The aim of this study was to develop an economical bioprocess to produce the fermentable sugars at laboratory scales Using Oil Palm Frond (OPF) as substrate in Solid State Fermentation (SSF). OPF waste generated by oil palm plantations is a major problem in terms of waste management. However, this lignocellulosic waste material is a cheap source of cellulose. We used OPF as substrate to produce fermentable sugars. The high content of cellulose in OPF promises the high fermentable sugars production in SSF. Saccharification of OPF waste by A. niger USMAI1 generates fermentable sugars and was evaluated through a solid state fermentation. Physical parameters, e.g., inoculum size, initial substrate moisture, initial pH, incubation temperature and the size of substrate were optimized to obtain the maximum fermentable sugars from oil palm fronds. Up to 77 mg of fermentable sugars per gram substrate was produced under the optimal physical parameter conditions. Lower productivity of fermentable sugars, 32 mg fermentable sugars per gram substrate was obtained under non optimized conditions. The results indicated that about 140.6% increase in fermentable sugar production after optimization of the physical parameters. Glucose was the major end component amongst the fermentable sugars obtained. This study indicated that under optimum physical parameter conditions, the OPF waste can be utilized to produce fermentable sugars which then convert into other products such as alcohol.
The anticoagulant effect of leech saliva was traditionally employed in the treatment of diabetes mellitus complications such as peripheral vascular complications. This study was carried out to examine the effect of leech saliva extract (LSE) on blood glucose levels in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. First, LSE was collected from leeches which were fed on a phagostimulatory solution. Second, total protein concentration was estimated using the Bradford assay. Third, diabetic rats were injected subcutaneously (sc) with LSE at doses of 500 and 1 000 μg·kg(-1) body weight (bw). Other diabetic rats were injected sc with insulin at doses of 10 and 20 U·kg(-1) bw. Another group was injected simultaneously with LSE (250 μg·kg(-1) bw) and insulin (10 U·kg(-1) bw). Fasting blood glucose (FBG) concentrations were monitored during a study period of eight hours at regular intervals. Findings showed that both doses of LSE resulted in a significant and gradual decrease in FBG starting from 10%-18% downfall after two hours of injection reaching the maximal reduction activity of 58% after eight hours. Remarkably, LSE was sufficient to bring the rats to a near norm-glycemic state. The high dose of insulin induced a severe hypoglycemic condition after 2-4 h of injection. The lower dose was able to decline FBG for 2-6 h in rats which became diabetic again after 8 h. On the other hand, the concurrent injection of low doses of LSE and insulin produced a hypoglycemic effect with all rats showing normal FBG levels. Taken together, these findings indicated that the subcutaneous injection of LSE of the medicinal Malaysian leech was able to provide better glycemic control compared with insulin. Moreover, the synergism between LSE and insulin suggests that LSE could be utilized as an adjuvant medication in order to reduce insulin dosage or to achieve better control of blood glucose.
This review aims to evaluate the effectiveness of low glycemic index (GI) dietary intervention for the treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), specifically from the Asian perspective. A systematic review of the literature using multiple databases without time restriction was conducted. Three studies were retrieved based upon a priori inclusion criteria. While there was a trend towards improvement, no significant differences were observed in overall glycemic control and pregnancy outcomes in GDM women. However, a tendency for lower birth weight and birth centile if the intervention began earlier was noted. Low GI diets were well accepted and had identical macro-micronutrient compositions as the control diets. However, due to genetic, environment and especially food pattern discrepancies between Western countries and Asians, these results may not be contributed to Asian context. Clearly, there are limited studies focusing on the effect of low GI dietary intervention in women with GDM, particularly in Asia.
