There is a great demand of Hydroxyapatite (HA) material in Orthopaedics and Dental applications due to its similarity to human bone. However, the lack of availability and due to high import cost of this material in Malaysia, research in producing synthetic HA locally is therefore timely. The use of local resources as the raw materials for the production of HA is also desirable in reducing the overall cost of HA. In this study, two HA materials were synthesised from different starting precursors, i.e. commercial pure Ca(OH)2 (HAS) and Ca(OH)2 directly from a local natural limestone deposit (HAL). Whereas a commercially available HA "Captal 60" (HAC) was used as reference. The synthesised powders obtained were fired at 1000 degrees C and at 1250 degrees C. Characterisation evaluations on bulk properties were carried out using XRD, SEM-EDX, ICP and FTIR. The results indicate that both HAS and HAL are comparable to HAC even at 1000 degrees C. Thus, the local natural limestone can be used to form HA. However, the overall appearance of these materials are quite different (HAC - blue, HAS - greenish and HAL - light green). The reasons for this and the subsequent mechanical and bioactive effects of these materials are currently being investigated.
The paper presents a method of producing synthetic Hydroxyapatite (HA) Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 and other apatites for biological use by solid-state reaction. The solid-state reaction involves mix-grinding dry powders of beta-tricalcium phosphate powder (TCP) and either calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) or calcium carbonate (CaCO3) or combination thereof, from pure commercial chemicals or derived from natural limestone or from seashells, of total calcium/phosphorus molar ratio between 1.5 to 2.0, to particle size of less than 10 microns, and firing the resultant powder to temperature between 600 degrees C - 1250 degrees C in atmosphere or in controlled atmospheric condition. The resultant apatites formed were characterised using XRD, SEM-EDX and FTIR. The presented reaction process was found to be much simpler compared to conventional methods of producing synthetic apatites since it involves only dry mix-grinding of the reactants before firing at high temperatures based on the required levels of purity. It can also produce synthetic apatites with good reproducibility in a shorter time. Thus the presented method has a great industrial value.
Hydroxyapatite (HA) has been earmarked as suitable for implantation within the human of its chemical makeup to human bone. In this paper, HA powders were synthesized via the precipitation method where phosphoric acid (H3PO4) was titrated into calcium hydroxide solution [Ca(OH)2]. Two parameters such as temperature and stirring rate were identified as factors that influenced the amount and purity of HA powder. Phase identification of the synthesized powder was done using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The results show that HA phase can be synthesized from this titration process of Ca(OH)2 and H3PO4 with yield amount of HA powder around 45 - 61 grams but with less than hundred percent purity. In order to study the effect of heat treatment to HA crystals structure, HA powder was calcined at 850 degrees C for 2 hours. It's found that the degree of crystallinity increases after calcination because of lattice expansion when the materials were heated at higher temperature
The appearance of dental porcelains is comparable to natural teeth. This study discusses the effect of Y2O3 addition to the fluorescent property of dental porcelains. The composition of dental porcelains contained Y2O3 as the fluorescent agent and base frit. The combinations of Y2O3 added consist of a series with 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 wt% respectively, based on the total composition. In the extreme condition, fluorescent agents are added from 5.0 up to 10.0 wt%. In order to enhance the fluorescent property of dental porcelains, an opacifiying agent, cerium oxide (CeO2) was also added to dental porcelains composition. The fluorescent property was determined using Spectroline EF-1400C/F that emits 240 nm wavelength ultraviolet light. The microstructure was examined by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The result shows that, the fluorescent properties displayed are similar to natural teeth when subjected to ultraviolet light. SEM micrograph was able to show the fluorescent agent dispersed in glass phase. Increasing additions of Y2O3 gave the fluorescent properties near to natural teeth.
