A Health Technology Assessment (HTA) was conducted in 2011 to evaluate whether transnasal oesophagoscopy (TNE) should be made available at otorhinolaryngology (ORL) clinics in the Ministry of Health facilities. The safety, efficacy or effectiveness and economic implication of using transnasal oesophagoscopy (TNE) were reviewed. This review provides a summary of the HTA and an updated literature review as well as how this technology might potentially affect services in the Ministry of Health.
AIM OF STUDY: This study investigated the consistency in Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) waveform evaluations between two audiologists (inter-audiologist agreement) and within each of the audiologist (intra-audiologist agreement).
METHODS: Two audiologists from one of the audiology clinics in Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia were involved in this study. Both audiologists were required to identify and mark the presence of Waves I, III and V in 66 ABR waveforms. Over a one-month interval, each audiologist was required to carry out the same procedure on the same ABR waveforms. This process was continued until we had three separate reviews from each audiologist.
RESULTS: There was a high inter-audiologist ABR waveform identification agreement (over the range 81.71-89.77%), but a lower intra-audiologist ABR waveform identification agreement (over the range 50%-78%) for both audiologists. Our results also showed a high intra-audiologist ABR latency agreement within 0.2 ms (>90%), but a slightly lower inter-audiologist latency agreement (75-84%) within 0.2 ms.
CONCLUSION: Our results support the need for the clinic to implement further strategies for improving the respective lower agreements and consistencies. These include conducting a continuous education program and using an objective algorithm to support their interpretations.
Study site:; International Islamic University, Malaysia (IIUM) Hearing
and Speech Clinic
Kimura's disease is rare chronic inflammatory disease with a distinct clinicopathological entity. It has three major components; inflammatory, vascular and fibrosis. It has to be considered as a differential diagnosis in young patient presenting with head and neck swelling. Although of unknown aetiology many hypothesis has been postulated. Inflammation is the most prominent and predominating characteristic in this disease. Although reported to be predominant in Asian literature regarding this disease is scanty. We report a complete clinical-radiological and pathological picture of this disease.
There is a resurgence of tuberculosis globally but lesions affecting the skull are rare. Cases reported are of single, focal lesions as seen on plain x-rays. We report a 34 yearold patient with tuberculosis of the skull where multiple punched out lesions are seen, mimicking that of multiple myeloma.
AIM: This was a randomized single blinded study to determine optimal size for Ambu®LMA (ALMA) among Malaysian adult population.
METHODS: One hundred and twenty six non-paralyzed anaesthetized adult patients were block randomized into size 3, 4 and 5 Ambu®LMA. Optimal size is defined primarily by oropharyngeal pressure (OLP). Pharyngeal injury and ease of insertion are also taken into consideration.
RESULTS: Mean OLP was significantly higher for Size 4 and 5 compared to size 3 (p<0.001) but similar between size 4 and 5. Number of insertion attempts and insertion time were similar between sizes. Size 5 required more manipulations during insertion (p<0.005) and had higher pharyngeal injury (p=0.001) compared to size 3 and 4.
DISCUSSION: We recommend size 4 ALMA as the optimal size for Malaysian adults in view of the higher OLP compared to size 3, yet less pharyngeal injury than size 5 in spontaneously breathing patients.
Research in schizophrenia has advanced tremendously. One hundred and seventy five articles related to Schizophrenia were found from a search through a database dedicated to indexing all original data relevant to medicine published in Malaysia between the years 2000-2013. This project aims to examine published research articles, in local and international journals in order to provide a glimpse of the research interest in Malaysia with regards to schizophrenia. Single case study, case series report, reviews and registry reports were not included in this review. Medication trial, unless it concerned a wider scope of psychopharmacology was also excluded from this review. A total of 105 articles were included in this review. Despite numerous genetics studies conducted and published, a definitive conclusion on the aetiology or mechanism underlying schizophrenia remains elusive. The National Mental Health - Schizophrenia Registry (NMHR) proved to be an important platform for many studies and publications. Studies stemmed from NMHR have provided significant insight into the baseline characteristic of patients with schizophrenia, pathway to care, and outcomes of the illness. International and regional collaborations have also encouraged important work involving stigma and discrimination in schizophrenia. Ministry of Health's hospitals (MOH) are the main research sites in the country with regards to schizophrenia research. Numbers of schizophrenia research are still low in relation to the number of universities and hospitals in the country. Some of the weaknesses include duplication of studies, over-emphasising clinical trials and ignoring basic clinical research, and the lack of publications in international and regional journals.
