Displaying publications 21 - 40 of 1923 in total

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  1. Ngim CF, Lai NM, Hong JY, Tan SL, Ramadas A, Muthukumarasamy P, et al.
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2017 09 18;9:CD012284.
    PMID: 28921500 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD012284.pub2
    BACKGROUND: Thalassaemia is a recessively-inherited blood disorder that leads to anaemia of varying severity. In those affected by the more severe forms, regular blood transfusions are required which may lead to iron overload. Accumulated iron from blood transfusions may be deposited in vital organs including the heart, liver and endocrine organs such as the pituitary glands which can affect growth hormone production. Growth hormone deficiency is one of the factors that can lead to short stature, a common complication in people with thalassaemia. Growth hormone replacement therapy has been used in children with thalassaemia who have short stature and growth hormone deficiency.

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and safety of growth hormone therapy in people with thalassaemia.

    SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register, compiled from electronic database searches and handsearching of journals and conference abstract books. We also searched the reference lists of relevant articles, reviews and clinical trial registries. Our database and trial registry searches are current to 10 August 2017 and 08 August 2017, respectively.

    SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing the use of growth hormone therapy to placebo or standard care in people with thalassaemia of any type or severity.

    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently selected trials for inclusion. Data extraction and assessment of risk of bias were also conducted independently by two authors. The quality of the evidence was assessed using GRADE criteria.

    MAIN RESULTS: One parallel trial conducted in Turkey was included. The trial recruited 20 children with homozygous beta thalassaemia who had short stature; 10 children received growth hormone therapy administered subcutaneously on a daily basis at a dose of 0.7 IU/kg per week and 10 children received standard care. The overall risk of bias in this trial was low except for the selection criteria and attrition bias which were unclear. The quality of the evidence for all major outcomes was moderate, the main concern was imprecision of the estimates due to the small sample size leading to wide confidence intervals. Final height (cm) (the review's pre-specified primary outcome) and change in height were not assessed in the included trial. The trial reported no clear difference between groups in height standard deviation (SD) score after one year, mean difference (MD) -0.09 (95% confidence interval (CI) -0.33 to 0.15 (moderate quality evidence). However, modest improvements appeared to be observed in the following key outcomes in children receiving growth hormone therapy compared to control (moderate quality evidence): change between baseline and final visit in height SD score, MD 0.26 (95% CI 0.13 to 0.39); height velocity, MD 2.28 cm/year (95% CI 1.76 to 2.80); height velocity SD score, MD 3.31 (95% CI 2.43 to 4.19); and change in height velocity SD score between baseline and final visit, MD 3.41 (95% CI 2.45 to 4.37). No adverse effects of treatment were reported in either group; however, while there was no clear difference between groups in the oral glucose tolerance test at one year, fasting blood glucose was significantly higher in the growth hormone therapy group compared to control, although both results were still within the normal range, MD 6.67 mg/dL (95% CI 2.66 to 10.68). There were no data beyond the one-year trial period.

    AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: A small single trial contributed evidence of moderate quality that the use of growth hormone for a year may improve height velocity of children with thalassaemia although height SD score in the treatment group was similar to the control group. There are no randomised controlled trials in adults or trials that address the use of growth hormone therapy over a longer period and assess its effect on final height and quality of life. The optimal dosage of growth hormone and the ideal time to start this therapy remain uncertain. Large well-designed randomised controlled trials over a longer period with sufficient duration of follow up are needed.

