Displaying publications 21 - 40 of 78 in total

  1. Yew SE, Lim TJ, Lew LC, Bhat R, Mat-Easa A, Liong MT
    J Food Sci, 2011 Apr;76(3):H108-15.
    PMID: 21535834 DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02107.x
    Probiotic delivery system was developed via the use of microbial transglutaminase (MTG) cross-linked soy protein isolate (SPI) incorporated with agrowastes such as banana peel (BE), banana pulp (BU), and pomelo rind (PR). Inoculums of Lactobacillus bulgaricus FTDC 1511 were added to the cross-linked protein matrix. The incorporation of agrowastes had significantly (P<0.05) reduced the strength, pH value, and the lightness of the SPI gel carriers, while sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis profiles revealed that the occurring cross-links within the SPI gel carriers were attributed to the addition of MTG. Scanning electron microscope micrographs illustrated that SPI carriers containing agrowastes have exhibited a less-dense protein matrix. All the SPI carriers possessed maximum swelling ratio at 4 to 4.5 within 15 min in simulated gastric fluid (SGF), whereas the maximum swelling ratios of SPI/BE, SPI/BU, and SPI/PR were higher compared to that of control in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF). Additionally, SPI carriers in SGF medium did not show degradation of structure, whereas a major collapse of network was observed in SIF medium, indicating controlled-release in the intestines. The addition of agrowastes into SPI carriers led to a significantly (P<0.0001) lower release of L. bulgaricus FTDC 1511 in SGF medium and a higher release in SIF medium, compared to that of the control. SPI carriers containing agrowastes may be useful transports for living probiotic cells through the stomach prior to delivery in the lower intestines.
  2. Nurkhoeriyati T, Huda N, Ahmad R
    J Food Sci, 2011 Jan-Feb;76(1):S48-55.
    PMID: 21535715 DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2010.01963.x
    The gelation properties of spent duck meat surimi-like material produced using acid solubilization (ACS) or alkaline solubilization (ALS) were studied and compared with conventionally processed (CON) surimi-like material. The ACS process yielded the highest protein recovery (P < 0.05). The ALS process generated the highest lipid reduction, and the CON process yielded the lowest reduction (P < 0.05). Surimi-like material produced by the CON process had the highest gel strength, salt extractable protein (SEP), and water holding capacity (WHC), followed by materials produced via the ALS and ACS processes and untreated duck meat (P < 0.05). The material produced by the CON process also had the highest cohesiveness, hardness, and gumminess values and the lowest springiness value. Material produced by the ACS and ALS processes had higher whiteness values than untreated duck meat gels and gels produced by the CON method (P < 0.05). Surimi-like material produced using the ACS and CON processes had significantly higher myoglobin removal (P < 0.05) than that produced by the ALS method and untreated duck meat. Among all surimi-like materials, the highest Ca(2+)-ATPase activity was found in conventionally produced gels (P < 0.05). This suggests that protein oxidation was induced by acid-alkaline solubilization. The gels produced by ALS had a significantly lower (P < 0.05) total SH content than the other samples. This result showed that the acid-alkaline solubilization clearly improved gelation and color properties of spent duck and possibly applied for other high fat raw material.
  3. Saadi S, Ariffin AA, Ghazali HM, Miskandar MS, Abdulkarim SM, Boo HC
    J Food Sci, 2011 Jan-Feb;76(1):C21-30.
