Lepidocephalus has been assumed to include only two species and confined to peninsular Malaysia and Indonesia. However, based on records and collections reported herein, the genus contains five species and is most common in the Chao Phraya basin of Thailand. Large rivers seem to be the preferred habitat, and difficulty in collecting these rivers may account for the paucity of specimens in collections. The known range of these five species includes western and southern Borneo, Java, Sumatra, peninsular Malaysia, and central Thailand.
The final instar larva of Acrogomphus jubilaris Lieftinck, 1964, is described and figured for the first time based on exuviae from four male and one female larvae collected in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. The adults of A. jubilaris are very rarely encountered. The larvae, however, are surprisingly common in forest streams in Borneo. It is compared with A. malayanus Laidlaw, 1925 and A. walshae Lieftinck, 1935, and notes on behavior, distribution and habitat are included. A map including all known records of A. jubilaris is provided.
The higher-level taxonomy of the stingrays (Dasyatidae) has never been comprehensively reviewed. Recent phylogenetic studies, supported by morphological data, have provided evidence that the group is monophyletic and consists of four major subgroups, the subfamilies Dasyatinae, Neotrygoninae, Urogymninae and Hypolophinae. A morphologically based review of 89 currently recognised species, undertaken for a guide to the world's rays, indicated that most of the currently recognised dasyatid genera are not monophyletic groups. These findings were supported by molecular analyses using the NADH2 gene for about 77 of these species, and this topology is supported by preliminary analyses base on whole mitochondrial genome comparisons. These molecular analyses, based on data generated from the Chondrichthyan Tree of Life project, are the most taxon-rich data available for this family. Material from all of the presently recognised genera (Dasyatis, Pteroplatytrygon and Taeniurops [Dasyatinae]; Neotrygon and Taeniura [Neotrygoninae]; Himantura and Urogymnus [Urogymninae]; and Makararaja and Pastinachus [Hypolophinae]), are included and their validity largely supported. Urogymnus and the two most species rich genera, Dasyatis and Himantura, are not considered to be monophyletic and were redefined based on external morphology. Seven new genus-level taxa are erected (Megatrygon and Telatrygon [Dasyatinae]; Brevitrygon, Fluvitrygon, Fontitrygon, Maculabatis and Pateobatis [Urogymninae], and an additional three (Bathytoshia, Hemitrygon and Hypanus [Dasyatinae]) are resurrected from the synonymy of Dasyatis. The monotypic genus Megatrygon clustered with 'amphi-American Himantura' outside the Dasyatidae, and instead as the sister group of the Potamotrygonidae and Urotrygonidae. Megatrygon is provisionally retained in the Dasyatinae pending further investigation of its internal anatomy. The morphologically divergent groups, Bathytoshia and Pteroplatytrygon, possibly form a single monophyletic group so further investigation is needed to confirm the validity of Pteroplatytrygon. A reclassification of the family Dasyatidae is provided and the above taxa are defined based on new morphological data.
Gastropod molluscs are one of the most important components of mangrove ecosystem. Mangroves in Central Vietnam have a rather limited distribution due to peculiarities of the coastline morphology and presently their fauna remains understudied. Extensive surveys were conducted in both natural vegetation and artificial mangrove plantations in several localities in Nha Trang Bay from 2005 to 2015. In total 65 species of gastropod molluscs were found alive, 17 of which can be considered as predominantly mangrove-associated. An illustrated guide is provided, with short synonymies and data on ecology and distribution. The recorded molluscan diversity is compared with published data on mangrove gastropods in different regions of the Indo-Pacific. Total species number and the proportion of mangrove-associated species are similar to studied faunas in Hong Kong, Malaysia and Thailand, but the diversity is much lower than that of the mangal fauna of the Philippines.
