Cancer pain is a complex experience and is one of the most common and distressing symptom of breast cancer which affects patients’ functioning in daily activities, their quality of life (QOL), and mood. Yet, there is a great lack of data on breast cancer and pain in Malaysia.
Methods: A cross-sectional study using the Breast Cancer Patient Version of Quality of Life (QOL) Instrument (translated into Malay) and Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) were conducted on 87 female breast cancer patients to investigate the impact of pain interference level on their quality of life and depressive level.
Results: The patients were divided into 4 groups based on their rating of how pain and aches have been a problem to them (i.e not a problem [n=18 (20.7%)], mild[n=29 (33.3%)], moderate [n=18 (20.7%)] and severe [n=22(25.3%). Pain and aches ware reported to be the most severe interference problems in QOL physical domain by patients (mean=5.8, SD=2.8), followed by fatigue (mean=6.0, SD=3.1) and sleep changes (mean=6.2, SD=3.5). Patients who reported that pain and aches had severely affected them showed significantly lower score on many aspects of quality of life (Fs > 5, p < 0.005; p < 0.0001) and patients reported pain was not a problem at all demonstrated highest score on all aspects of QOL. Patients with most severe pain interference level showed highest depressive score [F (3, 84) =3, p < 0.05].
Conclusion: The study underscores the impact of pain interference on patients’ quality of life and depressive level. The pain assessment deserves significant attention and therefore a comprehensive biopsychosocial assessment of pain to rule out any related underlying issues is warranted in the management of breast cancer to ensure appropriate intervention given to the patients.
As the sugar intake of Malaysians is one of the highest in the Asia Pacific region, we wanted to investigate how this high prevalence of ‘sweet tooth’ is influenced by biological determinants like age, gender, ethnicity and Body Mass Index (BMI). Therefore, this study was to determine the demographic and BMI differences of preference, intake frequency and craving of a list of sweet beverages and food among Malaysian subjects. Convenience sampling was performed around Kuala Lumpur, with informed consents, involving 367 multi-ethnic subjects (163 males, 204 females; 83 Malays, 201 Chinese, 83 Indians; 209 lean, 158 overweight). Demographics and anthropometric measurements were taken and questionnaire on the preference/frequency/craving of a list of 22 sweet food and beverages with a 7 point hedonic scale (from 1= very unpleasant/never/never crave to 7 = very pleasant/at least once a day/ always crave) was performed. Females significantly preferred more, took less frequently but had equal craving of sweet foods compared to males. Lean subjects and those
The National Health and Morbidity Survey 2011 was a nationally representative household survey of non-institutionalized Malaysian population who were residing in Malaysia for at least 2 weeks prior to data collection. The aim of the survey was to provide health related community–based data and information to support Ministry of Health, Malaysia, in reviewing health priorities, programme strategies and activities, and planning for allocation of resources. There were twelve research scopes included in the survey. The sample size was calculated based on the requirement for each scope. A two-stage stratified sampling was adopted in the survey. The methods for data collection were via the questionnaire, clinical examination, and biochemical analysis. Quality controls were also instituted to ensure collection of high quality data. The National Health and Morbidity Survey 2011 (NHMS 2011) adopted an appropriate methodology for a population survey and all the necessary steps were taken to ensure valid and reliable findings.
Study name: National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS-2011)
Maternal depression has been linked to the development of adolescents’ emotional and behavioural problems. The main objective of this study was to determine the association between maternal depressive disorders and externalizing and internalizing problems among their adolescent children. This was a cross-sectional, comparison study of 35 mothers with depression and their adolescents, matched with 35 healthy mothers and their adolescents as controls. The mothers completed Quick Inventory Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS) for assessment of current depression. The emotional and behavioural problems in the adolescents were assessed independently by the mothers and their adolescents off-springs using Child Behavioral Checklist (CBCL) and Youth Self-Report (YSR), respectively. SPSS version 12.0 was used for statistical analysis. The findings showed that adolescents who have mothers with depressive disorders had significantly higher scores of externalizing (mean difference = 4.686 + 10.887, p = 0.016) and total emotional and behavioural problems (mean difference = 10.171 + 23.007, p = 0.013) than controls. The cases also scored higher than the controls in the following CBCL syndrome scales: aggressive behaviour (mean difference = 3.200 + 6.773, p = 0.008), social problem (mean difference = 1.286 + 2.865, p = 0.012), and attention problem (mean difference = 1.543 + 4.435, p = 0.047). Mothers with depressive disorders reported that their adolescents have greater emotional and behavioural problems than the controls. The findings suggested a need for preventive strategies to curb problematic behaviour focusing on this vulnerable group.