    PMID: 21535649 DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2010.01922.x
    The ability of palm oil (PO) to crystallize as beta prime polymorph has made it an attractive option for the production of margarine fat (MF). Palm stearin (PS) expresses similar crystallization behavior and is considered one of the best substitutes of hydrogenated oils due to its capability to impart the required level of plasticity and body to the finished product. Normally, PS is blended with PO to reduce the melting point at body temperature (37 °C). Lipid phase, formulated by PO and PS in different ratios were subjected to an emulsification process and the following analyses were done: triacylglycerols, solid fat content (SFC), and thermal behavior. In addition, the microstructure properties, including size and number of crystals, were determined for experimental MFs (EMFs) and commercial MFs (CMFs). Results showed that blending and emulsification at PS levels over 40 wt% significantly changed the physicochemical and microstructure properties of EMF as compared to CMF, resulting in a desirable dipalmitoyl-oleoyl-glycerol content of less than 36.1%. SFC at 37 °C, crystal size, crystal number, crystallization, and melting enthalpies (ΔH) were 15%, 5.37 μm, 1425 crystal/μm(2), 17.25 J/g, and 57.69J/g, respectively. All data reported indicate that the formation of granular crystals in MFs was dominated by high-melting triacylglycerol namely dipalmitoyl-oleoyl-glycerol, while the small dose of monoacylglycerol that is used as emulsifier slowed crystallization rate. Practical Application: Most of the past studies were focused on thermal behavior of edible oils and some blends of oils and fats. The crystallization of oils and fats are well documented but there is scarce information concerning some mechanism related to crystallization and emulsification. Therefore, this study will help to gather information on the behavior of emulsifier on crystallization regime; also the dominating TAG responsible for primary granular crystal formations, as well as to determine the best level of stearin to impart the required microstructure properties and body to the finished products.
  4. Muhialdin BJ, Hassan Z, Sadon SKh
    J Food Sci, 2011 Sep;76(7):M493-9.
    PMID: 21806613 DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02292.x
    In the search for new preservatives from natural resources to replace or to reduce the use of chemical preservatives 4 strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were selected to be evaluated for their antifungal activity on selected foods. The supernatants of the selected strains delayed the growth of fungi for 23 to 40 d at 4 °C and 5 to 6 d at 20 and 30 °C in tomato puree, 19 to 29 d at 4 °C and 6 to 12 d at 20 and 30 °C in processed cheese, and 27 to 30 d at 4 °C and 12 to 24 d at 20 and 30 °C in commercial bread. The shelf life of bread with added LAB cells or their supernatants were longer than normal bread. This study demonstrates that Lactobacillus fermentum Te007, Pediococcus pentosaceus Te010, L. pentosus G004, and L. paracasi D5 either the cells or their supernatants could be used as biopreservative in bakery products and other processed foods.
  5. Nurkhoeriyati T, Huda N, Ahmad R
    J Food Sci, 2012 Jan;77(1):S91-8.
    PMID: 22260136 DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02519.x
    The physicochemical properties and sensory analysis of duck meatballs containing duck meat surimi-like material during frozen storage were evaluated. Properties of meatballs containing duck surimi-like material prepared by acid solubilization (ACDS), alkaline solubilization (ALDS), and conventional processing (CDS) as well as duck mince (as the control, CON) were compared. ACDS had significantly higher (P < 0.05) moisture and protein content and lower fat content compared with CON. The thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) value of all samples increased as the storage time increased up to week 8 (P < 0.05), but thereafter it decreased in most of the samples. ACDS and ALDS had significantly higher TBARS values (P < 0.05), and these values remained higher than those of the other samples throughout the frozen storage period. Addition of surimi-like material to the meatballs had significant effects (P < 0.05) on springiness, gumminess, and chewiness values of all samples. Ingredients and frozen storage affected most sensory attributes in samples significantly (P<0.05). No significant increase in growth of organisms occurred during 12-wk frozen storage The results indicate that acid-alkaline solubilization methods improve both physicochemical and sensory properties of duck meatballs containing duck surimi-like material. Thus, these techniques should be applicable to product development of duck surimi-like material.
  6. Nhari RM, Ismail A, Che Man YB
    J Food Sci, 2012 Jan;77(1):R42-6.
    PMID: 22260124 DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02514.x
    Usage of gelatin in food products has been widely debated for several years, which is about the source of gelatin that has been used, religion, and health. As an impact, various analytical methods have been introduced and developed to differentiate gelatin whether it is made from porcine or bovine sources. The analytical methods comprise a diverse range of equipment and techniques including spectroscopy, chemical precipitation, chromatography, and immunochemical. Each technique can differentiate gelatins for certain extent with advantages and limitations. This review is focused on overview of the analytical methods available for differentiation of bovine and porcine gelatin and gelatin in food products so that new method development can be established.