The areolate Oriental family Heteropterygidae Kirby, 1893 is critically reviewed and the results of the present study contradict the arrangement suggested by Zompro (2004), but in most aspects agree with a molecular study presented by Whiting et al (2003) and a phylogenetic study presented by Bradler (2009). The family is critically discussed and new hypotheses are presented for the phylogeny and intra-familiar relationships, placing the subfamily Dataminae Rehn & Rehn, 1939 as the basalmost clade of Heteropterygidae. The subfamilies Obriminae Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1893 and Heteropteryginae Kirby, 1893 together represent the sister-group of Dataminae. Arguments and a tree are presented to support this hypothesis. New diagnoses and lists of genera are provided for all three subfamilies contained in Heteropterygidae, along with keys to distinguish between them. The subfamily Obriminae is critically reviewed and the distinction between the three tribes Obrimini Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1893, Eubulidini Zompro, 2004 and Miroceramiini Zompro, 2004 introduced by Zompro (2004) is shown to be poorly supported. While Obrimini sensu Zompro, 2004 is generally accepted (but now also contains genera that were placed in Eubulidini or Miroceramiini by Zompro (2004)), the tribes Eubulidini and Miroceramiini are not supported. A new arrangement is introduced, which is based on morphological characters neglected or overlooked by Zompro (2004) but were partly discussed by Bradler (2009). The genus Mearnsiana Rehn & Rehn, 1939 is removed from Miroceramiini and transferred to Obrimini. The genera Eubulides Stål, 1877, Heterocopus Redtenbacher, 1906, Theramenes Stål, 1875 and Stenobrimus Redtenbacher, 1906 are removed from Eubulidini and also transferred to Obrimini. Consequently, Eubulidini is synonymised with Obrimini (n. syn.). Miroceramiini is a monotypical tribe and only includes the Wallacean genus Miroceramia Günther, 1934. The new tribe Tisamenini n. trib. is established for the three basal genera Tisamenus Stål, 1875, Ilocano Rehn & Rehn, 1939 and Hoploclonia Stål, 1875 all of which were placed in Eubulidini by Zompro (2004). The latter genus differs from the other two genera by the morphology of the female genitalia, which is unique amongst the entire family. Three generic groups are recognized within Obrimini, the Obrimus-group, Stenobrimus-group and Theramenes-group. Keys are presented to distinguish between the three tribes now contained in the Obriminae, i.e. Obrimini, Tisamenini n. trib. and Miroceramiini. The genus Hennobrimus Conle, 2006 is synonymised with Mearnsiana Rehn & Rehn, 1939, based on the fact that the type-species of both genera are conspecific (n. syn.). Hennobrimus hennemanni Conle, 2006, the type-species of Hennobrimus, and Trachyaretaon manobo Lit & Eusebio, 2005 are synonymised with Mearnsiana bullosa Rehn & Rehn, 1939, the type-species of Mearnsiana (n. syn.). Theramenes dromedarius Stål, 1877 from the Philippines is removed from synonymy with the Wallacean Theramenes olivaceus (Westwood, 1859) and re-established as a valid species (rev. stat.). The subfamily Heteropteryginae Kirby, 1896 is revised at the species-level and a new diagnosis is presented. Keys to the two genera and all 16 known species are provided along with new descriptions, differential diagnoses, lists of examined material, detailed information on the known distributions, measurements and illustrations of the insects and eggs. The intra-subfamiliar and intra-generic relationships are discussed and a cladogram is presented. Heteropteryginae contains two genera: Heteropteryx Gray, 1835 (Type-species: Phasma dilatatum Parkinson, 1798) and Haaniella Kirby, 1896 (Type-species: Phasma (Heteropteryx) muelleri de Haan, 1842). The distribution of this subfamily is restricted to Sundaland with the exception of a single species that is found in Vietnam. All other species are distributed in Borneo, Sumatra, the Mentawai Islands, Singapore, Peninsular Malaysia and Thailand. Heteropteryginae contains the largest and most striking members of the entire family Heteropteryginae, some of which are amongst the heaviest insects known. The subfamily is characterized by apomorphies such as the presence of wings, having a tympanal area (= stridulatory organ) in the basal portion of the alae, straight profemora, strongly shortened tarsi, lack of rough sensory-areas on the prosternum and typically X-shaped micropylar plate of the eggs. The sister-group of Heteropteryginae is represented by the Obriminae, with which it shares a beak-like secondary ovipositor in the females and presence