Routine diagnosis of intestinal microsporidiosis in clinical diagnostic laboratories relies mostly on detection of microsporidial spores via special staining and microscopic techniques. This paper describes the comparative evaluation of Calcofluor White M2R method, with modified Gram-chromotrope Kinyoun method as the reference standard. One hundred and six stool samples were examined for the presence of microsporidial spores. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the Calcofluor White M2R method compared to the reference technique were 95.2%, 4.3%, 78.2% and 20.0%, respectively. The positive predictive value (PPV) was 78.2% and the negative predictive value (NPV) was 20.0%. Despite low specificity of the CFW method due to its ability to stain chitinous wall of microorganisms, the presence of distinct deep-blue horizontal or equitorial stripes in microsporidial spores in modified Gram-chromotrope Kinyoun would likely reduce the false positive results obtained in the Calcofluor White M2R. Hence, the simultaneous use of these two methods would give better performance and accuracy for the detection of microsporidial spores in patients with intestinal microsporidiosis.
In this paper, we report three cases of orbital rhabdomyosarcoma in different age groups with different histopathologic types. Case 1 is a 10-year old Malay boy who presented with painless proptosis of the left eye. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed soft tissue mass arising from the lateral rectus muscle. Tissue biopsy revealed rhabdomyosarcoma of embryonal type. Case 2 is a 32-year old Malay man who presented with a progressive left eye proptosis associated with pain and redness. Computed Tomography (CT) scan showed a retrobulbar mass extending medially in the left orbit. Meanwhile, biopsy showed rhabdomyosarcoma of pleomorphic type. Case 3 is a 67-year old Malay woman who presented with proptosis and fungating growth of left orbital region, epistaxis and nasal blockage. CT scan revealed an ill-defined mass filling up the left orbital cavity. Biopsy showed rhabdomyosarcoma of alveolar type. Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common in childhood but it should be considered as a differential diagnosis of orbital tumours irrespective of age.
Cervico-aural [collaural fistula] fistula is rare and it accounts for less than 5% of branchial cleft anomalies. In this paper, we report one such case of a 9 year old girl who was presented to us with two discharging cutaneous openings on the right side; one in the floor of the external auditory canal and another in the neck at the junction of the upper 2/3rd and lower third of the sternomastoid muscle along its anterior border.
Discrepancies between tooth sizes can cause orthodontic problems such as crowding and improper occlusion. By identifying these problems, better orthodontic treatment outcome can be achieved. The aim of this study is to identify anterior tooth size discrepancies among 4 different types of malocclusion i.e. Class I; Class II division 1 (II/1); Class II division 2 (II/2); and Class III. Methods: A retrospective study was carried out using 200 orthodontic study models where 50 study models were taken for each of the 4 malocclusion groups. The samples were selected using random sampling technique based on the orthodontic waiting list in the Orthodontic Department, Dental Faculty, UKM. All anterior teeth were measured by the same examiner at the largest mesio-distal dimension, using a digital caliper recorded up to 0.01 mm. Comparison between the 4 groups of malocclusion were made intra-arch using individual tooth size measurement and inter-arch using Anterior Bolton Index (ABI). Results: For the intra-arch assessment, Class II/1 had significantly the largest upper and lower anterior tooth size except for its upper canine and lower central incisor. Class III group had insignificantly the smallest mandibular anterior teeth compared to other malocclusion groups. For inter-arch assessment, Anterior Bolton Index (ABI) of all samples was 79.2 ± 3.94%. The highest ABI was noted in Class II / 2 of 80.3 ± 4.71%. However, no significant differences were found among the 4 malocclusion groups (p>0.05). Conclusion: Most of the anterior teeth in Class II division 1 were the largest of all. No significant difference in the inter-arch tooth size discrepancies were detected among all malocclusion
Intracranial germinomas belong to the class of germ cell tumors which are relatively rare intracranial tumors. Early recognition of this neoplasm is vital as germinomas are highly radiosensitive and effective/ early radiation therapy can result in relatively favourable overall prognosis. In this article we describe a 19 years old man who presented with pituitary tumor in the suprasellar region for which transsphenoidal decompression and biopsy was done. The histopathological examination confirmed it to be germinoma and he underwent craniospinal radiotherapy.