Structured lipid medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols (MLCT) are claimed to be able to manage obesity. The present study investigated the body fat influence of enzymatically interesterifed palm-based medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols (P-MLCT) on diet-induced obesity (DIO) C57BL/6J mice compared with commercial MLCT oil (C-MLCT) and a control, which was the non enzymatically modified palm kernel and palm oil blend (PKO-PO blend). It also investigated the low fat and high fat effects of P-MLCT. DIO C57BL/6J mice were fed ad libitum with low fat (7%) and high fat (30%) experimental diets for 8 weeks before being sacrificed to obtain blood serum for analysis. From the results, there is a trend that P-MLCT fed mice were found to have the lowest body weight, body weight gain, total fat pad accumulation (perirenal, retroperitoneal, epididymal and mesenteric), total triglyceride levels and efficiency in controlling blood glucose level, compared with C-MLCT and the PKO-PO blend in both low fat and high fat diets. Nevertheless, the PKO-PO blend and P-MLCT caused significantly (P < 0.05) higher total cholesterol levels compared to C-MLCT. P-MLCT present in low fat and high fat dosage were shown to be able to suppress body fat accumulation. This effect is more prominent with the low fat dosage.
Pseudogenes are considered to be nonfunctional genes that lack a physiological role. By screening 3985 Escherichia coli mutants using chemochromic membranes, we found four pseudogenes involved in hydrogen metabolism. Knockouts of pseudogenes ydfW and ypdJ had a defective hydrogen phenotype on glucose and formate, respectively. Also, the knockout of pseudogene yqiG formed hydrogen from formate but not from glucose. For the yqiG mutant, 100% hydrogen recovery was obtained by the complementation of YqiG via a plasmid. The knockout of pseudogene ylcE showed hydrogen deficiency in minimal media which suggested that the role of YlcE is associated with cell growth. Hence, the products of these four pseudogenes play an important physiological role in hydrogen production in E. coli.
Human interferon alpha (IFN-α) was expressed in two strains of Lactococcus lactis by aid of two promoters (P32 and Pnis) giving rise to two recombinant strains: MG:IFN and NZ:IFN, respectively. The expression of IFN was confirmed by ELISA and western blotting. Highest production was achieved using glucose for growth of both recombinant strains with nisin, used for induction of the recombinant strain with Pnis promoter, at 30 ng/ml. The optimum time for MG:IFN was 9 h and for NZ:IFN was 4.5 h. The highest productions by MG:IFN and NZ:IFN were 1.9 and 2.4 μg IFN/l, respectively. Both of the expressed IFNs showed bioactivities of 1.9 × 10(6) IU/mg that were acceptable for further clinical studies.
Mixotrophic metabolism was evaluated as an option to augment the growth and lipid production of marine microalga Tetraselmis sp. FTC 209. In this study, a five-level three-factor central composite design (CCD) was implemented in order to enrich the W-30 algal growth medium. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to model the effect of three medium variables, that is, glucose (organic C source), NaNO3 (primary N source), and yeast extract (supplementary N, amino acids, and vitamins) on biomass concentration, X(max), and lipid yield, P(max)/X(max). RSM capability was also weighed against an artificial neural network (ANN) approach for predicting a composition that would result in maximum lipid productivity, Pr(lipid). A quadratic regression from RSM and a Levenberg-Marquardt trained ANN network composed of 10 hidden neurons eventually produced comparable results, albeit ANN formulation was observed to yield higher values of response outputs. Finalized glucose (24.05 g/L), NaNO3 (4.70 g/L), and yeast extract (0.93 g/L) concentration, affected an increase of X(max) to 12.38 g/L and lipid a accumulation of 195.77 mg/g dcw. This contributed to a lipid productivity of 173.11 mg/L per day in the course of two-week cultivation.
Testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) have been shown to be associated with metabolic syndrome (MS) in men. This study aimed at validating these relationships in a group of middle-aged and elderly men and assessing their strength of association to MS. A cross-sectional study of 332 Malaysian men aged 40 years and above was conducted. The blood of subject was collected under fasting condition for determination of testosterone, SHBG, glucose and lipid levels. Their medical history, smoking and alcohol consumption status, waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure (BP) were recorded. All testosterone and SHBG levels were significantly reduced in MS subjects compared to non-MS subjects (p<0.05). Testosterone and SHBG were correlated significantly with most of the MS indicators without adjustments. In multiple regression analysis, the triglyceride level was the only MS indicator that was significantly, inversely and independently associated with all testosterone measurements and SHBG (p<0.05). Waist circumference was significantly and negatively associated with SHBG level (p<0.05) though not independent of BMI. Total testosterone and SHBG were significantly and inversely associated with the presence of MS. Testosterone and SHBG are potential intervention targets for the prevention of MS in men.
Friedelin and lanosterol have been isolated from twigs of Garcinia prainiana. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. The compounds were examined for their effects on 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In the MTT assay, it was found that the compounds had no cytotoxic effects up to 25 µM. Adipocyte differentiation analysis was carried out by Oil Red O staining method. In the presence of adipogenic cocktail (MDI), it was found that friedelin and lanosterol enhanced intracellular fat accumulation by 2.02 and 2.18-fold, respectively, compared with the vehicle-treated cells. Deoxyglucose uptake assay was used to examine the insulin sensitivity of adipocytes in the presence of the compounds. It was found that friedelin was able to stimulate glucose uptake up to 1.8-fold compared with insulin-treated cells. It was suggested that friedelin and lanosterol may be beneficial to mimic insulin action that would be useful in the treatment of diabetes type 2 patients.
Conversion of glucose, empty fruit bunch (efb) and kenaf to levulinic acid over a new hybrid catalyst has been investigated in this study. The characterization and catalytic performance results revealed that the physico-chemical properties of the new hybrid catalyst comprised of chromium chloride and HY zeolite increased the levulinic acid production from glucose compared to the parent catalysts. Optimization of the glucose conversion process using two level full factorial designs (2(3)) with two center points reported 55.2% of levulinic acid yield at 145.2 °C, 146.7 min and 12.0% of reaction temperature, reaction time and catalyst loading, respectively. Subsequently, the potential of efb and kenaf for producing levulinic acid at the optimum conditions was established after 53.2% and 66.1% of efficiencies were reported. The observation suggests that the hybrid catalyst has a potential to be used in biomass conversion to levulinic acid.
Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production from renewable resources has been widely reported. In this study, Clostridium butyricum EB6 was employed for ABE fermentation using fermentable sugar derived from treated oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB). A higher amount of ABE (2.61 g/l) was produced in a fermentation using treated OPEFB as the substrate when compared to a glucose based medium that produced 0.24 g/l at pH 5.5. ABE production was increased to 3.47 g/l with a yield of 0.24 g/g at pH 6.0. The fermentation using limited nitrogen concentration of 3 g/l improved the ABE yield by 64%. The study showed that OPEFB has the potential to be applied for renewable ABE production by C. butyricum EB6.
Armillaria sp. F022 is a white-rot fungus isolated from a tropical rain forest in Indonesia that is capable of utilizing pyrene as a source of carbon and energy. Enzymes production during the degradation process by Armillaria sp. F022 was certainly related to the increase in biomass. In the first week after incubation, the growth rate rapidly increased, but enzyme production decreased. After 7 days of incubation, rapid growth was observed, whereas, the enzymes were produced only after a good amount of biomass was generated. About 63 % of pyrene underwent biodegradation when incubated with this fungus in a liquid medium on a rotary shaker (120 rpm, 25 °C) for 30 days; during this period, pyrene was transformed to five stable metabolic products. These metabolites were extracted in ethyl acetate, isolated by column chromatography, and then identified using thin layer chromatography (TLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). 1-Hydroxypyrene was directly identified by GC-MS, while 4-phenanthroic acid, 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid, phthalic acid, and protocatechuic acid were identified to be present in their derivatized forms (methylated forms and silylated forms). Protocatechuic acid was the end product of pyrene degradation by Armillaria sp. F022. Dynamic profiles of two key enzymes, namely laccase and 1,2-dioxygenase, were revealed during the degradation process, and the results indicated the presence of a complicated mechanism in the regulation of pyrene-degrading enzymes. In conclusion, Armillaria sp. F022 is a white-rot fungus with potential for application in the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as pyrene in the environment.
