Materials and Methods: CBCT images which show MFPMs recorded in HUSM Dental Clinic between January 2015 and June 2016 was obtained and analyzed for their number of roots and canals. A total of 208 CBCT images of MFPMs were collected; 118 patients had unilateral molars and 90 patients had bilateral molars. The following observations were made: (1) root number; (2) number of canals per root; and (3) comparisons of number of roots and canals according to gender, ethnicity, and position.
Results: The majority of cases of bilateral MFPM had the same number of roots (95.6%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 89.01%, 98.78%) on both the right and left side and only 4 cases (4.4%, 95% CI: 1.22%, 10.99%) had 3 roots on the right and 2 roots on the left sides. The majority of cases had the same number of canals on both sides (66.7%, 95% CI: 55.95, 76.26%) and 33.3% (95% CI: 23.74%, 44.05%) with unequal number of canals. The occurrence of the number of canals was not independent of the sides of the arch (P < 0.001) and there was statistically significantly greater proportion of cases who had greater number of canals on the right side than the left (P = 0.03). The prevalence of right single-rooted MFPM was very small at 0.3% (n = 1) in a Malay male (95% CI: 0.00, 1.83) and the most prevalent was two roots first molar (88.4%). The number of roots was not associated with sex or ethnic group (P > 0.05). The MFPM with a single root was found to have only one mesial canal. For two rooted MFPM, the most prevalent occurrence was two canals at the mesial and one canal at the distal roots (59%); followed by single canals in each mesial and distal (21%) and double canals per root (18%). Three roots MFPM have either single or double canals in the mesial root and double canals in the distal root.
Conclusions: The majority of population in the East Coast region of Malaysia has two roots and three root canals in their MFPMs. There was no difference in the number of roots between gender and ethnic and canals between ethnic.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 370 orthodontic records including their pre-treatment orthopantomographs (OPG) and study models of orthodontic patients in permanent dentition who attended dental clinic were assessed for impaction, hypodontia, supernumerary, supraocclusion, infraocclusion, and any other anomalies excluding the third molars. The association of anomalies with gender status and racial status was analyzed using Pearson's Chi-square test. A P value of <0.05 is considered as significant. The confidence interval at 95% (CI) was set.
RESULTS: Among the 370 subjects, 105 (28.4%) presented with at least one anomaly. Eighty-five (23%) demonstrated a single anomaly and 20 (5.4%) with more than one anomaly. The most prevalent anomaly was impaction (14.32%), followed by hypodontia (7.03%). The less common anomalies were microdontia (1.08%), dilacerations (0.27%), and generalised enamel hypoplasia (0.27%). Maxillary right lateral incisors and canines were the most common affected teeth and these are located on the maxillary right quadrant. It was evident that dental anomalies were statistically dependant on race (P = 0.025), but independent of gender. The most common treatment planned for these patients was fixed appliance.
CONCLUSIONS: Impaction was predominant among 28.4% subjects observed with anomaly and most patients with anomaly are treated with fixed appliances (49%).
CLINICAL RELEVANCE: These anomalies play a great role in occlusion and alignment in treatment planning and relapse for orthodontic treatment.
METHOD: This 2016 study located every dental practice in Malaysia (private and public) and mapped these practices against population, using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) tools. Population clusters within 5, 10 and 20 km of a dental clinic were identified, and clinic-to-population ratios were ascertained. Population data were obtained from the Population and Housing Census of Malaysia 2010. Population relative wealth was obtained from the 2014 Report on Household Income and Basic Amenities Survey for Malaysia. The physical address for each dental practice in Malaysia was gathered from the Official Portal of Ministry of Health Malaysia. All data for analysis were extracted from the integrated database in Quantum GIS (QGIS) into Microsoft Excel.
RESULT: The population of Malaysia (24.9 million) was distributed across 127 districts, with 119 (94%) having at least one dental clinic. Sixty-four districts had fewer than 10 dental clinics, and 11.3% of Malaysians did not reside in the catchment of 20 km from any dental clinic. The total dental clinic-to-population ratio was 1:9,000: for public dental clinics it was 1:38,000 and for private clinics it was 1:13,000.
CONCLUSION: Dental services were distributed relative to high population density, were unevenly distributed across Malaysia and the majority of people with the highest inaccessibility to a dental service resided in Malaysian Borneo.