Military personnel who are deployed for peace-keeping missions are exposed to many hazards, including infectious diseases. One of the most common and fatal infectious disease is Malaria. Although well controlled in Malaysia, this deadly disease is still widely endemic in many other countries especially Africa. We would like to report the case of a military personnel who was infected with Malaria during a peace-keeping mission in Sudan and subsequently died after returning home. We hope that by reporting this case in depth, strategic actions can be taken to avoid similar unfortunate events in future.
HbA1c is an established index of glycaemic control and correlates strongly with risk of chronic diabetic complications. However, the accuracy of HbA1c measurement can be affected by many factors, among which is the presence of haemoglobin (Hb) variants. The aim of the study was to determine the percentage of Hb variant detected during HbA1c monitoring in Hospital Kuala Lumpur. The study also analysed non-reportable HbA1c results in the presence of Hb variants. A cross-sectional study using retrospective data of HbA1c results over five months’ period was analysed on Biorad Variant II Turbo, a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay. The Hb variants were grouped either as HbS, HbC, others (Hb variant apart from HbS or C), and a combination of HbS or C with Others. A total of 11,904 patients were included. Only 2.3% (273) had Hb variants; HbS trait (10.3%), others (89%), and the combination of HbS trait with others (0.7%). No patient with HbC variant or its combination was found. Only 2.2% of those with Hb variant had non-reportable HbA1c. Although the percentage of Hb variants detected during HbA1c analysis and non-reportable HbA1c results were low, their presence should be noted.
Palmaris longus is tendon of choice in reconstructive, plastic and cosmetic surgeries. Thus, a suitable length is required and it would be more convenient if the length of the tendon of the palmaris longus could be estimated before harvesting. This study was carried out to determine the relationship between the length and width of the palmaris longus tendon and the length of forearm and hand, the relationship between the length and the width of the palmaris longus tendon and wrist width and wrist circumference, as well as to identify a technique to estimate the length of the tendinous part of palmaris longus before harvesting it. A standardized proforma was used to collect the data of each of the 31 cadavers upper limbs. These data were analysed using SPSS software version 17. It is important to note that p value less than 0.05 is considered as statistically significant in this study. Out of the 31 upper limbs, palmaris longus tendon was absent in 3 (9.68%). Meanwhile, the mean length and width of the palmaris longus tendon was found to be 16.20 cm and 0.48 cm, respectively. The mean length of the forearm and hand was 26.6 cm and 21.2 cm, respectively. The mean width of the wrist and wrist circumference was 8.2 cm and 14.82 cm, respectively. These indicate a significant and moderate relationship between the length of palmaris longus tendon and the length of forearm (r = 0.49, r2 = 0.24, p < 0.01). In addition, there was also a significant relationship between the length of palmaris longus tendon and the length of hand (r = 0.56, p < 0.01). This paper presents the technique used to estimate the length and width of the tendinous part of palmaris longus before harvesting. The length of palmaris longus can be estimated pre-operatively by measuring the length of the hand by using the technique explained in this paper.
In this study, we report an extremely rare case of liposarcoma which arises primarily in mediastinum. The patient appeared to have progressive dyspnoea and prolonged cough for a duration of one year. Chest radiograph and Computed Tomography (CT) of the thorax revealed a large right mediastinal mass with fatty component. It was confirmed to be primary liposarcoma on histopathological examination.
