Implants are widely used in the human body for the replacement of affected bones. Fatigue failure is one of the serious concerns for implants. Therefore, understanding of the underlying mechanism leading to fatigue failure is important for the longevity of biomaterial implants. In this paper, the fracture toughness and fatigue crack growth of titanium alloy biomaterial Ti-27Nb has been experimentally investigated. The Ti-27Nb material is tested for fatigue crack growth in different environmental conditions representing the ambient and in vitro environments for 504 hours and 816 hours, respectively. Fractography of the tested specimen is conducted using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The results of the fatigue crack growth propagation of the ambient and in vitro samples are similar in the Paris crack growth region. However, in the threshold region, the crack growth rate is higher for the Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) treated specimen. The fracture surface morphology of in vitro samples shows brittle fracture as compared to ambient specimens with significant plasticity and striations marks. It is proposed that a similar investigation may be conducted with specimens treated in SBF for prolonged periods to further ascertain the findings of this study.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphological and biological properties of a locally produced "Bovine Bone Sponge" for use in dentistry. Bovine bone sponge was prepared from local calf bone. Endotoxin level and surface properties were investigated. The pore size and water uptake ability were measured and results were compared with the commercial haemostatic agent. The material was tested for its haemostatic property and its inhibition of alveolar bone resorption in a sheep model following dental extraction. Results revealed a significant difference in haemostatic effect, and a shorter bleeding time and a lower rate of alveolar bone resorption in bovine bone sponge compare to a commercial haemostatic agent.
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biodegradable polyesters produced by microorganisms, under unbalanced growth conditions, as a carbon storage compound. PHAs are composed of various monomers such as 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) and 3-hydroxyhexanoate (3HHx). Silk fibroin (SF) derived from Bombyx mori cocoons, is a widely studied protein polymer commonly used for biomaterial applications. In this study, non-woven electrospun films comprising a copolymer of 3HB and 3HHx [P(3HB-co-3HHx)], SF and their blends were prepared by electrospinning technique. The growth and osteogenic differentiation of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) were studied using different types of fabricated electrospun films. The differentiation study revealed that electrospun P(3HB-co-3HHx)/SF film supports the differentiation of hUC-MSCs into the osteogenic lineage, confirmed by histological analysis using Alizarin Red staining, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and quantitative real-time PCR analysis (qPCR). Electrospun P(3HB-co-3HHx)/SF film up-regulated the expression of osteogenic marker genes, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin (OCN), by 1.6-fold and 2.8-fold respectively, after 21 days of osteogenic induction. In conclusion, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hUC-MSCs were enhanced through the blending of P(3HB-co-3HHx) and SF. The results from this study suggest that electrospun P(3HB-co-3HHx)/SF film is a promising biomaterial for bone tissue engineering.
Selections of collagen available commercially were tested for their biocompatibility as scaffold to promote cell growth in vitro via simple collagen fast test and cultivation of mammalian cells on the selected type of collagen. It was found that collagen type C9791 promotes the highest degree of aggregation as well as cells growth. This preliminary study also indicated potential use of collagen as scaffold in engineered tissue.
This study describes a sago starch-based film by incorporation of cinnamon essential oil (CEO) and nano titanium dioxide (TiO2-N). Different concentrations (i.e., 0%, 1%, 3%, and 5%, w/w) of TiO2-N and CEO (i.e., 0%, 1%, 2%, and 3%, v/w) were incorporated into sago starch film, and the physicochemical, barrier, mechanical, and antimicrobial properties of the bionanocomposite films were estimated. Incorporation of CEO into the sago starch matrix increased oxygen and water vapor permeability of starch films while increasing TiO2-N concentration decreased barrier properties. Moisture content also decreased from 12.96% to 8.04%, solubility in water decreased from 25% to 13.7%, and the mechanical properties of sago starch films improved. Sago starch bionanocomposite films showed excellent antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus. Results also showed that incorporation of TiO2-N and CEO had synergistic effects on functional properties of sago starch films. In summary, sago starch films incorporated with both TiO2-N and CEO shows potential application for active packaging in food industries such as fresh pistachio packaging.