of a medio-apical spine on the area apicalis. Both features are synapomorphies of Heteropteryginae + Obriminae. The genus Haaniella Kirby, 1904 contains 16 known species, five of which are newly described herein. The genus Miniopteryx Zompro, 2004 (Type-species: Haaniella parva Günther, 1944) is synonymised with Haaniella on the basis that the distinguishing feature mentioned in the original description is a character that is frequently found throughout the genus (n. syn.). The type-species H. parva Günther, 1944 is automatically retransferred to Haaniella (rev. stat.). Haaniella aculeata n. sp. from western Sumatra is described from the male. Haaniella macroptera n. sp. from Singapore and the Johor state in southern Peninsular Malaysia is described from both sexes and the eggs. Haaniella gintingi n. sp. from Central Sumatra is described from both sexes and the eggs and Haaniella kerincia n. sp. from Western Sumatra is described from the insects only, the eggs being still unknown. One new species, Haaniella gorochovi n. sp., is the only representative of the genus and subfamily Heteropteryginae known from Vietnam and both sexes as well as the eggs are described. Haaniella erringtoniae (Redtenbacher, 1906) is endemic in Peninsular Malaysia, here removed from synonymy with H. muelleri (de Haan, 1842) and re-established as a valid species (rev. stat.). The Sumatran Haaniella glaber (Redtenbacher, 1906) is removed from synonymy with H. muelleri (Haan, 1842) and re-established as a valid species (rev. stat.). Leocrates glaber Redtenbacher, 1906 and Haaniella muelleri simplex Günther, 1944 are removed from synonymy with H. muelleri (Haan, 1842) (rev. stat.) and synonymised with H. glaber. Haaniella mecheli (Redtenbacher, 1906) and H. rosenbergii (Kaup, 1871) are removed from synonymy with H. muelleri (Haan, 1842) and re-established as valid species (rev. stat.). Haaniella erringtoniae novaeguineae Günther, 1934 and Haaniella muelleri var. b. (Haan, 1842) are synonymized with H. rosenbergii (Kaup, 1871) (n. syn.). The type-species Haaniella muelleri (Haan, 1842) is shown to be a fairly rare species that is restricted to Sumatra. All subsequent records of H. muelleri from outside Sumatra and references to captive breeding of stock originating from Peninsular Malaysia in Europe relate to H. erringtoniae (Redtenbacher, 1906). The previously unknown males and eggs of H. rosenbergii (Kaup, 1871) as well as the previously unknown females and eggs of H. parva Günther, 1944 are described and illustrated for the first time. Based on morphological characters of the insects and eggs three distinct species-groups are recognized within Haaniella. The muelleri species-group contains nine species that are distributed throughout Sumatra, the Mentawei Islands, Singapore and Peninsular Malaysia. These are characterized by the smooth ventral surface of the meso- and metafemora and lemon-shaped eggs which entirely lack the setae seen in the two other species-groups. The grayii species-group comprises four species, two of which are endemic in Borneo, one endemic in Sumatra and the fourth species being the only known representative of the subfamily in Vietnam. These species are characteristic for the prominent pair of spines on the abdominal tergites II-IV of males and long apically multidentate epiproct of females. The echinata species-group contains three exceptionally Bornean species, which are characterized by the long and apically pointed subgenital plate of females, which clearly projects beyond the epiproct, as well as the sub-basal lateral tooth of the anal segment of males. The muelleri species-group is sister to the remainder two species-groups. Heteropteryx Gray, 1853 is a monotypical genus and only contains the type-species H. dilatata (Parkinson, 1798), which is found throughout Peninsular Malaysia, Thailand, Sumatra and Northeastern Borneo. This genus differs from Haaniella by the strongly conically elevated head, which posteriorly projects over the anterior margin of the pronotum, females being bright green or yellow in colour with plain and translucent pink alae and having distinct spines on the abdominal tergites, and males having a strongly shortened mesothorax and dull pink alae. Lectotypes are designated for Haaniella parva Günther, 1944, Heteropteryx echinata Redtenbacher, 1906, Heteropteryx saussurei Redtenbacher, 1906 and Heteropteryx scabra Redtenbacher, 1906 to guarantee stability of these names. Information on the habitats, host-plants, biology, life cycle, parasitism and captive breeding of the species of Heteropteryginae is presented and a list summarising all taxonomic changes presented herein.