Hairy polyps are rare developmental malformations. They are benign lesions presented as a pedunculated mass that may arise from the naso-oropharyngeal region. Larger mass can cause upper respiratory obstruction causing respiratory distress or feeding difficulty, while smaller mass will present as intermittent respiratory distress due to a ball-valve type of obstruction. They are commonly seen in female, with ratio of 6:1 and majority of the cases occur in the infantile period. We are reporting a case of hairy polyp in a female infant that causing intermittent respiratory distress.
To study the prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori (H. pylori) infection, according to ethnicity, gender and endoscopic findings among the patients underwent the oesophago-gastro-duodenoscopes (OGDS) at gastroenterology endoscopy unit, Hospital Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. The database of all whom underwent OGDS at the gastroenterology endoscopy unit, Hospital Serdang from 1st August 2010 to 31st July 2012 was collected and assessed, retrospectively. A total of 924 patients who underwent OGDS were analyzed for the H. pylori infection by using Campylobacter-like organism (CLO) test. 130 (14.07%) tested positive, and their data were further studied according to gender, ethnicity, age group, initial indication for OGDS and endoscopic finding. The prevalence rate among males was 15.15% (70/462), while it was 12.99% (60/462) among females. In terms of ethnics, H. pylori infection was commonly found among Indian and Chinese with prevalence rate of 25.13% (50/199) and 17.41% (51/293) respectively. These figures are significantly higher than the 6.01% (25/416) for Malays. The age group (31-50 years old) had the highest prevalence rate of H. Pylori infection, which is of 18.55% (41/221). No significant difference was observed among initial indications for OGDS. Erosions were the commonest finding in H. pylori positive group with rate of 51.54% (67/130). However, erosions were not uncommon in H. pylori negative group as well with the rate of 48.61% (386/794). H. pylori infection rate among Malaysians was generally low, with the highest rate in Indians, followed by Chinese and relatively low in Malays. No significant difference between the prevalence rate of H. pylori infection in male and that in female was found. Erosions were equally common in either H. pylori positive or H. pylori negative group.
The National Clinical Practice Guideline in Tuberculosis (TB) was designed to improve the quality of tuberculosis care. However, it remains unknown whether primary care doctors adhere to it well. This audit aims to assess the quality of care in the process of TB contact tracing in a primary care setting. Methods: Data on TB contact tracing from 1st February 2013 to 15th February 2013 was obtained retrospectively from all medical records of diagnosed pulmonary TB in a public primary care clinic. All patients who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria were included in the study. Results: A total of 102 medical records of adult TB contacts were recruited. The median age of the TB contact was 34 (IQR=10) years and 65 % were male. Seventy two percent of the adult TB contact had a TBIS 10C3 form created, and 95% of the medical records were fully documented. History taking and physical examination were recorded on 97% and 99% of patients respectively during the first follow-up at the polyclinic. Eighty five percent and 100% of the patients had a chest-x-ray and sputum direct smear for acid-fast bacilli done respectively. The turn-up rate for the first, second, third and fourth visit was 100% to 32%, 10% and 2% respectively. Conclusion: The quality of care for adult TB contacts tracing in this clinical audit was found to be suboptimal. There is a difference between the current national guidelines and practice in the clinic. Certain measures to improve the quality of care for adult TB contact tracing
are urgently needed.
