Giant cell tumour in the metatarsal of a skeletally immature person is uncommon. Adequate surgical resection in this region can be difficult to achieve as there is little space between the rays of the foot. Furthermore, there is the challenge of restoring the metatarsophalangeal articulation after resection of the tumor. We describe a technique using non-vascularised fibular graft for reconstructing the 2nd metatarsal after en-bloc resection for giant cell tumour in a 14 year old adolescent female.
We report a huge pilomatrixoma of the left shoulder in an elderly female, raising fear of malignancy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging delineated the swelling and wide surgical excision was performed. Post operative recovery was uneventful. Long term follow up is necessary in view of the possibility of recurrence and malignant transformation.
We set out to assess the efficacy of radiofrequency-induced intradiscal nucleoplasty in reducing pain in symptomatic patients with MRI-defined lumbar disc herniation and their satisfaction with the procedure. We compared the patients' pain intensity and severity of disability scores before and after undergoing the procedure in a retrospective questionnaire. These patients reported statistically significant reduction of pain intensity and disability level after the procedure. We conclude that radiofrequencyinduced intradiscal nucleoplasty is an acceptable alternative minimally invasive procedure in relieving the symptoms of patients with lumbar disc herniation.
There are reported cases of cortical reaction over the tension side of the normal femoral shafts in patients on long term treatment with alendronate, leading to subsequent femoral shaft fractures. We performed a retrospective review of patients with low-energy femoral shaft fracture on alendronate, admitted to our institution during the period 2004 to May 2009. The presence of radiological changes of cortical hypertrophy with or without Looser's zone over the tension side of the femoral bone (normal limb) was determined and correlated with clinical symptoms. Thirteen patients were identified. Average duration of alendronate use was 6.5 ± 3.3 years (ranges, two to 10 years). These radiological changes were noted in four patients. Average duration of alendronate usage in these four patients was 6.5 ± 2.4 years (ranges, 5 to10 years). Prodromal thigh pain was present in a patient, who had cortical hypertrophy with the presence of a Looser's zone traversing the cortex on the femoral shaft. One patient had Looser's zone limited at the lateral hypertrophied cortex without prodromal pain. The interobserver kappa coefficient was 0.96. A femoral radiograph should be performed in all patients who are on long-term alendronate therapy who present with thigh pain. We propose a new grading system based on our observation of the radiological features in these four cases. This new grading of the radiological spectrum of femoral shaft cortical pathology has the potential to stratify the risk of low energy femoral fracture for patients treated with long-term alendronate therapy.
Non-union is a well recognized complication of femoral neck fractures. The decision whether to attempt fracture fixation or to resort to hip replacement is particularly difficult in patients in the borderline age group in whom complex attempts at gaining union may fail and later present a difficult revision. On the other hand the patient may be young enough that arthroplasty best be avoided . Besides, presence of ipsilateral femoral shaft fracture with delayed union in addition to the femoral neck non-union will pose major problems at operation. We share our experience in treating a femoral neck fracture non-union with ipsilateral femoral shaft delayed union in the shaft and in the distal femur in a fifty years old patient. The fracture was treated with an angle blade plate and supracondylar nail supplemented with a free vascularised fibular bone grafting and autologous cancellous graft. There was radiological union at fourth month. At sixth months, the patient was free of pain and able to walk without support. Thus, we would like to suggest that vascularised fibula bone grafting with supracondylar nailing is a viable option for this pattern of fracture.
Various methods, such as vascularized bone transfers, Illizarov bone transport, allogenic bone grafts, bone graft substitutes, are available in treating traumatic bone loss. Free non-vascularised fibular graft is an autografting method that only requires minimal facilities or expertise. However, this method is not popularized due to its avascular property and there is not many reports regarding its use in treating a large traumatic bone loss. We reported a case in our center to demonstrate its possibility of successfully treating the traumatic radial bone loss in pediatric patient. Patient had good recovery with the regain of good range of movement of forearm and there is no harvest site morbidity after two years of follow up.