A new species of limestone cave-adapted gecko of the Cyrtodactylus pulchellus complex, C. hidupselamanya sp. nov., is described from an isolated karst formation at Felda Chiku 7, Kelantan, Peninsular Malaysia. This formation is scheduled to be completely quarried for its mineral content. From what we know about the life history of C. hidupselamanya sp. nov., this will result in its extinction. A new limestone forest-adapted species, C. lenggongensis sp. nov., from the Lenggong Valley, Perak was previously considered to be conspecific with C. bintangrendah but a re-evaluation of morphological, color pattern, molecular, and habitat preference indicates that it too is a unique lineage worthy of specific recognition. Fortunately C. lenggongensis sp. nov. is not facing extinction because its habitat is protected by the UNESCO Archaeological Heritage of the Lenggong Valley due to the archaeological significance of that region. Both new species can be distinguished from all other species of Cyrtodactylus based on molecular evidence from the mitochondrial gene ND2 and its flanking tRNAs as well as having unique combinations of morphological and color pattern characteristics. Using a time-calibrated BEAST analysis we inferred that the evolution of a limestone habitat preference and its apparently attendant morphological and color pattern adaptations evolved independently at least four times in the C. pulchellus complex between 26.1 and 0.78 mya.
We describe two new species of skinks from Gunung Penrissen, Sarawak, Malaysia, in northern Borneo, Tytthoscincus batupanggah sp. nov. and T. leproauricularis sp. nov. Morphological and molecular analyses both corroborate the two new species as unique compared to all other Tytthoscincus and additional Sphenomorphus that are candidates for taxonomic placement in the genus Tytthoscincus. Despite their phenotypic similarity and sympatric distribution, a molecular analysis shows that the new species are not sister taxa and exhibit a deep genetic divergence between each of their respective sister taxa. We discuss how historical climatic and geographic processes may have led to the co-distribution of two relatively distantly related phenotypically similar species. In light of these discoveries, we also emphasize the importance of conserving primary montane tropical rainforest for maintaining species diversity.
The presence of the Afro-Australian genus Conochironomus Freeman, 1961 (Diptera: Chironomidae) in Asia has been recognised only informally. An unpublished thesis included Conochironomus from Singapore, and the genus has been keyed from Malaysia without named species. Here, the Sumatran Conochironomus tobaterdecimus (Kikuchi & Sasa, 1980) comb. n. is recorded from Singapore and Thailand. The species is transferred from Sumatendipes Kikuchi & Sasa, 1980, rendering the latter a junior synonym (syn. n.) of Conochironomus Freeman. Conochironomus nuengthai sp. n. and Conochironomus sawngthai sp. n. are described as new to science, based on adult males from Chiang Mai, Thailand. All species conform to existing generic diagnoses for all life stages, with features from male and female genitalia, pupal cephalic tubercles and posterolateral 'spurs' of tergite VIII providing evidence for species distinction. Some larvae are linked to C. tobaterdecimus through molecular barcoding. Variation in other larvae, which clearly belong to Conochironomus and are common throughout Thailand, means that they cannot be segregated to species. Larval habitats include pools in river beds, urban storage reservoirs, drains with moderately high nutrient loadings, and peat swamps. Endochironomus effusus Dutta, 1994 from north-eastern India may be a congener but may differ in adult morphology, thereby precluding formal new combination until discrepancies can be reconciled. Many problems with vouchering taxonomic and molecular material are identified that need to be rectified in the future.