  7. Teh SS, Ahmad R, Wan-Abdullah WN, Liong MT
    J Food Sci, 2010 Apr;75(3):M155-64.
    PMID: 20492305 DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2010.01538.x
    Cell immobilization is an alternative to microencapsulation for the maintenance of cells in a liquid medium. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of agrowastes from durian (Durio zibethinus), cempedak (Artocarpus champeden), and mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) as immobilizers for lactobacilli grown in soymilk. Rinds from the agrowastes were separated from the skin, dried, and ground (150 microm) to form powders and used as immobilizers. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that lactobacilli cells were attached and bound to the surface of the immobilizers. Immobilized cells of Lactobacillus acidophilus FTDC 1331, L. acidophilus FTDC 2631, L. acidophilus FTDC 2333, L. acidophilus FTDC 1733, and L. bulgaricus FTCC 0411 were inoculated into soymilk, stored at room temperature (25 degrees C) and growth properties were evaluated over 168 h. Soymilk inoculated with nonimmobilized cells was used as the control. Utilization of substrates, concentrations of lactic and acetic acids, and changes in pH were evaluated in soymilk over 186 h. Immobilized lactobacilli showed significantly better growth (P < 0.05) compared to the control, accompanied by higher production of lactic and acetic acids in soymilk. Soymilk containing immobilized cells showed greater reduction of soy sugars such as stachyose, raffinose, sucrose, fructose, and glucose compared to the control (P < 0.05).
  8. Mustafa RA, Abdul Hamid A, Mohamed S, Bakar FA
    J Food Sci, 2010 Jan-Feb;75(1):C28-35.
    PMID: 20492146 DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2009.01401.x
    Free radical scavenging activity of 21 tropical plant extracts was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay (DPPH). Total phenolic compounds and flavonoids were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu and HPLC, respectively. Results of the study revealed that all the plants tested exhibited excellent antioxidant activity with IC(50) in the range of 21.3 to 89.6 microg/mL. The most potent activity was demonstrated by Cosmos caudatus (21.3 microg/mL) and Piper betle (23.0 microg/mL) that are not significantly different than that of -tocopherol or BHA. L. inermis extract was found to consist of the highest concentration of phenolics, catechin, epicatechin, and naringenin. High content of quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol were identified in Vitex negundo, Centella asiatica, and Sesbania grandiflora extracts, respectively. Luteolin and apigenin, on the other hand, were found in Premna cordifolia and Kaempferia galanga extracts. Strong correlation (R = 0.8613) between total phenolic compounds and total flavonoids (R = 0.8430) and that of antioxidant activity of the extracts were observed. The study revealed that phenolic, in particular flavonoids, may be the main contributors to the antioxidant activity exhibited by the plants.
  9. Lioe HN, Selamat J, Yasuda M
    J Food Sci, 2010 Apr;75(3):R71-6.
    PMID: 20492309 DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2010.01529.x
    Soy sauce taste has become a focus of umami taste research. Umami taste is a 5th basic taste, which is associated to a palatable and pleasurable taste of food. Soy sauce has been used as an umami seasoning since the ancient time in Asia. The complex fermentation process occurred to soy beans, as the raw material in the soy sauce production, gives a distinct delicious taste. The recent investigation on Japanese and Indonesian soy sauces revealed that this taste is primarily due to umami components which have molecular weights lower than 500 Da. Free amino acids are the low molecular compounds that have an important role to the taste, in the presence of sodium salt. The intense umami taste found in the soy sauces may also be a result from the interaction between umami components and other tastants. Small peptides are also present, but have very low, almost undetected umami taste intensities investigated in their fractions.
  10. Wai WW, Alkarkhi AF, Easa AM
    J Food Sci, 2009 Oct;74(8):C637-41.