Gelatin possesses biological properties that resemble native skin and can potentially be fabricated as a skin substitute for full-thickness wound treatment. The native property of gelatin, whereby it is easily melted and degraded at body temperature, could prevent its biofunctionality for various applications. This study aimed to fabricate and characterise buffalo gelatin (Infanca halal certified) crosslinked with chemical type crosslinker (genipin and genipin fortified with EDC) and physicaly crosslink using the dihydrothermal (DHT) method. A porous gelatin sponge (GS) was fabricated by a freeze-drying process followed by a complete crosslinking via chemical-natural and synthetic-or physical intervention using genipin (GNP), 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) (EDC) and dihydrothermal (DHT) methods, respectively. The physicochemical, biomechanical, cellular biocompatibility and cell-biomaterial interaction of GS towards human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK) and dermal fibroblasts (HDF) were evaluated. Results showed that GS had a uniform porous structure with pore size ranging between 60 and 200 µm with high porosity (>78.6 ± 4.1%), high wettability (<72.2 ± 7.0°), high tensile strain (>13.65 ± 1.10%) and 14 h of degradation rate. An increase in the concentration and double-crosslinking approach demonstrated an increment in the crosslinking degree, enzymatic hydrolysis resistance, thermal stability, porosity, wettability and mechanical strength. The GS can be tuned differently from the control by approaching the GS via a different crosslinking strategy. However, a decreasing trend was observed in the pore size, water retention and water absorption ability. Crosslinking with DHT resulted in large pore sizes (85-300 µm) and low water retention (236.9 ± 18.7 g/m2·day) and a comparable swelling ratio with the control (89.6 ± 7.1%). Moreover no changes in the chemical content and amorphous phase identification were observed. The HEK and HDF revealed slight toxicity with double crosslinking. HEK and HDF attachment and proliferation remain similar to each crosslinking approach. Immunogenicity was observed to be higher in the double-crosslinking compared to the single-crosslinking intervention. The fabricated GS demonstrated a dynamic potential to be tailored according to wound types by manipulating the crosslinking intervention.
Polylactic acid (PLA) nanocomposites reinforced with hybrid montmorillonite/cellulose nanowhiskers [MMT/CNW(SO4)] were prepared by solution casting. The CNW(SO4) nanofiller was first isolated from microcrystalline cellulose using acid hydrolysis treatment. PLA/MMT/CNW(SO4) hybrid nanocomposites were prepared by the addition of various amounts of CNW(SO4) [1-9 parts per hundred parts of polymer (phr)] into PLA/MMT nanocomposite at 5 phr MMT content, based on highest tensile strength values as reported previously. The biodegradability, thermal, tensile, morphological, water absorption and transparency properties of PLA/MMT/CNW(SO4) hybrid nanocomposites were investigated. The Biodegradability, thermal stability and crystallinity of hybrid nanocomposites increased compared to PLA/MMT nanocomposite and neat PLA. The highest tensile strength of hybrid nanocomposites was obtained by incorporating 1 phr CNW(SO4) [∼ 36 MPa]. Interestingly, the ductility of hybrid nanocomposites increased significantly by 87% at this formulation. The Young's modulus increased linearly with increasing CNW(SO4) content. This is due to the relatively good dispersion of nanofillers in the hybrid nanocomposites, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated the formation of some polar interactions. In addition, water resistance of the hybrid nanocomposites improved and the visual transparency of neat PLA film did not affect by addition of CNW(SO4).
Three-dimensionally printed constructs are static and do not recapitulate the dynamic nature of tissues. Four-dimensional (4D) bioprinting has emerged to include conformational changes in printed structures in a predetermined fashion using stimuli-responsive biomaterials and/or cells. The ability to make such dynamic constructs would enable an individual to fabricate tissue structures that can undergo morphological changes. Furthermore, other fields (bioactuation, biorobotics, and biosensing) will benefit from developments in 4D bioprinting. Here, the authors discuss stimuli-responsive biomaterials as potential bioinks for 4D bioprinting. Natural cell forces can also be incorporated into 4D bioprinted structures. The authors introduce mathematical modeling to predict the transition and final state of 4D printed constructs. Different potential applications of 4D bioprinting are also described. Finally, the authors highlight future perspectives for this emerging technology in biomedicine.