The final instar larva of Orthetrum borneense Kimmins, 1936, is described and figured for the first time based on exuviae from three male and six female larvae collected in Sarawak, Borneo (East Malaysia). It is compared with an early instar larva, which was matched to the adult O. borneense by DNA barcoding, and the known larvae of other species of this genus that occur in the region.
Study of Ephemeroporus Frey, 1982 populations from Peninsular Malaysia revealed a new species. Ephemeroporus malaysiaensis sp. nov. is characterized by the presence of four-five large denticles on anal margin of postabdomen instead of two-three, and five distinctive pigmented spots on each valve. Pigmented spots on the valves were never recorded for any species of family Chydoridae. E. malaysiaensis sp. nov. seems to be another endemic Chydoridae species of South-East Asia. E. malaysiaensis sp. nov. is a rare species, associated with emergent macrophytes in the littoral zone of shallow lake. Most of Ephemeroporus populations from Peninsular Malaysia belong to eurybiotic Paleotropical species Ephemeroporus barroisi (Richard, 1984).
A new species of gecarcinucid freshwater crab of the genus Parathelphusa H. Milne Edwards, 1853, is described from freshwater swamp habitats in Pekanbaru, Riau Province, in central-eastern Sumatra, Indonesia. Parathelphusa pardus sp. nov., has a very distinctive colour pattern, and in this respect, resembles P. maindroni (Rathbun, 1902) from Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia; P. batamensis Ng, 1992, from Batam Island, Indonesia; P. reticulata Ng, 1990, from Singapore; and P. oxygona Nobili, 1901, from western Sarawak. It can be distinguished from these species and congeners by a suite of carapace, ambulatory leg, thoracic sternal and most importantly, male first gonopod characters.
The classification, annotated list and keys for the black fly species from Peninsular Malaysia are updated. The number of black fly species increased from 38 in 1995 to 62 (including a new species herein described) in 2018. The 62 species are classified in four subgenera of the genus Simulium: one species in Daviesellum, 35 species in Gomphostilbia, five species in Nevermannia and 21 species in Simulium. Species in the latter three subgenera are further placed in species-groups or subgroups. Keys are provided for females, males, pupae and mature larvae. Simulium (S.) perakense sp. nov. is described and placed in the S. striatum species-group. The males of S. (G.) decuplum, S. (G.) tahanense, S. (S.) malayense, the female of S. (G.) adleri, and the female and larva of S. (G.) varicorne are described for the first time. The female, male, pupa and larva of S. (G.) trangense, the male and pupa of S. (G.) varicorne and the pupa of S. (G.) adleri are redescribed. Simulium (G.) sp. A is identified as S. (G.) pegalanense. Brief notes for each species are given on morphological characteristics, aquatic habitats and geographical distributions.
Four new species of semiterrestrial gecarcinucid crabs are described from limestone and sandstone habitats in southwestern Sarawak, Malaysia: Terrathelphusa aglaia n. sp., T. cerina n. sp., T. kundong n. sp., and T. mas n. sp. The taxonomy of T. kuchingensis (Nobili, 1901) is discussed, its precise identity ascertained from fresh material, and its actual distribution determined. This increases the number of Terrathelphusa species in Borneo to eight.