Type 2 diabetes is one of the most widespread diseases in the world. The main aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of combined therapy using acupressure therapy, hypnotherapy, and transcendental meditation (TM) on the blood sugar (BS) level in comparison with placebo in type 2 diabetic patients. We used "convenience sampling" for selection of patients with type 2 diabetes; 20 patients were recruited. For collection of data, we used an identical quasi-experimental design called "nonequivalent control group." Therapy sessions each lasting 60-90 min were carried out on 10 successive days. We prescribed 2 capsules (containing 3g of wheat flour each) for each member of the placebo group (one for evening and one for morning). Pre-tests, post-tests, and follow-up tests were conducted in a medical laboratory recognized by the Ministry of Health and Medical Education of Iran. Mean BS level in the post-tests and follow-up tests for the experimental group was reduced significantly in comparison with the pre-tests whereas in the placebo group no changes were observed. Combined therapy including acupressure therapy, hypnotherapy, and TM reduced BS of type 2 diabetic patients and was more effective than placebo therapy on this parameter.
Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) with enhanced physicochemical properties will be ideal for a wide range of practical applications. The incorporation of 3-hydroxy-4-methylvalerate (3H4MV) into the polymer backbone is known to improve the overall properties of the resulting polymer. However, the most suitable micro-organism and PHA synthase that can synthesize this monomer efficiently still remain unknown at present. Therefore, we evaluated the abilities of a locally isolated Chromobacterium sp. USM2 to produce PHA containing 3H4MV.
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to compare the quality of life based on the Short Form-36 (SF-36) between two different groups of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with glycaemic control: those with a glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) level at or below 7.5 percent and those above 7.5 percent.
METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a generic SF-36 questionnaire was self-administered to patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Based on the HbA1c level, the mean SF-36 scale scores were compared. The analysis of covariance was used to obtain the adjusted mean scores of the SF-36 scales while controlling for age and duration of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
RESULTS: 150 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were analysed. There were 63 (42 percent) women and 87 (58 percent) men, and their mean HbA1c level was 8.9 percent (SD 2.4 percent). When comparing the two groups of patients with different HbA1c levels, the adjusted means of four scales: physical health functioning, general health, social functioning and mental health, differed significantly between the two. The SF-36 scale scores in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients were also lower than those of the SF-36 norms for the Malaysian population.
CONCLUSION: Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with poor glycaemic control had lower mean SF-36 scores in physical functioning, general health, social functioning and mental health, and the SF-36 scores in these patients were also lower than the SF-36 norms of the Malaysian population.
INTRODUCTION: This study aims to assess microvascular endothelial function in obese compared to age matched lean controls. Serum lipid profile, fasting glucose, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and adiponectin levels were also determined.
METHODS: This cross-sectional study involved 36 healthy lean and 36 obese subjects. Microvascular endothelial function was assessed using Laser Doppler fluximetry and iontophoresis with acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside.
RESULTS: Mean age of subjects was 26.54 ± 0.60 years. Obese subjects had higher systolic (118.8 ± 1.5 vs 105.7 ± 2.0 mmHg, p < 0.001) and diastolic blood pressure (71.61 ± 1.35 vs 64.53 ± 1.40 mmHg, p = 0.001), higher triglyceride (1.35 ± 0.13 vs 0.79 ± 0.05 mmol/l, p < 0.001), lower high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (1.43 ± 0.04 vs 1.62 ± 0.05 mmol/l, p = 0.003), higher hs-CRP (11.58 ± 1.88 vs 1.88 ± 0.35 mg/l, p < 0.001), and lower adiponectin levels (8.80 ± 0.43 vs 25.93 ± 0.40 μg/ml, p < 0.001) compared to lean subjects. Endothelial dependent vasodilatation was lower in obese compared to lean subjects (40.53 ± 6.59 vs 71.03 ± 7.13 AU, p = 0.001).