This study describes the synthesis of Al(2)O(3)/SiC/ZrO(2) functionally graded material (FGM) in bio-implants (artificial joints) by electrophoretic deposition (EPD). A suitable suspension that was based on 2-butanone was applied for the EPD of Al(2)O(3)/SiC/ZrO(2), and a pressureless sintering process was applied as a presintering. Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) was used to densify the deposit, with beneficial mechanical properties after 2 h at 1800 °C in Ar atmosphere. The maximum hardness in the outer layer (90 vol.% Al(2)O(3)+10 vol.% SiC) and maximum fracture toughness in the core layer (75 vol.% Al(2)O(3)+10 vol.% SiC + 15 vol.% ZrO(2)) composite were 20.8±0.3 GPa and 8±0.1 MPa m(1/2), respectively. The results, when compared with results from Al(2)O(3)/ZrO(2) FGM, showed that SiC increased the compressive stresses in the outer layers, while the inner layers were under a residual tensile stress.
The polymeric composite material with desirable features can be gained by selecting suitable biopolymers with selected additives to get polymer-filler interaction. Several parameters can be modified according to the design requirements, such as chemical structure, degradation kinetics, and biopolymer composites' mechanical properties. The interfacial interactions between the biopolymer and the nanofiller have substantial control over biopolymer composites' mechanical characteristics. This review focuses on different applications of biopolymeric composites in controlled drug release, tissue engineering, and wound healing with considerable properties. The biopolymeric composite materials are required with advanced and multifunctional properties in the biomedical field and regenerative medicines with a complete analysis of routine biomaterials with enhanced biomedical engineering characteristics. Several studies in the literature on tissue engineering, drug delivery, and wound dressing have been mentioned. These results need to be reviewed for possible development and analysis, which makes an essential study.
Corrosion prevention in biomaterials has become crucial particularly to overcome inflammation and allergic reactions caused by the biomaterials' implants towards the human body. When these metal implants contacted with fluidic environments such as bloodstream and tissue of the body, most of them became mutually highly antagonistic and subsequently promotes corrosion. Biocompatible implants are typically made up of metallic, ceramic, composite and polymers. The present paper specifically focuses on biocompatible metals which favorably used as implants such as 316L stainless steel, cobalt-chromium-molybdenum, pure titanium and titanium-based alloys. This article also takes a close look at the effect of corrosion towards the implant and human body and the mechanism to improve it. Due to this corrosion delinquent, several surface modification techniques have been used to improve the corrosion behavior of biocompatible metals such as deposition of the coating, development of passivation oxide layer and ion beam surface modification. Apart from that, surface texturing methods such as plasma spraying, chemical etching, blasting, electropolishing, and laser treatment which used to improve corrosion behavior are also discussed in detail. Introduction of surface modifications to biocompatible metals is considered as a "best solution" so far to enhanced corrosion resistance performance; besides achieving superior biocompatibility and promoting osseointegration of biocompatible metals and alloys.
This study aimed to investigate the structural, physical and mechanical behavior of composites and functionally graded materials (FGMs) made of stainless steel (SS-316L)/hydroxyapatite (HA) and SS-316L/calcium silicate (CS) employing powder metallurgical solid state sintering. The structural analysis using X-ray diffraction showed that the sintering at high temperature led to the reaction between compounds of the SS-316L and HA, while SS-316L and CS remained intact during the sintering process in composites of SS-316L/CS. A dimensional expansion was found in the composites made of 40 and 50 wt% HA. The minimum shrinkage was emerged in 50 wt% CS composite, while the maximum shrinkage was revealed in samples with pure SS-316L, HA and CS. Compressive mechanical properties of SS-316L/HA decreased sharply with increasing of HA content up to 20 wt% and gradually with CS content up to 50 wt% for SS-316L/CS composites. The mechanical properties of the FGM of SS-316L/HA dropped with increase in temperature, while it was improved for the FGM of SS-316L/CS with temperature enhancement. It has been found that the FGMs emerged a better compressive mechanical properties compared to both the composite systems. Therefore, the SS-316L/CS composites and their FGMs have superior compressive mechanical properties to the SS-316L/HA composites and their FGMs and also the newly developed FGMs of SS-316L/CS with improved mechanical and enhanced gradation in physical and structural properties can potentially be utilized in the components with load-bearing application.