The Oriental pselaphine genus Horniella Raffray, 1905 (tribe Tyrini: subtribe Somatipionina) is redefined and revised. Twenty-five new species are described: H. centralis Yin & Li, sp. n., H. confragosa Yin & Li, sp. n., H. dao Yin & Li, sp. n., H. hongkongensis Yin & Li, sp. n., H. nakhi Yin & Li, sp. n., H. schuelkei Yin & Li, sp. n., H. sichuanica Yin & Li, sp. n., H. simplaria Yin & Li, sp. n., and H. tianmuensis Yin & Li, sp. n. from China, H. himalayica Yin & Li, sp. n. from Nepal and North India, H. asymmetrica Yin & Li, sp. n., H. burckhardti Yin & Li, sp. n., H. intricata Yin & Li, sp. n., H. kaengkrachan Yin & Li, sp. n., H. khaosabap Yin & Li, sp. n., H. loebli Yin & Li, sp. n., H. phuphaman Yin & Li, sp. n., H. prolixo Yin & Li, sp. n., and H. schwendingeri Yin & Li, sp. n. from Thailand, H. philippina Yin & Li, sp. n. from the Philippines, H. awana Yin & Li, sp. n., H. gigas Yin & Li, sp. n., H. pilosa Yin & Li, sp. n., and H. smetanai Yin & Li, sp. n. from Malaysia, and H. cibodas Yin & Li, sp. n. from Indonesia. The two previously described species, H. hirtella Raffray, 1901 (type species) from Sri Lanka and H. falcis Yin & Li, 2010 from China are redescribed, and a lectotype is designated for H. hirtella. Illustrations of habitus and important diagnostic features, an identification key, and distributional maps for all species are provided. Eleven unidentified species represented only by females are left unnamed. Illustrations of the habitus and the genital complex, and label data of these species are given to facilitate future study. All available data indicates that species of Horniella typically inhabit leaf litter of various kinds of forests, and can be most efficiently collected by sifting and use of Winkler-Moczarski extractors.
We describe two new species and provide one new species record of the family Comesomatidae from a submarine canyon habitat on the Southern Hikurangi margin, New Zealand. Vasostoma hexodontium n. sp. is characterized by having an amphideal fovea with three turns, buccal cavity with six teeth and gubernaculum with long and straight caudal apophyses. Sabatieria dispunctata n. sp. is characterized by the absence of cuticle punctations, large amphideal fovea with 4.5 turns, pharynx with posterior bulb, absence of pre-cloacal supplements, strongly arcuate and cuticularized spicules, simple gubernaculum with short caudal apophyses, and vulva opening directed posteriorly. Laimella subterminata Chen & Vincx, 2000, which was originally described from the Beagle Channel and the Magellan Strait (Chile), is recorded from the Southwest Pacific for the first time.
Six new species of marpissoid jumping spiders from Sarawak, Borneo, are described in the new genus Tisaniba Zhang & Maddison. They are the type species, T. mulu Zhang & Maddison sp. nov., as well as the species T. bijibijan Zhang & Maddison sp. nov., T. dik Zhang & Maddison sp. nov., T. kubah Zhang & Maddison sp. nov., T. selan Zhang & Maddison sp. nov., and T. selasi Zhang & Maddison sp. nov. The spiders are small and brown to black, living in leaf litter in the tropical forest. Phylogenetic analyses based on 28s and 16sND1 genes indicate that they are a distinctive group within the marpissoids. Diagnostic illustrations and photographs of living spiders are provided for all species.
Twelve species of Ansonia occur on the Thai-Malay peninsula, of which, five from Peninsular Malaysia, form a monophyletic group. One of these, A. jeetsukumarani, is endemic to the Titiwangsa Mountain Range, in which, we discovered a new population of Ansonia that is not A. jeetsukumarani or even its closest relative. Based on morphology, color pattern, and molecular phylogenetic analyses using the mitochondrial genes 12s and 16s rRNA, we have determined that this new species, A. smeagol sp. nov., forms the sister lineage to an upland, monophyletic group composed of A. jeetsukumarani, A. lumut, A. malayana, and A. penangensis. We have noted similar biogeographic patterns in other taxa from the Titiwangsa Mountain Range in a number of upland lineages in Peninsular Malaysia. We hypothesize that the phylogeographic structure of these upland populations is a result of stochastic processes stemming from interaction of climate-driven forest dynamics and life histories.