CONCLUSION: Microvascular endothelial function is reduced in obese compared to age matched controls. This is associated with higher BP, triglyceride and lower HDL-C and adiponectin levels in obese group.
Study site: not mentioned
A two-stage fermentation process consisting of dark and photo-fermentation periods was carried out in a batch reactor. In the first stage, glucose was fermented in the dark stage using Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 (ATCC 13564; CSN1-4) to produce acetate, CO2 and H2. The acetate produced in the first stage is fermented to H2 and CO2 by Rhodobacter sphaeroides NCIMB 8253 for further hydrogen production in the second, illuminated stage. The yield of hydrogen in the first stage was about 3.10 mol H2 (mol glucose)(-1) at a glucose concentration of 10 g L(-1), pH 6 +/- 0.2 and 37 degrees C and the second stage yield was about 1.10-1.25 mol H2 (mol acetic acid)(-1) at pH 6.8 +/- 0.2 and 32 degrees C, without removal of the Clostridium CSN1-4. The overall yield of hydrogen in the two-stage process, with glucose as the main substrate was higher than single-stage fermentation.
Sago (Metroxylin sagu) is one of the main sources of native starch. In Malaysia sago dishes are commonly eaten with sugar. However, other societies use sago as a staple food item instead of rice or potato. The study was undertaken to investigate the effect of ingestion of different physical forms of sago supplementation on plasma glucose and plasma insulin responses, as compared to the white bread supplementation in man, during resting condition.
The mechanisms involving insulin and anti-hypertensive drugs regulation for in vivo cerebral glucose metabolism are not well-understood. This might be due to lack of direct means of measuring cerebral glucose. It is known that the continuous delivery of glucose to the brain is critical for its normal metabolic function. In this study, we report the effect of insulin and anti-hypertensive drugs on glucose level in the striatum of rats. The rats were divided into two groups, i.e. hyperglycemia (14.8+/-0.3mM plasma glucose) and diabetic (10.8+/-0.2mM plasma glucose). A custom-built glucose microsensor was implanted at coordinates A/P 1.0 from bregma, M/L +2.5 and D/V -5.0 (from dura) in the striatum. The amperometric response obtained at +0.23 V vs. Ag|AgCl corresponded to the glucose level in striatum. By varying the concentrations of protaminc zinc insulin infused into the rats, striatum glucose level was found to remain constant throughout, i.e. 9.8+/-0.1 and 4.7+/-0.1mM for hyperglycemic rats and for diabetic rats, respectively. However, infusion of valsartan and felodipine has lowered the striatum glucose level significantly. These findings agreed with the hypothesis that suggested striatum glucose uptake do not depend on insulin but is clearly dependant on anti-hypertensive drugs administration.
The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of salts addition to fermentation medium on hydrogen production, under anaerobic batch culture system. In this study, batch experiments were conducted to investigate the inhibitory effect of both NaCl and sodium acetate on hydrogen production. The optimum pH and temperature for hydrogen production were at initial pH of 7.0 and 30 degrees C. Enhanced production of hydrogen, using glucose as substrate was achieved. In the absence of Sodium Chloride and Sodium Acetate enhanced hydrogen yield (Y(P/S)) from 350 mL g(-1) glucose utilized to 391 mL g(-1) glucose utilized with maximum hydrogen productivity of 77.5 ml/L/h. Results also show that sodium chloride and sodium acetate in the medium adversely affect growth. Hydrogen yield per biomass (Y(P/X)) of 254 ml/L/g, biomass per substrate utilized (Y(X/S)) of 0.268 and (Y(H2/S) of 0.0349. The results suggested that Sodium at any concentration resulted to inhibit the bacterial productivity of hydrogen.