The standard bioglass composition GS45 as well as with excess silica GS50 or with the addition of 5% titanium oxide GS45+Ti5, were prepared by the polymeric route. The different glass components were added to the formed polymer. Firing at 700 degrees C gave an amorphous product with microporous texture that readily crystallizes out at 900 degrees C. The prepared materials were highly porous with two modes of pore system micro-pores and macro-pores with a size ranging between 100 microm to 0.006 microm and a porosity reaching 73%. The measured bulk density was between 0.36 to 1.1g/cm3. The fired material preserved the former structure of the polymer precursor. Biocompatibility was verified in vitro and vivo. IR of the specimens previously immersed in SBF revealed the formation of apatite like layer. While the histology sections of implants in rate femurs showed new bone tissue or bone trabeculae after 21 days.
Various proportions of chitosan/collagen films (70/30% to 95/05%) w/w were prepared and evaluated for its suitability as skin regenerating scaffold. Interactions between chitosan and collagen were studied using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Differential Scanning Colorimetry (DSC). Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was used to investigate the morphology of the blend. Mechanical properties were evaluated using a Universal Testing Machine (UTM). The chitosan/collagen films were found to swell proportionally with time until it reaches equilibrium. FTIR spectroscopy indicated no chemical interaction between the components of the blends. DSC data indicated only one peak proving that these two materials are compatible at all proportions investigated. SEM micrographs also indicated good homogeneity between these two materials.
Among the various biomaterials available for tissue engineering and therapeutic applications, microbial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) offer the most diverse range of thermal and mechanical properties. Of particular interest are the PHAs that contain 4-hydroxybutyrate such as poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB) and poly(4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(4HB)]. These polyesters can only be synthesized by a few types of bacteria, among which Comamonas acidovorans has the most efficient metabolic pathways to channel 4HB monomers. The resulting polyesters are bioabsorbable and are being developed as a new biomaterial for medical applications. By controlling the molar ratio of the monomers, it is possible to produce materials that are as tough and elastic as rubber.
The effect of hemodialysis on the mechanical behavior of a cellulosic Hemophane ME-IOH and one Polysulfone type hollow fibers was investigated. Mechanical tests showed that the deformation of polysulfone type of hollow fibers is entirely different than that of the other dialyser for the samples used and unused in hemodialysis. All the samples exposed to the dialysis showed decreased in ductility. Fracture surface studies proved that there was some alignment on the fracture surface. XRD and DSC experiments revealed structural changes had occurred.
Patient own fibrin may act as the safest, cheapest and immediate available biodegradable scaffold material in clinical 1 tissue engineering. This study investigated the feasibility of using patient own fibrin isolated from whole blood to construct a new human cartilage, skin and bone. Constructed in vitro tissues were implanted on the dorsal part of the nude mice for in vivo maturation. After 8 weeks of implantation, the engineered tissues were removed for histological analysis. Our results demonstrated autologous fibrin has great potential as clinical scaffold material to construct various human tissues.
This study was designed to investigate the surface properties especially surface porosity of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) using scanning electron microscopy. PHB granules were sprinkled on the double-sided sticky tape attached on a SEM aluminium stub and sputtered with gold(10nm thickness) in a Polaron SC515 Coater, following which the samples were placed into the SEM specimen chamber for viewing and recording. Scanning electron micrographs with different magnification of PHB surface revealed multiple pores with different sizes.
One of the emerging technologies in the area of plasma processing is plasma immersion ion implantation (PSII). The paper addresses the merits offered by the PSII technique especially in the area of biomaterial processing. Worldwide development status as well as the drive towards commercial applications is elaborated in an attempt to draw the attention to the importance of the process for Malaysia as well as south East Asia.
Treatment and management of congenital as well as post-traumatic trachea stenosis remains a challenge in pediatric surgery. The aim of this study was to reconstruct a trachea with human nasal septum chondrocytes by using the combination of biodegradable hydrogel and non-biodegradable high-density polyethylene (HDP) as the internal predetermined shape scaffold.