Stress in the work place is a global major risk factor to worker’s health, which triggers the workers to be poorly motivated and less productive. Objectives: The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of job stress and its associated factors among Universiti Putra Malaysia staff. Methods: This is a cross sectional study involving 511 academic and non-academic staff of Universiti Putra Malaysia in Serdang. Probability proportionate to size was used for calculating the required sample size. Results: The overall prevalence of stress was 21.7% (21.0% among male and 23.0% among female). The variables found to be significantly associated with stress were: Job demand, coworker support, depression, anxiety, focus and venting of emotion and self-blame (p
Tobacco use among females is a rising public health issue. Further insight into the smoking epidemic can be gained from studying a specific subgroup of interest within the population. Determining predictors of each tobacco smoking type is necessary for planning tobacco specific intervention programmes. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of ever tobacco use and its associated socio-demographic factors among Saudi female adolescents aged 12 to 19 in Jeddah. A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted among female students from intermediate and high secondary schools in Jeddah during the academic year 2012-2013. Sampling with probability proportionate to size was used to select a sample of 5,150 students from 40 schools. The data were collected using validated self-administrated questionnaire that required information on tobacco use behaviours and selected socio-demographic characteristics. A total of 5,073 students participated in this study of whom 51.6% were from intermediate grades, and 83.1% from public schools. The prevalence of ever tobacco use was 44.2% (36.2% water pipe and 30.9% cigarettes). The significant predictors of ever tobacco use were student’s age, mother’s education, family structure, residence location and monthly student’s allowance. In conclusion, ever tobacco used is highly prevalent among female adolescents in Jeddah. Designing intervention programmes aimed at preventing Saudi female adolescents from smoking should include all forms of tobacco use.
Patients with diabetes have an earlier onset and increased severity of anaemia compared to those with similar degree of renal impairment from other causes. Anaemia is associated with an increased risk of vascular complications. In this study, we determined the prevalence of anaemia in T2DM patients and its association with sociodemographic, clinical and laboratory parameters in an endocrine tertiary hospital in Malaysia. This was a cross-sectional study using retrospective electronic data from January 2011 to December 2013 of 165 T2DM patients in Hospital Putrajaya. Data was analysed using IBM SPSS Statistics version 21.0 for Windows. The prevalence of anaemia was 39.4% and majority had normocytic normochromic (80%), mild (58.5%) anaemia. Majority were Malays (73.9%), aged below 60 with comparable gender percentage and long-standing, poorly-controlled DM [median fasting blood sugar (FBS) 8mmol/L; glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) 7.9%]. Using the KDIGO chronic kidney disease (CKD) staging system, 86% of these patients were in stages 3-5. Anaemic patients had a significantly higher serum urea, creatinine and a lower FBS, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) compared to non-anaemic patients. Anaemic patients with diabetic nephropathy had a significantly lower haemoglobin (Hb) compared to those without this complication (p=0.022). The sensitivity and specificity at a cut-off eGFR value of 38.3 ml/min/1.73 m2 (maximum Youden index = 0.462) was 66.7% and 79.5%, respectively to discriminate mild from moderate anaemia. This study shows that anaemia is already present in T2DM patients in Hospital Putrajaya at initial presentation to the specialist outpatient clinic and is significantly associated with CKD. Hence, it emphasises the obligatory need for routine and follow-up full blood count monitoring in T2DM patients in primary care as well as tertiary settings in Malaysia to enable early detection and aggressive correction of anaemia in preventing further complications.
Though cases of AIDS are visible in Nigeria and awareness of HIV is high, correct knowledge on HIV transmission and prevention has remained low with significant numbers of people living with HIV/AIDS having low attitudes towards life and the disease itself. This study determined the baseline knowledge on HIV transmission and prevention, and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS of adult HIV positive patient enrolled into care at all four comprehensive antiretroviral therapy (ART) sites in Yola, Nigeria. Baseline reports on the knowledge and attitudes of adult HIV positive patients were obtained from a three arm randomized single blind clinical trial involving 386 randomly selected adult HIV patients who were enrolled into ART care at all four comprehensive ART sites in Yola. An administered, validated structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Outcome measures were sound knowledge on HIV transmission and prevention, and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 22. Test of significance was at α level 0.05. Overall 237 (61.4%) had sound knowledge on HIV transmission and prevention, while 346 (89.6%) of respondents had high attitudes towards HIV/AIDS. Though majority of respondents had sound knowledge on HIV transmission and prevention as well as high attitudes towards HIV/AIDS, interventions to improve knowledge and attitudes among this group of individuals would improve positive preventive strategies.