    PMID: 19799660 DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2009.01331.x
    Response surface methodology (RSM) was carried out to study the effect of temperature, pH, and heating time as input variables on the yield and degree of esterification (DE) as the output (responses). The results showed that yield and DE of extracted pectin ranged from 2.27% to 9.35% (w/w, based on dry weight of durian rind) and 47.66% to 68.6%, respectively. The results also showed that a 2nd-order model adequately fitted the experimental data for the yield and DE. Optimum condition for maximum yield and DE was achieved at 85 degrees C, a time of either 4 or 1 h, and a pH of 2 or 2.5.
  11. Huey SM, Hock CC, Lin SW
    J Food Sci, 2009 May-Jul;74(4):E177-83.
    PMID: 19490322 DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2009.01122.x
    The lipase-catalyzed interesterification of refined, bleached, deodorized palm olein with iodine value (IV) of 62 was studied in a pilot continuous packed-bed reactor operating at 65 degrees C. Sn-1,3 specific immobilized enzyme; Lipozyme TL IM (Thermomyces Lanuginosa) from Novozyme A/S was used in this study. The interesterification reaction produced fully solidified fats at ambient temperature due to the production of trisaturated triacylglycerols (TAG) (PPP and PPS, where P = palmitic acid, S = stearic acid). The reaction also increased the percentage of triunsaturated TAG (OLL, OLO, and OOO, where O = oleic acid, L = linoleic acid). The interesterified product was then dry fractionated at temperatures of 9, 12, 15, 18, and 21 degrees C to separate the saturated fats from the unsaturated. The results show that IV of olein increased when the fractionation temperature (T(FN)) decreased. The highest IV of olein was 72, obtained from T(FN) at 9 degrees C. After interesterification and laboratory-scale fractionation, the olein fractions contained higher unsaturation content ranging from 64.7% to 67.7% compared to the starting material (58.3%), while the saturation content was reduced from 41.7% to the range of 32.3% to 35.3%. The yields of these oleins were low with the range of 24.8% to 51.8% due to the limitation of the vacuum filtration. Ten kilograms of pilot-scale fractionation with membrane press filter was used to determine the exact olein yield. At T(FN) of 12 degrees C, 67.1% of olein with saturation content of 33.9% was obtained.
  12. Hussin M, Hamid AA, Mohamad S, Saari N, Bakar F, Dek SP
    J Food Sci, 2009 Mar;74(2):H72-8.
    PMID: 19323754 DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2009.01045.x
    A study was carried out to investigate the effects of Centella asiatica leaf on lipid metabolism of oxidative stress rats. The rats were fed 0.1% hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) with either 0.3% (w/w) C. asiatica extract, 5%C. asiatica powder (w/w), or 0.3% (w/w) alpha-tocopherol for 25 wk. Results of the study showed that C. asiatica powder significantly (P < 0.05) lowered serum low-density lipoprotein compared to that of control rats (rats fed H(2)O(2) only). At the end of the study C. asiatica-fed rats were also found to have significantly (P < 0.05) higher high-density lipoprotein and lower triglyceride level compared to rats fed only normal diet. However, cholesterol level of rats fed both C. asiatica extract and powder was found to be significantly (P < 0.05) higher compared to that of control rats. It was interesting to note that consumption of C. asiatica significantly decreased body and liver weights of the rats. Histological examinations revealed no obvious changes in all rats studied. Quantitative analysis of C. asiatica leaf revealed high concentration of total phenolic compounds, in particular, catechin, quercetin, and rutin.
  13. Gan CY, Cheng LH, Easa AM
    J Food Sci, 2009 Mar;74(2):C141-6.
    PMID: 19323728 DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2009.01053.x
    Soy protein isolate (SPI) gels were produced using single cross-linking agents (SCLA) of microbial transglutaminase (MTG) via incubation for 5 or 24 h (SCLA-MTG). When powdered SCLA-MTG gels were heated for 2 h with ribose (R2) (2 g/100 mL), dark brown gels were formed, and these were designated as combined cross-linking agent (CCLA) gels: MTG5(R2) and MTG24(R2). The results showed that the levels of Maillard-derived browning and cross-links of MTG5(R2) and MTG24(R2) gels were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than a control gel produced without MTG (SCLA-R2) even though the percentage of ribose remaining after heating of these gels was similar, indicating that a similar amount of ribose was consumed during heating. epsilon-(gamma-glutamyl)lysine bonds formed during incubation of SPI with MTG may have reduced the free amino group of SPI to take part in the Maillard reaction; nevertheless, ribose took part in the Maillard reaction and initiated the Maillard cross-linkings within the CCLA gels.
