproducibility of the HPLC method.
The objective of this study was to determine the physicochemical properties of olein and stearin fractions obtained from non-interesterified (NIE), chemically interesterified (CIE) and enzymatically interesterified (EIE) 50:50 palm oil and palm kernel oil blend. The potential applications of both olein and stearin fractions were also identified. Stearin and olein fractions were obtained through a single stage dry fractionation at 25°C. The physicochemical properties analysed include percent yield, fatty acid composition (FAC), iodine value (IV), smoke point, cloud point, slip meting point (SMP) and solid fat content. Results indicated that the percent olein yield was higher from the EIE (85%) and NIE blends (82.2%) than in CIE blend (41.8%). The EIE blend produce liquid fraction with the highest amount of unsaturated fatty acid (~50%). Hence, the olein fraction of EIE blend best met the requirement to be used as frying oil based on the highest smoke point (265.1°C) and lowest cloud point (6.2°C). On the other hand, the stearin fraction of CIE blend might be suitable to be used in margarine formulation as it has SMP close to body temperature.
There are some signals that Malaysian marine landings are decreasing and that wild stocks have been over-fished. However, it has extensive inland water bodies which have the potentials to be developed into freshwater aquaculture sites. Tengas (Neolissochilus sp.), a freshwater type of fish, are found in abundance in Malaysia; but has not reached the commercial level in the market. This paper examines the potential of developing tengas as a commercial freshwater species. The data used in this study were obtained through primary data search from key informants and a survey. A semi-structured open-ended questionnaire with Malay and Chinese languages was designed for the interviews. The study areas covered Peninsular Malaysia and East Malaysia. From the survey, we found that tengas has potential to be taken as a food item and an ornamental fish. The wild stock of tengas in fact is also worthwhile to be conserved for agro-tourism development. Many restaurant operators are willing to invent cooking method on tengas.
Spray drying is used widely for converting liquid food products into powder form as the dried powder is known to have a longer shelf life at ambient temperature, convenience to use and low transportation expenditure. In this study, the Sarawak pineapple puree was spray-dried and the characterization of the resulting powder was performed. The process of enzyme liquefaction was optimized with Pectinex® Ultra SP-L and Celluclast® 1.5 L (single and combined treatment) at different concentrations (0–2.5 %) and incubation time (0-2.5 hours). The combined treatment with both enzymes (1.5% v/w Pectinex® Ultra SP-L + 0.5% v/w Celluclast® 1.5 L, 1.5 hour) was found to be the best parameter, which produced purees with the lowest viscosity of 67.98 ± 4.27 cp. Optimization of spray drying process was carried out using different inlet temperatures (150-180°C) and maltodextrin concentrations (15-30 % w/w). Results indicated that the spraydried powder produced at 160°C with 15% w/w of maltodextrin has the highest yield (31.63 %). The spray-dried powder was further characterized for the moisture content (6.00 ± 0.63%), water activity (0.36 ± 0.01 Aw), hygroscopicity (17.35 ± 0.64%), bulk density (0.46 ± 0.04 g/ cm3 ) and solubility (87.33 ± 2.08 seconds). The fruit powder of this study can be incorporated into different fruit added –value products, such as fruit juice, yogurt, jelly and other beverages.
Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used in the study to optimize the production of vanillin from isoeugenol through fermentation by Aspergillus niger I-1472. Three factors were studied which include amount of isoeugenol, resin (Amberlite XAD-4) and Span 80. During fermentation, isoeugenol as substrate were vortexed with Span 80 and added into the culture on Day 4. Resin (Amberlite XAD-4) was added into the medium the following day. The predicted optimum medium combination consisted of 3.61 g/L of isoeugenol, 5.8% (g/ mL) of Amberlite XAD-4 resin and 0.37% of Span 80 with an expected vanillin production of 0.137 g/L. Verification test showed that the model produced similar predicted and experimental values.