Biofilms are adherent, multi-layered colonies of bacteria that are typically more resistant to the host immune response and routine antibiotic therapy. HA biomaterial comprises of a single-phased hydroxyapatite scaffold with interconnected pore structure. The device is designed as osteoconductive space filler to be gently packed into bony voids or gaps following tooth extraction or any surgical procedure. Gentamycin-coated biomaterial (locally made hydroxyapatite) was evaluated to reduce or eradicate the biofilm on the implant materials. The results indicated that the HA coated with gentamycin was biocompatible to human osteoblast cell line and the biofilm has been reduced after being treated with different concentrations of gentamycin-coated hydroxyapatite (HA).
Earlier studies in our laboratory demonstrated that collagen extracted from ovine tendon is biocompatible towards human dermal fibroblast. To be able to use this collagen as a scaffold in skin tissue engineering, a mechanically stronger scaffold is required that can withstand manipulation before transplantation. This study was conducted to improve the mechanical strength of this collagen sponge using chemical crosslinkers, and evaluate their effect on physical, chemical and biocompatible properties. Collagen sponge was crosslinked with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) and glutaraldehyde (GA). Tensile test, FTIR study and mercury porosimetry were used to evaluate mechanical properties, chemical property and porosity, respectively. MTT assay was performed to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of crosslinked collagen sponge on human dermal fibroblasts. The FTIR study confirmed the successful crosslinking of collagen sponge. Crosslinking with EDC and GA significantly increased the mechanical strength of collagen sponge, with GA being more superior. Crosslinking of collagen sponge significantly reduced the porosity and the effect was predominant in GA-crosslinked collagen sponge. The GA-crosslinked collagen showed significantly lower, 60% cell viability towards human dermal fibroblasts compared to that of EDC-crosslinked collagen, 80% and non-crosslinked collagen, 100%. Although the mechanical strength was better when using GA but the more toxic effect on dermal fibroblast makes EDC a more suitable crosslinker for future skin tissue engineering.
The application of layer-by-layer (LbL) approach on nanoparticle surface coating improves the colon-specific drug delivery of insoluble drugs. Here, we aimed to formulate a self-assembled cysteamine-based disulphide cross-linked sodium alginate with LbL self-assembly to improve the delivery of paclitaxel (PCX) to colonic cancer cells. Cysteamine was conjugated to the backbone of oxidized SA to form a core of self-assembled disulphide cross-linked nanospheres. P3DL was selected for PCX loading and fabricated LbL with poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid-co-maleic acid) sodium salt (PSSCMA) resulting from characterization and drug release studies. P3DL-fabricated PCX-loaded nanospheres (P3DL/PAH/PSSCMA) exhibited an encapsulation efficiency of 77.1% with cumulative drug release of 45.1%. Dynamic light scattering analysis was reported at 173.6 ± 2.5 nm with polydispersity index of 0.394 ± 0.105 (zeta potential= -58.5 mV). P3DL/PAH/PSSCMA demonstrated a pH-dependent swelling transition; from pH 1 to 7 (102.2% increase). The size increased by 33.0% in reduction response study after incubating with 10 mM glutathione (day 7). HT-29 cells showed high viabilities (86.7%) after treatment with the fabricated nanospheres at 0.8 µg/mL. Cellular internalization was successful with more than 70.0% nanospheres detected in HT-29 cells. Therefore, this fabricated nanospheres may be considered as potential nanocarriers for colon cancer-targeted chemotherapeutic drug delivery.