  14. Noor Aziah AA, Komathi CA
    J Food Sci, 2009 Sep;74(7):S328-33.
    PMID: 19895499 DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2009.01298.x
    This study was intended to investigate the potential of peeled and unpeeled pumpkin pulp as a raw material for the production of flour that could be used in composite blend with wheat flour or as a functional ingredient in food products. The peeled and unpeeled pumpkin pulp were soaked in sodium metabisulphite solution, sliced and dried overnight in a hot air oven, followed by milling into peeled pumpkin pulp flour (PPPF) and unpeeled pumpkin pulp flour (UPPF), respectively. The flours were then evaluated for physicochemical attributes (color, proximate compositions, and water activity) and functional properties (water holding capacity and oil holding capacity), in comparison to the commercial wheat flour. PPPF and UPPF were observed to be more attractive in terms of color than wheat flour, as indicated by the significantly higher results (P or= 0.05) was shown in water holding capacity of PPPF and wheat flour. However, the oil holding capacity of PPPF and UPPF was shown to be significantly higher (P
  15. Ramli MR, Siew WL, Cheah KY
    J Food Sci, 2008 Apr;73(3):C140-5.
    PMID: 18387090 DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2007.00657.x
    High-oleic palm oil (HOPO) with an oleic acid content of 59.0% and an iodine value (IV) of 78.2 was crystallized in a 200-kg De Smet crystallizer with a predetermined cooling program and appropriate agitation. The slurry was then fractionated by means of dry fractionation at 4, 8, 10, 12, and 15 degrees C. The oil and the fractionated products were subjected to physical and chemical analyses, including fatty acid composition, triacylglycerol and diacylglycerol composition, solid fat content, cloud point, slip melting point, and cold stability test. Fractionation at 15 degrees C resulted in the highest olein yield but with minimal oleic acid content. Due to the enhanced unsaturation of the oil, fractionation at relatively lower crystallization temperature showed a considerable effect on fatty acid composition as well as triacylglycerol and diacylglycerol composition of liquid fractions compared to higher crystallization temperature. The olein and stearin fractionated at 4 degrees C had the best cold stability at 0 degrees C and sharper melting profile, respectively.
  16. Pak-Dek MS, Abdul-Hamid A, Osman A, Soh CS
    J Food Sci, 2008 Oct;73(8):C595-8.
    PMID: 19019102 DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2008.00929.x
    Efficacy of Morinda citrifolia L. leaf (MLE) and fruit extracts (MFE) in inhibiting lipoprotein lipase (LPL) was determined in vitro. The result of the study showed that the highest inhibition on the LPL activity was exhibited by MLE (66%+/- 2.1%), which is significantly higher than that demonstrated by MFE (54.5%+/- 2.5%), green tea extract (GTE) (54.5%+/- 2.6%), and catechin (43.6%+/- 6.1%). Percent of LPL inhibition increase with concentration of the extracts. Quantitative analysis of the extracts revealed the presence of high levels of (+)-catechin at 63.5 +/- 17 and 53.7 +/- 5.7 mg/g in MLE and MFE, respectively, although not as high as that found in GTE (530.6 +/- 42 mg/g). Appreciable amount of epicatechin was found in all extracts tested, while rutin was only found in MLE and MFE. The study suggested that both leaf and fruit of M. citrifolia may be used as antiobesity agents in body weight management.
  17. Zhang Q, Noryati I, Cheng LH
    J Food Sci, 2008 Mar;73(2):E82-7.