Depression is a debilitating illness and has become a leading cause of morbidity globally. We aim to summarise the evidence available in regard to the prevalence, type of assessment tools used and treatment options for depression in Malaysia. Two hundred and forty seven articles related to depression were found in a search through a database dedicated to indexing all original data relevant to medicine published in Malaysia between the years 2000-2013. Fifty seven articles were selected and reviewed on the basis of clinical relevance and future research implications. Findings were summarised, categorised and presented according to prevalence of depression, depression in women, depression in clinical condition, assessment tools, and treatment of depression. The prevalence of depression in Malaysia was estimated to be between 8 and 12%. The figures were higher among women of low socio-economic background or those with comorbid medical condition. The common assessment tools used in Malaysia include Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS), Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). They were translated into the Malay language and their psychometric properties were established. Both pharmacological treatment and psychotherapy were commonly used in Malaysia, and were highly recommended in local clinical practice guidelines. There are discrepancies in the reported rates of depression in Malaysia and this needs to be addressed. There were lack of studies looking into the depression among subgroups in Malaysia especially in the male population. There were several instruments available for assessment of depression in Malaysia but their suitability for the local setting need further research. Both pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy were recommended in the local treatment guideline in Malaysia. With the emergence of generic medication, we need to compare their clinical efficacy and tolerability with original products.
105 articles related to colorectal cancer(CRC) were found in a search through a database dedicated to indexing all original data relevant to medicine published in Malaysia between the years 2000-2013. 56 articles were selected and reviewed on the basis of clinical relevance and future research implications. Research into the genetic basis for colorectal cancer included studies in germline mutations of known syndromes as well as polymorphisms that conferred individuals a higher odds ratio for developing CRC. Several studies also documented the variety of somatic mutations seen in cases of sporadic CRC in Malaysia. Studies into the knowledge and attitudes of Malaysians regarding CRC revealed poor appreciation of the common symptoms, risk factors and available measures for its early detection. This may explain the observed facts that more Malaysians present with late stage CRC than seen in developed countries. The small amount of data recorded concerning the outcome of treatment also suggests overall survival of Malaysian CRC patients for comparable stage of CRC is lower than achieved in developed countries.
Four hundred and nineteen articles related to breast cancer were found in a search through a database dedicated to indexing all original data relevant to medicine published in Malaysia between the years 2000-2013. One hundred and fifty four articles were selected and reviewed on the basis of clinical relevance and future research implications. Overall, Malaysian women have poor survival from breast cancer and it is estimated that half of the deaths due to breast cancer could be prevented. Five-year survival in Malaysia was low and varies among different institutions even within the same disease stage, suggesting an inequity of access to optimal treatment or a lack of compliance to optimal treatment. Malaysian women have poor knowledge of the risk factors, symptoms and methods for early detection of breast cancer, leading to late presentation. Moreover, Malaysian women experience cancer fatalism, belief in alternative medicine, and lack of autonomy in decision making resulting in delays in seeking or avoidance of evidence-based medicine. There are ethnic differences in estrogen receptor status, HER2 overexpression and incidence of triple negative breast cancer which warrant further investigation. Malay women present with larger tumours and at later stages, and even after adjustment for these and other prognostic factors (stage, pathology and treatment), Malay women have a poorer survival. Although the factors responsible for these ethnic differences have not been elucidated, it is thought that pharmacogenomics, lifestyle factors (such as weight-gain, diet and exercise), and psychosocial factors (such as acceptance of 2nd or 3rd line chemotherapy) may be responsible for the difference in survival. Notably, survivorship studies show self-management programmes and exercise improve quality of life, highlighting the need to evaluate the psychosocial impact of breast cancer on Malaysian women, and to design culturally-, religiously- and linguistically-appropriate psycho-education programmes to help women cope with the disease and improve their quality of life. Research done in the Caucasian populations may not necessarily apply to local settings and it is important to embark on local studies particularly prevention, screening, diagnostic, prognostic, therapeutic and psychosocial research.
Dengue infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Malaysia. To date, much research on dengue infection conducted in Malaysia have been published. One hundred and sixty six articles related to dengue in Malaysia were found from a search through a database dedicated to indexing all original data relevant to medicine published between the years 2000-2013. Ninety articles with clinical relevance and future research implications were selected and reviewed. These papers showed evidence of an exponential increase in the disease epidemic and a varying pattern of prevalent dengue serotypes at different times. The early febrile phase of dengue infection consist of an undifferentiated fever. Clinical suspicion and ability to identify patients at risk of severe dengue infection is important. Treatment of dengue infection involves judicious use of volume expander and supportive care. Potential future research areas are discussed to narrow our current knowledge gaps on dengue infection.