Traumatic brachial plexus injuries rarely recover spontaneously and if the window period for neurotisation has elapsed, the only option for restoration of function lies in a salvage procedure. Many such salvage procedures have been described in the literature with variable functional results. We report the case of a 16-year-old boy who presented after unsuccessful treatment for a complete brachial plexus injury; we performed a pectoralis major tendon transfer to attain elbow flexion. Postoperatively, the elbow was splinted with flexion at 100°. After 4 weeks of immobilization the splint was removed and the patient could actively flex his elbow from 30° to 100°.
Spontaneous atypical fractures of the femur have been reported in patients on long-term antiresorptive bisphosphonate therapy. Here, we report a case of subtrochanteric stress fracture in a seventy-year-old female patient on long-term alendronate therapy, and accompanying management challenges. Potential measures to prevent this complication of antiresorptive treatment for osteoporosis include the following: setting strict criteria for prescribing antiresorptive therapy, limiting the duration of continuous antiresorptive therapy, and increasing the use of bone anabolic agents.
We reviewed the surgical treatment and outcomes of 13 patients with pelvic osteosarcoma treated in our centre in the past decade. The study sample included 9 males and 4 females with a mean age of 28.1 years. Four patients had ileal lesions, five had acetabulum lesions, one had a ischiopubis lesion, and three had involvement of the whole hemipelvis. Seven patients presented with distant metastases at diagnosis. Limb salvage was performed in 6 patients and amputation in 7. In 60% of cases in the limb salvage surgery group, we attempted wide resection with positive microscopic margin compared to only 16.7% in the amputation group. Local recurrence was higher in the limb salvage group. Overall survival was 18 months for mean follow up of 14.8 months. Median survival was 19 months in the limb salvage group compared to 9 months in amputation group. The outcome of surgical treatment of pelvic osteosarcoma remains poor despite advancements in musculoskeletal oncology treatment.
We evaluated functional outcomes for patients who underwent surgery for resection and endoprosthesis replacement for primary tumours around the knee. We used the Musculoskeletal Tumour Society Scoring System (MSTS) for functional evaluations to compare differences between distal femur (DF) and proximal tibia (PT) placements. The study sample included 34 cases of distal femur and 20 cases of proximal tibia endoprosthesis replacement. Primary tumours were classified as follows: 33 osteosarcoma, 20 stage III giant cell tumour (GCT) and one case of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma. The mean MSTS score for both DF and PT endoprosthesis together was 21.13 (70.43%), and The MSTS scores for DF was 21.94 (73.13%) and PT was 19.75 (65.83%) Infection developed in 7 cases and 5 of which were PT endoprosthesis cases. Three deep infections required early, two-stage revision and resulted in poor MSTS scores. We conclude that endoprosthesis replacement for primary bone tumours had early good to excellent functional outcome. There were no differences in functional outcomes when comparing distal femur endoprostheses with proximal tibia endoprostheses.
Coaptive film (i.e., Steri-Strips™) is an adhesive tape used to replace sutures in wound closure. The use of coaptive film for wound closure after long bone fracture fixation has not been well documented in the literature.
Despite its claimed therapeutic effects, the action of sea cucumber (known as gamat in the Malay language) on human osteoblast cells is still unknown. We performed in vitro studies utilising extract of Stichopus sp1 (gamat) to elucidate its effects on cell viability and functional activity. We found an inverse relationship between gamat concentration and its effect on osteoblast cell viability (p<0.001). Only gamat concentration at 1mg/ml significantly promoted cell viability at day 3 of incubation. There was a trend towards increased osteoblast cell function in the presence of gamat at 5mg/ml and 10mg/ml but this observation was not consistent at different incubation periods.