    PMID: 18298729 DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2007.00627.x
    Chicken breast muscle powder (CBMP) and modified waxy cornstarch (MWCS) blends were prepared at different pH conditions (pH 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9). The blends were characterized by light microscopy, frequency sweep, flow analysis, and freeze-thaw stability analysis. Light microscopy showed that the blend structure was coarse at pH conditions close to the isoelectric point of protein and became finer with increasing pH. Frequency sweep demonstrated that the blend was more liquid-like with relatively lower storage (G') and loss (G'') moduli as the pH was increased from pH 4 to pH 9. Flow analysis revealed that thixotropy behavior was evident in samples treated at pHs 4 and 5, whereas antithixotropy was shown by those adjusted to pHs 6, 7, 8, and 9. The CBMP-MWCS blends were found to show better freeze-thaw stability at pH 8 that could be attributed to the formation of a highly interactive network structure of CBMP and MWCS.
  18. Jinap S, Ikrawan Y, Bakar J, Saari N, Lioe HN
    J Food Sci, 2008 Sep;73(7):H141-7.
    PMID: 18803708 DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2008.00858.x
    Cocoa-specific aroma precursors and methylpyrazines in underfermented cocoa beans obtained from fermentation induced by indigenous carboxypeptidase have been investigated. Fermentation conditions and cocoa bean components were analyzed during 0 to 3 d of fermentation. Underfermented cocoa beans were characterized as having hydrophilic peptides and free hydrophobic amino acids much higher than unfermented ones. These 2 key components of cocoa aroma precursors may be produced from the breakdown of proteins and polypeptides by endogenous carboxypeptidase during the fermentation process. The enzyme was activated during fermentation. Polypeptides of 47, 31, and 19 kDa were observed in the samples throughout the 3-d fermentation period; however, only the first 2 polypeptides were remarkably reduced during fermentation. Since the 1st day of fermentation, underfermented cocoa beans contained methylpyrazines, a dominant group of cocoa-specific aroma. This might be due to microbial activities during fermentation, observed through a decrease of pH value and an increase of temperature of cocoa beans. The concentration of tetramethylpyrazines was significantly increased during the 3 d of fermentation. This may increase the cocoa-specific flavor to the beans.
  19. Maizura M, Fazilah A, Norziah MH, Karim AA
    J Food Sci, 2007 Aug;72(6):C324-30.
    PMID: 17995673
    Edible films were prepared from a mixture of partially hydrolyzed sago starch and alginate (SA). Lemongrass oil (0.1% to 0.4%, v/w) and glycerol (0% and 20%, w/w) were incorporated in the films to act as natural antimicrobial agent and plasticizer, respectively. The films were characterized for antimicrobial activity, water vapor permeability (WVP), tensile strength (TS), percent elongation at break (%E), and water solubility (WS). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was conducted to determine functional group interactions between the matrix and lemongrass oil. The zone of inhibition was increased significantly (P < 0.05) by addition of lemongrass oil at all levels in the presence and the absence of glycerol. This indicates that the film containing lemongrass oil was effective against Escherichia coli O157:H7 at all levels. In the absence of glycerol, the tensile strength of film decreased as the oil content increased, but there was no significant (P > 0.05) difference in percent elongation. The percent elongation at break and WVP values for film with 20% glycerol was found to be increased significantly (P < 0.05) with an increase in lemongrass oil content. Addition of lemongrass oil did not have any interaction with the functional groups of films as measured by FTIR.
  20. Teh T, Dougherty MP, Camire ME
    J Food Sci, 2007 Sep;72(7):S516-21.
    PMID: 17995666
    Acceptance of healthful foods by consumers is not yet well understood. In this study, 3 formulations of frozen dessert bars were prepared containing both soy and wild blueberries. Soy content was controlled to provide an amount of soy protein that qualified for the health claim for soy and reduced risks for cardiovascular disease. Consumers were asked to complete the Health and Taste Attitude Scales (HTAS) and then evaluate the acceptability of the 3 frozen bar types using a 9-point hedonic scale. One week after the 1st session, the participants returned. Approximately half were given information to read regarding the health benefits of soy protein, the other participants were given no information. The samples were then presented a 2nd time and labeled with their soy protein content. Changes in hedonic scores between sessions were compared and correlated with HTAS ratings. Nutrition information generally did not affect acceptability scores.
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