A novel decellularization method using sonication treatment is described. Sonication treatment is the combination of physical and chemical agents. These methods will disrupt cell membrane and release cell contents to external environments. The cell removal was facilitated by subsequent rinsing of sodium dodecyl sulfate detergents. Sonication treatment is used in the preparation of complete decellularized bioscaffolds. The aim of this study is to confirm the usefulness of sonication treatment for preparation of biological scaffolds. In this study, samples of aortic tissues are decellularized by sonication treatment at frequency of 170 kHz in 0.1% and 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate detergents for 10-h treatment time. The relation between decellularization and sonication parameters such as dissolved oxygen concentration, conductivity, and pH is investigated. Histological analysis and biomechanical testing is performed to evaluate cell removal efficiency as well as changes in biomechanical properties. Minimal inflammation response elicit by bioscaffolds is confirmed by xenogeneic implantation and immunohistochemistry. Sonication treatment is able to produce complete decellularized tissue suggesting that these treatments could be applied widely as one of the decellularization method.
A series of novel bionanocomposites were cast using different contents of zinc oxide-silver nanoparticles (ZnO-AgNPs) stabilized by cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) as multifunctional nanosized fillers in poly(vinyl alcohol)/chitosan (PVA/Cs) matrices. The morphological structure, mechanical properties, ultraviolet-visible absorption, and antimicrobial properties of the prepared films were investigated as a function of their CNC/ZnO-AgNP content and compared with PVA/chitosan/CNC bionanocomposite films. X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopic analyses showed that the CNC/ZnO-AgNPs were homogeneously dispersed in the PVA/Cs matrix and the crystallinity increased with increasing nanosized filler content. Compared with pure PVA/Cs, the tensile strength and modulus in the films increased from 0.055 to 0.205 GPa and from 0.395 to 1.20 GPa, respectively. Ultraviolet and visible light can be efficiently absorbed by incorporating ZnO-AgNPs into a PVA/Cs matrix, suggesting that these bionanocomposite films show good visibility and ultraviolet-shielding effects. The bionanocomposite films had excellent antimicrobial properties, killing both Gram-negative Salmonella choleraesuis and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus. The enhanced physical properties achieved by incorporating CNC/ZnO-AgNPs could be beneficial in various applications.
In Malaysia, the field of genomics in toxicology is still in infancy. The purpose of this study is to focus on the use of toxicogenomics for determination of gene expressions changes in cultured human fibroblast cells treated with genotoxicology free biomaterial (using Ames test), a locally produced hyroxyapatite. Dose and time response is similar to Ames test with time interval up to 21 days. mRNA is extracted, followed with RT-PCR and polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis. Changes of the gene expressions compared to the non-treated fibroblast mRNA would suggest some gene interactions in the molecule level associated with the exposure of the fibroblast cell line to the biomaterials. Further analysis (cloning & sequencing) shall be carried out to investigate the genes involved as simple changes might not signified toxicity.
Bovine pericardium has widely been used for grafts in cardiac surgery and seems to have suitable properties for use as a dural graft. We report our experience of using locally processed bovine pericardium for dural grafts in 22 patients undergoing cranial operations.
Magnesium has been recognized as a groundbreaking biodegradable biomaterial for implant applications, but its use is limited because it degrades too quickly in physiological solutions. This paper describes the research on the influence of polycaprolactone (PCL)/chitosan (CS)/zinc oxide (ZnO) composite coating (PCL/CS/ZnO) on the corrosion resistance and antibacterial activity of magnesium. The PCL/CS film presented a porous structure with thickness of about 40-50 μm, while after incorporation of ZnO into the PCL/CS, a homogenous film without pores and defects was attained. The ZnO embedded in PCL/CS enhanced corrosion resistance by preventing corrosive ions diffusion in the magnesium substrate. The corrosion, antibacterial, and cell interaction mechanism of the PCL/CS/ZnO composite coating is discussed in this study. In vitro cell culture revealed that the PCL/CS coating with low loaded ZnO significantly improved cytocompatibility, but coatings with high loaded ZnO were able to induce some cytotoxicity osteoblastic cells. It was also found that enhanced antibacterial activity of the PCL/CS/ZnO coating against both Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) bacteria, while less significant antibacterial activity was detected for uncoated Mg and PCL/CS coating. Based on the results, the PCL/CS coatings loaded with low ZnO content may be recommended as a candidate material for biodegradable Mg-based orthopedic implant applications.