Shoulder girdle injuries after high energy traumatic impacts to the shoulder have been well documented. Based on the series of 1603 injuries of the shoulder girdle reported by Cave and colleagues, 85% of the dislocations were glenohumeral, 12% acromioclavicular and 3% sternoclavicular (1). Less frequently described are injuries involving both the sternoclavicular and acromioclavicular joints simultaneously in one extremity. The present report discusses a case of traumatic floating clavicle associated with ipsilateral forearm and wrist injury which was treated surgically.
We present the case of a patient with multiple atraumatic osteoporotic vertebral fractures in an adolescent with suprasellar germinoma and also review of relevant literature. The patient suffered from a rare adolescent brain tumour with common complications which are often overlooked and give rise to significant morbidity. Suprasellar germinoma is an intracranial neoplasm, that in addition to its rarity, has variable clinical presentation. Despite appropriate treatment and good outcome, tumour related morbidity is still of concern for these patients.
Heterotopic ossification (HO) is the growth of bone in soft tissue, and can be broadly classified into neurogenic, genetic and traumatic causes. The pathophysiology of HO remains unknown. This disorder is extremely rare in infants and can mimic or coexist with thrombophlebitis, cellulitis or osteomyelitis. Most importantly, HO has to be differentiated from bone-forming tumours such as osteosarcoma and osteochondroma. We report a case of traumatic HO in a fiveday- old newborn following intravenous cannulation of the right wrist and left ankle, with the latter complicated with osteomyelitis. We highlight the clinical and radiological features of HO and differential diagnoses of soft tissue ossification in early childhood.
Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) was first reported by J. Erdheim and W. Chester, in 1930. There are less than 250 reported cases till date. We report a case of ECD in a 16- year-old Malay male, who initially presented with elusive anemic symptoms with more specific symptoms of bony pain, cardiorespiratory and hepatic involvement evolving as the disease progressed.
We report a method for removing the distal segment of a broken locked intramedullary nail secondary to nonunion of the femur following radiotherapy for fibromatosis. A Kirschner wire with one tip fashioned into a hook was used to remove the distal segment without opening with the nonunion site. Details of the procedure are described.
Traumatic hemipelvectomy is an uncommon and life threatening injury. We report a case of a 16-year-old boy involved in a traffic accident who presented with an almost circumferential pelvic wound with wide diastasis of the right sacroiliac joint and symphysis pubis. The injury was associated with complete avulsion of external and internal iliac vessels as well as the femoral and sciatic nerves. He also had ipsilateral open comminuted fractures of the femur and tibia. Emergency debridement and completion of amputation with preservation of the posterior gluteal flap and primary anastomosis of the inferior gluteal vessels to the internal iliac artery stump were performed. A free fillet flap was used to close the massive exposed area.
This prospective randomised study was undertaken to compare surgical parameters as well as clinical and radiological outcomes of subvastus (SV) to midvastus (MV) approaches in staged bilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Twenty-three patients, aged 55-76 years, who underwent staged bilateral TKAs, were followed up for 6 months. The SV approach was used on one knee and MV approach on the other. We found similar lateral retinacular release rates and patellar resurfacing rates between the two approaches .The SV approached knees had a more significant blood loss and increased operative time compared to the MV approached knees but they achieved significantly earlier active straightleg raises (SLR) postoperatively (p<0.05 for all). The average postoperative pain, flexion, and Knee Society scores were comparable for both approaches. TKA via SV vs. MV approaches provides comparable satisfactory short-term clinical and radiological outcomes, even though there was slightly more difficulty, more blood loss and longer operative times with the SV approach.
Firearm injuries to the spine commonly present with acute neurology caused by direct penetration or indirectly from concussive effects of bullet impact on the vertebral column. We report a case of delayed neurologic presentation of retained intra-spinal bullet in a 42 year-old African who had chronic low back pain and sciatica with a past history of gunshot injury to the spine and radiograph revealed a bullet at the L4-5 disc level. Intra-operative exploration showed a fibrous mass around the bullet compressing on the L4 existing nerve root and L5 traversing nerve root. Removal of the retained bullet resulted in a good clinical outcome with complete resolution of symptoms.