We carried out a prospective study of 118 hydroxyapatite-coated, cementless total knee replacements in patients who were = 55 years of age and who had primary (92; 78%) or post-traumatic (26; 22%) osteoarthritis. The mean period of follow-up was 7.9 years (5 to 12.5). The Knee Society clinical scores improved from a pre-operative mean of 98 (0 to 137) to a mean of 185 (135 to 200) at five years, and 173 (137 to 200) at ten years. There were two revisions of the tibial component because of aseptic loosening, and one case of polyethylene wear requiring further surgery. There was no osteolysis or progressive radiological loosening of any other component. At 12 years, the overall rate of implant survival was 97.5% (excluding exchange of spacer) and 92.1% (including exchange of spacer). Cementless total knee replacement can achieve excellent long-term results in young, active patients with osteoarthritis. In contrast to total hip replacement, polyethylene wear, osteolysis and loosening of the prosthesis were not major problems for these patients, although it is possible that this observation could change with longer periods of follow-up.
Dentistry has searched for an ideal material to place in osseous defects for many years. Endogenous bone replacement has been the golden standard but involves additional surgery and may be available in limited quantities. Also, the exogenous bone replacement poses a risk of viral or bacterial transmission and the human body may even reject them. Therefore, before new biomaterials are approved for medical use, mutagenesis systems to exclude cytotoxic, mutagenic or carcinogenic properties are applied worldwide. The present preliminary study was carried out in five male New Zealand white rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Porous form of synthetic hydroxyapatite granules (500 mg), manufactured by School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, was implanted in the femur of the rabbits. Blood samples were collected prior to implantation and one week after implantation. The blood was cultured in vitro and the cell division was arrested at metaphase using colcemid. This was followed by the hypotonic treatment and fixation. Then, the chromosomes were prepared and stained for analysis. The modal chromosome number of rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) was found to be 2n=44. The mean mitotic index values prior to and after implantation were 3.30 ± 0.66 and 3.24 ± 0.27 per cent respectively. No gross chromosome aberrations, both numerical and structural were noticed either prior to or after implantation of the biomaterial. These findings indicate that the test substance, synthetic hydroxyapatite granules does not produce gross chromosome aberrations under the present test conditions in rabbits.
Among the various biomaterials available for tissue engineering and therapeutic applications, microbial polyhydroxyalkanoates offer the most diverse range of thermal and mechanical properties. In this study, the biocompatibility of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB); containing 50 mol % of 4-hydroxybutyrate] copolymer produced by Delftia acidovorans was evaluated. The cytotoxicity, mode of cell death, and genotoxicity of P(3HB-co-4HB) extract against V79 and L929 fibroblast cells were assessed using MTT assay, acridine orange/propidium iodide staining, and alkaline comet assay, respectively. Our results demonstrate that P(3HB-co-4HB) treated on both cell lines were comparable with clinically-used Polyglactin 910, where more than 60% of viable cells were observed following 72-h treatment at 200 mg/mL. Further morphological investigation on the mode of cell death showed an increase in apoptotic cells in a time-dependent manner in both cell lines. On the other hand, P(3HB-co-4HB) at 200 mg/mL showed no genotoxic effects as determined by alkaline comet assay following 72-h treatment. In conclusion, our study indicated that P(3HB-co-4HB) compounds showed good biocompatibility in fibroblast cells suggesting that it has potential to be used for future medical applications.
Ovine articular chondrocytes were isolated from cartilage biopsy and culture expanded in vitro. Approximately 30 million cells per ml of cultured chondrocytes were incorporated with autologous plasma-derived fibrin to form a three-dimensional construct. Full-thickness punch hole defects were created in the lateral and medial femoral condyles. The defects were implanted with either an autologous 'chondrocyte-fibrin' construct (ACFC), autologous chondrocytes (ACI) or fibrin blanks (AF) as controls. Animals were killed after 12 weeks. The gross appearance of the treated defects was inspected and photographed. The repaired tissues were studied histologically and by scanning electron microscopy analysis. All defects were assessed using the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) classification. Those treated with ACFC, ACI and AF exhibited median scores which correspond to a nearly-normal appearance. On the basis of the modified O'Driscoll histological scoring scale, ACFC implantation significantly enhanced cartilage repair compared to ACI and AF. Using scanning electron microscopy, ACFC and ACI showed characteristic organisation of chondrocytes and matrices, which were relatively similar to the surrounding adjacent cartilage. Implantation of ACFC resulted in superior hyaline-like cartilage regeneration when compared with ACI. If this result is applicable to humans, a better outcome would be obtained than by using conventional ACI.