This is a review of research done in the area of substance abuse in Malaysia. There were 109 articles related to substance abuse found in a search through a database dedicated to indexing all original data relevant to medicine published in Malaysia between the years 2000-2013. Only 39 articles were reviewed, and case series, case report, reviews and reports were excluded. Research reviewed include the epidemiology of substance abuse, genetics, treatment and its relation to health behaviour, and health management. Studies have shown that more males than females use drugs. There was also a high prevalence of blood-bourne virus diseases and sexually transmitted diseases among drug users. Two studies showed some genetic polymorphism (Cyp 3a4 gene and FAAH Pro129Thr) among heroin and amphetamine users respectively that may contribute to drug dependence. Study on pharmacological treatment for substance abuse were limited to methadone and it was shown to improve the quality of life of heroin dependant patients. Alternative treatments such as acupunture and spiritual approach play a role in the management of substance abuse. Data also showed that treatment centres for substance abuse are lacking facilities for screening, assessment and treatment for medical illness related to substance use, e.g. Hepatitis C and tuberculosis. Studies on the effectiveness of current drug rehabilitation centres were inconclusive.
This article describes the methodology of this bibliography. A search was conducted on the following: (1) bibliographic databases (PubMed, Scopus, and other databases) using search terms that maximize the retrieval of Malaysian publications; (2) Individual journal search of Malaysian healthrelated journals; (3) A targeted search of Google and Google Scholar; (4) Searching of Malaysian institutional repositories; (5) Searching of Ministry of Health and Clinical Research Centre website. The publication years were limited to 2000- 2013. The citations were imported or manually entered into bibliographic software Refworks. After removing duplicates, and correcting data entry errors, PubMed's Medical Subject Headings (MeSH terms) were added. Clinical research is coded using the definition "patient-oriented-research or research conducted with human subjects (or on material of human origin) for which the investigator directly interacts with the human subjects at some point during the study." A bibliography of citations [n=2056] that fit the criteria of clinical research in Malaysia in selected topics within five domains was generated: Cancers , Cardiovascular diseases , Infections , Injuries , and Mental Health . This is done by retrieving citations with the appropriate MESH terms, as follow: For cancers (Breast Neoplasms; Colorectal Neoplasms; Uterine Cervical Neoplasms), for cardiovascular diseases (Coronary Disease; Hypertension; Stroke), for infections (Dengue; Enterovirus Infections, HIV Infections; Malaria; Nipah Virus; Tuberculosis), for injuries (Accidents, Occupational; Accidents, Traffic; Child Abuse; Occupational Injuries), for mental health (Depression; Depressive Disorder; Depressive Disorder, Major; Drug Users; Psychotic Disorders; Suicide; Suicide, Attempted; Suicidal Ideation; Substance- Related Disorders).
Despite cervical cancer being potentially preventable, it is the second most common cancer among women in Malaysia. One hundred and five articles related to Cervical Cancer were found in a search through a database dedicated to indexing all original data relevant to medicine published in Malaysia between the years 2000-2013. Fifty seven articles were selected and reviewed for the articles' clinical relevance and future research implications. This article reviews the various aspects of cervical cancer in Malaysia, mainly persistent infection of high risk human papillomavirus (HPV), primary prevention (HPV vaccination), screening method (Pap smear issues), and the attitude and knowledge of various groups of Malaysian women that contributed to the failure to reduce the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer. Most of the studies focused on prevention, Pap smear issues, HPV DNA testing, HPV vaccination and various recommendations for prevention of cervical cancer. Secondary prevention by screening is still an important aspect because even with HPV vaccination, screening still plays an important role as vaccination does not cover all high risk HPVs. There is a need to seriously consider a properly organised screening programme, taking into consideration what we already know about the attitude and knowledge of Malaysian women, economic factors and psychosocial issues of the screening method. There is also a large gap in clinical studies on the outcome, management and survival of cervical cancer patients in Malaysia.
Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (GEP- nETs) are rare neoplasms with a complex spectrum of presentation. The study cohort (n=64) included the diagnoses of carcinoid, (n=26, 41%), insulinoma, (n=25, 39%), undetermined (n=10, 16%), VIPoma, glucagonoma and multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEn-1) (n= 3). Almost half of the patients (n=31) had distant metastasis at diagnosis, the commonest being carcinoid tumours. Presenting symptoms were due to either hormonal expressions or mass effects. diagnoses in all patients were made based on positive immunohistochemical staining for chromogranin and synaptophysin. Less than half (n=30) had either serum chromogranin A, urinary 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-hIAA), serum insulin or C-peptide levels performed. Commonest diagnostic imaging modalities were computed tomography (CT) scan (94%) and abdominal ultrasound (15%). Curative or palliative surgery was performed in 58 patients. Systemic therapy included long acting somatostatin analogues (n=14), chemotherapy (n=7) and interferon-α2b (n=1). nine patients died, all of who had metastatic disease at diagnosis. All patients with insulinoma (n=25) were assessed by endocrinologists whilst carcinoid tumours were mainly managed by surgeons (n=16/26). Involvements of oncologists and gastroenterologists were minimal. This study showed that patients with GEP-nETs in Malaysia commonly presented late in the disease with presence of distant metastases. Less than half had adequate hormonal and biochemical examinations performed for diagnostic as well as prognostic purposes, and only a third received systemic therapy. Lack of institutionalbased database, clinical expertise and multi-disciplinary involvement contributed to the inadequate surveillance and management of the disease.
OBJECTIVE: Conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) involves the use of four ports, but the number of ports has gradually been reduced to one for cosmetic reasons. however, single-incision LC is technically demanding, and there is a substantial learning curve associated with its successful application. The aim of this clinical study was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of a less demanding alternative LC technique with a faster learning curve.
METHODS: This prospective descriptive study was performed from September 2009 to February 2011 at Sultanah Bahiyah hospital in Kedah, Malaysia. A total of 58 patients underwent two-incision threeport laparoscopic cholecystectomy (TILC), which was performed by the senior consultant hepato-pancreato-biliary surgeon and two hepato-pancreato-biliary trainees. Study end points included operative time, postoperative pain, length of hospital stay and early postoperative complications. The follow-up period was 4 weeks.
RESULTS: The overall operative time taken was 44 ± 18 minutes. none of the patients had major complication or incisional hernia postoperatively. All but one of the patients were discharged within 24 h. nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were the main postoperative analgesic used.
CONCLUSION: TILC is feasible and safe cholecystectomy technique.
We performed a prospective study of all hospitalized patients with a diagnosis of Gout in Sarawak General hospital from 1st July 2011 to 1st July 2012. There were a total of 126 patients in our study of which 112 (88.9%) were males. The majority of our patients were from the indigenous populations (71.7%). They have a mean age of 60.0 ± 14.2 years. Most of our patients were overweight (68%) with comorbities of hypertension (78.6%), Chronic Kidney Failure (48.4%), Type II diabetes Mellitus (30.2%), dyslipidemia (27.8%) and Ischaemic heart disease (11.9%). Polyarticular gouty arthritis was the main presenting pattern during hospitalization (88.1%). The mean length of stay for our patients was 9.8 ± 6.0 days which was significantly longer than the mean length of stay for other patients without gout (p<0.05). Only 17 patients had gout on admission and the majority developed gout during hospitalizations. Our patients were admitted respectively for medical problems (45.4%), surgical problems (28.6%) and orthopaedic problems (9.2%). Colchicine (73.8%) and steroid (40.5%) were the main stays of treatment for our patients. Our hospitalized gout patients were complicated patients with multiple comorbidities.
PURPOSE: Extravasation with intravenous chemotherapy is a common complication of chemotherapy which carries the risk of devastating complications. This study aims to determine the rate of extravasation with intravenous chemotherapy in a major hospital where chemotherapy is delivered in various departments other than the oncology department.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients who underwent intravenous chemotherapy in the oncology department and surgical wards in Penang General hospital from 1st February 2008 till 31st June 2008 were recruited retrospectively for this study to look at the rate of extravasation.
RESULTS: A total of 602 patients underwent intravenous chemotherapy during this period. Fifty patients received chemotherapy in the general surgical ward while another 552 patients received chemotherapy in the oncology department. There were 5 cases of extravasation giving an overall extravasation rate of 0.8% (5/602). however, 4 of these cases occurred in the general surgical ward giving it a rate of 8% (4/50).
CONCLUSION: The rate of extravasation in our hospital was 0.8%. however, this rate can be significantly increased if it is not done under a specialized unit delivering intravenous chemotherapy on a regular basis. Preventive steps including a standard chemotherapy delivery protocol, staff and patient education must be put in place in all units delivering intravenous chemotherapy.