A taxonomic revision and phylogenetic analysis of the spider genus Glenognatha Simon, 1887 is presented. This analysis is based on a data set including 24 Glenognatha species plus eight outgroups representing three related tetragnathine genera and one metaine as the root. These taxa were scored for 78 morphological characters. Parsimony was used as the optimality criterion and a sensitivity analysis was performed using different character weighting concavities. Seven unambiguous synapomorphies support the monophyly of Glenognatha. Some internal clades within the genus are well-supported and its relationships are discussed. Glenognatha as recovered includes 27 species, four of them only known from males. A species identification key and distribution maps are provided for all. New morphological data are also presented for thirteen previously described species. Glenognatha has a broad distribution occupying the Neartic, Afrotropic, Indo-Malaya, Oceania and Paleartic regions, but is more diverse in the Neotropics. The following eleven new species are described: G. vivianae n. sp., G. caaguara n. sp., G. boraceia n. sp. and G. timbira n. sp. from southeast Brazil, G. caparu n. sp., G. januari n. sp. and G. camisea n. sp. from the Amazonian region, G. mendezi n. sp., G. florezi n. sp. and G. patriceae n. sp. from northern Andes and G. gouldi n. sp. from Southern United States and central Mexico. Females of G. minuta Banks, 1898, G. gaujoni Simon, 1895 and G. gloriae (Petrunkevitch, 1930) and males of G. globosa (Petrunkevitch, 1925) and G. hirsutissima (Berland, 1935) are described for the first time. Three new combinations are proposed in congruence with the phylogenetic results: G. argyrostilba (O. P.-Cambridge, 1876) n. comb., G. dentata (Zhu & Wen, 1978) n. comb. and G. tangi (Zhu, Song & Zhang, 2003) n. comb., all previously included in Dyschiriognatha Simon, 1893. The following taxa are newly synonymized: Dyschiriognatha montana Simon, 1897, Glenognatha mira Bryant, 1945 and Glenognatha maelfaiti Baert, 1987 with Glenognatha argyrostilba (Pickard-Cambridge, 1876) and Glenognatha centralis Chamberlin, 1925 with Glenognatha minuta Banks, 1898.
An integrative taxonomic analysis is used to delimit and describe three new species of Pseudocalotoes from the sky island archipelago of the Banjaran (=mountain range) Titiwangsa of Peninsular Malaysia. Pseudocalotes drogon sp. nov., from Fraser's Hill, Pahang is basal to the sister species P. larutensis from Bukit Larut, Perak in the Banjaran Bintang and the new species P. rhaegal sp. nov. from Cameron Highlands, Pahang. Pseudocalotes drogon sp. nov. is differentiated from all other species of Psuedocalotes by having the combination of a flat rostrum; seven postrostrals; an interparietal; 11 circumorbitals; five canthals; 7-10 superciliaries; one scale between the rostral and nasal; nine supralabials; eight infralabials; 10 postnasal-suborbital scales; four postmentals; five or six sublabials; five or six chinshields; 47 smooth, wide, gular scales; weak transverse gular and antehumeral folds; two enlarged scales between the ear and eye; enlarged upper and lower posttemporals; a single enlarged supratympanic; no enlarged postrictals; three large scales bordering the dorsal margin of the ear opening; large pretympanic scales; eight scales in the nuchal crest not separated by a gap; enlarged vertebral scales extending to the tip of the tail; keeled and non-plate-like scales on flanks; 51 midbody scales; midventrals smaller than dorsals; 19 subdigital lamellae on the fourth finger; 23 subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe; preaxial scales on third toe enlarged and spinose; subdigital lamellae not unicarinate; HW/HL 0.52; HL/SVL 0.31; no elbow or knee patches; and a male dewlap color of lime-green bearing a central yellow spot. Pseudocalotes rhaegal sp. nov. is differentiated from all other Psuedocalotes by having the combination of a convex rostrum; 6-8 postrostrals; an interparietal; nine or 10 circumorbitals; five canthals; 7-10 superciliaries; one or two scales between the rostral and nasal scales; eight or nine supralabials; seven or eight infralabials; 11 or 12 postnasal-suborbital scales; four postmentals; four or five chinshields; 40-45 smooth, wide, gular scales; no transverse gular fold; a weak antehumeral fold; three