The objective of this study was to determine microbiological quality of gulai tempoyak paste (GTP) added with three different leaf; Vietnamese coriander, turmeric and asam gelugor. The GTP was cooked for 10 minutes with control temperature (60-70°C) and the leaf were added at 2, 5 and 8 minutes during the cooking time to give exposure times of 8, 5 and 2 minutes of the leaf to GTP. GTP without addition of leaf was treated as control and all the prepared GTPs were stored at 30°C for 2 days before analysed using total plate count (TPC) and yeast and mould count (YMC). The addition of asam gelugor leaf to GTP for 5 minutes of the cooking period significantly (p > 0.05) reduced TPC (log10 3.54 CFU/g) compared to Vietnamese coriander (log10 4.67 CFU/g) and turmeric leaf (log10 4.70 CFU/g). Asam gelugor leaf also showed a significant difference in TPC reduction (log10 4.44 CFU/g) when added to GTP for 8 minutes compared to Vietnamese coriander (log10 5.10 CFU/g), but was insignificant to turmeric leaf (log10 4.71 CFU/g). In conclusion, there are significant effects on microbiological quality of GTP when added with Vietnamese coriander, turmeric and asam gelugor leaf at different exposure time based on TPC and YMC.
The present study was conducted to assess the rapid molecular identification and characterization of 45 Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates from 15 samples of 3 different types of fish (Kembung, Bawal and Sangeh) in the Kuching-Samarahan district. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based confirmation was done targeting the 450 bp fragment of the thermolabile (tl) gene, while DNA fingerprinting was performed using Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) PCR with the primer GEN15008. All the 45 V. parahaemolyticus isolates were positive for the tl gene, however, only 34 were typable via RAPD-PCR with bands sizes ranging from slightly over 250 bp to 2.5 kbp. The degree of diversity was then determined via the Simpson Index which showed a value of 0.891, indicating high diversity among the isolates. Data from the RAPD-PCR fingerprints were later used to construct a dendrogram for clustal analysis. From the dendrogram, the 34 isolates were grouped into 2 major clusters containing 26 and 8 isolates, respectively. Further analyses of the dendrogram also indicated that the 34 isolated were clustered according to the period of sampling. This is an interesting observation as it shows the high discriminatory capability of RAPD-PCR to be used as molecular epidemiological tool to study the temporal distribution of V. parahaemolyticus.
Oil blending has been recognized as one of the most potent solution in producing vegetable oils with good storage stabilities and optimum fatty acids compositions. This study was conducted to identify the best oil blends in terms of physicochemical properties between canola, olive and palm olein oil. Canola and olive oils were blended at different ratios of 80:20, 60:40, 50:50, 40:60, and 20:80. Palm olein is stable against rancidity and oxidation thus the above blends were mixed with 20% palm olein. The 80:20 canola: olive blend shows the best properties after being mixed with 20% palm olein compared to other blends. It passed the cold stability test and has significantly the lowest cloud point of 6.0oC (p
The present study was aimed to investigate the efficacy of fenugreek seeds as a potential natural source of antioxidants and antimicrobials. Fenugreek seed (FS) extracts were prepared using ethanol (75%), methanol (75%) and water as extraction solvents. Ethanol (E-FSP), methanol (M-FSP), water (W-FSP) and hot water (HW-FSP) extracts were obtained from ground FS, whilst water extract (W-GeFS) was obtained from germinated FS. The results revealed that all extracts of the ground FS exhibited antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and the extractability of bioactive compounds in the presence of water was higher in germinated seeds (W-GeFS). Highest phenolic (156.3 mg GAE/ g) and flavonoid (38.5 mg CE/ g) contents were found in W-GeFS. It also showed the strongest DPPH radical-scavenging activity of 68 % inhibition at a lower concentration (0.06 mg/ ml). In addition, highest vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (143.28 mg vitamin C/ g) with an IC50 value of 42.1 μg/ ml were found in W-GeFS. Based on disc diffusion method, W-GeFS exhibited highest antimicrobial activity against all tested bacterial pathogens (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli). Thus, it can be concluded from the results that W-GeFS extract from germinating fenugreek seeds (W-GeFS) has the potential to be used as a natural source of bioactive compounds with varied applications in food industry especially, for active film packaging purposes to prolong the shelf-life of food products.
Ice cream contains high sugar content and therefore it is in contradiction with the concept of healthy diet. The objective of this study is to determine the suitability of using stevia as an alternative natural sweetener in making ice cream. In- house ice cream formulation (as the control) and three different concentrations of stevia ice cream formulations of (A, B and C) were used. Physical properties of the ice cream such as the overrun, total soluble solid, meltdown rate, rheology, and textural properties were evaluated. All ice cream samples exhibited a nonNewtonian flow with pseudoplastic behavior. Stevia ice cream has a lower melting rate and has a higher sustainability. The power law also showed that apparent viscosities of stevia ice cream were higher. Therefore, stevia can be used as a natural sugar substitute in ice cream production.