or four enlarged scales between the ear and eye; an enlarged upper and lower posttemporal; an enlarged supratympanic; no enlarged postrictals; no large scales bordering the upper margin of the ear opening or in the pretympanic region; 6-8 enlarged nuchal crest scales not separated by a gap; enlarged vertebral scales extending to the base of the tail; weakly keeled, non-plate-like scales on the flanks; 52-58 midbody scales; midventrals smaller than dorsals; 19-21 subdigital lamellae on the fourth finger; 22-26 subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe; preaxial scales on the third enlarged and rounded; subdigital lamellae not unicarinate; HW/HL 0.50-0.54; HL/SVL 0.28-0.30; no elbow or knee patches; and female dewlap color yellow bearing a purple base. The analyses also indicated that the new species, P. viserion sp. nov. from Genting Highlands, Pahang in the southern section of the Banjaran Titiwangsa is the sister species of P. flavigula from Cameron Highlands 121 km to the north and can be separated from all other species of Psuedocalotes by having the combination of three postrostrals; 10 circumorbitals; four or five canthals; 5-7 superciliaries; rostral and nasals in contact; supralabials contacting the nasal; six or seven supralabials; six or seven infralabials; two or three postmentals; 47 or 48 smooth, flat, gular scales; three chinshields; weak transverse gular and antehumeral folds; two enlarged scales between the ear and eye; an enlarged upper and lower posttemporal; an enlarged supratympanic; no enlarged postrictals; 7-9 nuchal crest scales lacking gaps and not extending beyond midbody; weakly keeled and plate-like scales on the flanks; 35-38 midbody scales; ventrals smaller than dorsals; 22 or 23 subdigital lamellae on the fourth finger; 26 or 27 subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe; preaxial scales on the third toe not modified; subdigital scales not unicarinate; HW/HL 0.62; no white marking below the eye; dewlap in males yellow; and no elbow or knee patches. Pseudocalotes rhaegal sp. nov. most likely occurs in syntopy with P. flavigula in Tanah Rata at Cameron Highlands and its discovery adds to a growing body of literature detailing the recent descriptions of several new, upland, closely related, sympatric species in Peninsular Malaysia. Another new population referred to here as Pseudocalotes sp. nov. from the Hala-Bala Wildlife Sanctuary, Betong District, Yala Province, Thailand is discussed. The discovery and description of these three new Pseudocalotes from the upland regions of Peninsular Malaysia continues to underscore the remarkably high herpetological diversity and ecological complexity in this sky island archipelago that is still underestimated, unappreciated, and unprotected.
A new gall-inducing genus and species of felt scales (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Eriococcidae) found on the leaves and twigs of Matayba guianensis (Sapindaceae) in Brazil is described: Bystracoccus Hodgson gen n. and B. mataybae Hodgson, Isaias & Oliveira sp. n. This is the first record of an eriococcid inducing leaf and stem galls on Sapindaceae and is only the second example of a member of the Eriococcidae to induce stem galls in which the insects diapause during the dry (winter) season. Only the adult female, second-instar female and crawler are known. The species overwinters as the first-instar nymph in pit galls on the twigs but spends the rest of the year associated with two-chambered galls on the leaves. It has recently become clear that South America has a rich felt-scale insect fauna many of which induce galls. It has proved very difficult to place this new genus in a family as it appears to fall between the Eriococcidae and Beesoniidae but is here placed in the eriococcids based on the similarity of the first-instar nymphs and the abundance of this family in the Neotropics. However, the dorsum of the abdomen of the mature adult female becomes heavily sclerotised, forming a round plug-like structure that completely fills the gall orifice. This structure shows remarkable morphological similarities to that of the beesoniid Danumococcus parashoreae Takagi & Hodgson found on Parashorea tomentella (Dipterocarpaceae) in Sabah, Malaysia, with which it is compared along with other eriococcid genera known from South America.