    Matched MeSH terms: Growth/drug effects*; Growth/physiology; Growth Disorders/drug therapy*; Growth Disorders/etiology; Human Growth Hormone/therapeutic use*
  2. Kruatrachue M, Chesdapan C
    Med J Malaya, 1968 Mar;22(3):231-2.
    PMID: 4234367
    Matched MeSH terms: Echinostoma/growth & development*
  3. Cheong WH
    Bull. World Health Organ., 1967;36(4):586-9.
    PMID: 5299457
    Matched MeSH terms: Aedes/growth & development*
  4. Cheong WH
    Med J Malaya, 1968 Mar;22(3):242.
    PMID: 4234377
    Matched MeSH terms: Aedes/growth & development*
  5. Coombs GL, Fredericks HJ, Cheong WH, Sandosham AA, Sta Maria FL
    Med J Malaya, 1968 Mar;22(3):225-7.
    PMID: 4234360
    Matched MeSH terms: Plasmodium/growth & development*
  6. Basch PF
    Z Parasitenkd, 1966;27(3):242-51.
    PMID: 5990057
    Matched MeSH terms: Schistosoma/growth & development*
  7. Ramachandran CP, Sandosham AA, Sivanandam S
    Med J Malaya, 1966 Jun;20(4):333.
    PMID: 4224348
    Matched MeSH terms: Wuchereria/growth & development*
  8. Kian Joe Lie, Umathevy T
    J. Parasitol., 1965 Oct;51(5):781-8.
    PMID: 5857277
    Matched MeSH terms: Echinostoma/growth & development*
  9. Chen BJ, Jamaludin NS, Khoo CH, See TH, Sim JH, Cheah YK, et al.
    J. Inorg. Biochem., 2016 10;163:68-80.
    PMID: 27529597 DOI: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2016.08.002
    Four compounds, R3PAu[S2CN(CH2CH2OH)2], R=Ph (1) and cyclohexyl (2), and Et3PAuS2CNRꞌ2, Rꞌ=Rꞌ=Et (3) and Rꞌ2=(CH2)4(4), have been evaluated for antibacterial activity against a panel of 24 Gram positive (8) and Gram negative (16) bacteria. Based on minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) scores, compounds 1 and 2 were shown to be specifically potent against Gram positive bacteria whereas compounds 3 and, to a lesser extent, 4 exhibited broad range activity. All four compounds were active against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Time kill assays revealed the compounds to exhibit both time- and concentration-dependent pharmacokinetics against susceptible bacteria. Each compound was bactericidal against one or more bacteria with 3 being especially potent after 8h exposure; compounds 1 and 3 were bactericidal against MRSA. Compound 3 was the most effective bactericide across the series especially toward B. subtilis, S. saprophyticus, A. hydrophila, P. vulgaris, and V. parahaemolyticus. This study demonstrates the potential of this class of compounds as antibacterial agents, either broad range or against specific bacteria.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gram-Positive Bacteria/growth & development*
  10. Khandaker MM, Faruq G, Rahman MM, Sofian-Azirun M, Boyce AN
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2013;2013:308651.
    PMID: 23970832 DOI: 10.1155/2013/308651
    Selected physiological and biochemical parameters were monitored at the vegetative and reproductive growth stages in potted Bougainvillea plants treated with five different concentrations of TRIA. Advanced flowering, flower bud number, and blooming rate increased significantly with 0.5 and 1.0 mg/L TRIA treatments. Similarly, photosynthetic rate, pigment content, quantum yield, and stomatal conductance increased significantly with 2.5, 1.0, and 5.0 mg/L TRIA treatments. Higher levels of N, P, and K, as well as increased total soluble solids (TSS) and higher sugar and protein contents, were recorded in treated plants. Furthermore, 46% more flowers, a 1.5-fold increase in bract weight, increased longevity, and 40% less leaf abscission were recorded following 2.5 mg/L TRIA treatment. Phenol and flavonoid contents, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), and antioxidant activities were also markedly increased with 2.5 and 1.0 mg/L TRIA treatments. However, ethylene production was significantly lower in the treated plants. Positive correlations were observed between leaf TSS and flowering time and flower number, between leaf sugar content and bract weight, and between net photosynthesis and bract growth and dry matter production. It can be concluded that the foliar spray of TRIA stimulates growth, enhances flowering, and improves the quality of potted Bougainvillea plants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flowers/growth & development*; Nyctaginaceae/growth & development
  11. Taha RM, Saleh A, Mahmad N, Hasbullah NA, Mohajer S
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2012;2012:578020.
    PMID: 22919338 DOI: 10.1100/2012/578020
    Plant tissues such as somatic embryos, apical shoot tips, axillary shoot buds, embryogenic calli, and protocom-like bodies are potential micropropagules that have been considered for creating synthetic seeds. In the present study, 3-5 mm microshoots of Oryza sativa L. Cv. MRQ 74 were used as explant sources for obtaining synthetic seeds. Microshoots were induced from stem explants on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1.5 mg/L benzylaminopurine (BAP). They were encapsulated in 3% (w/v) sodium alginate, 3% sucrose, 0.1 mg/L BAP, and 0.1 mg/L α-Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). Germination and plantlet regeneration of the encapsulated seeds were tested by culturing them on various germination media. The effect of storage period (15-30 days) was also investigated. The maximum germination and plantlet regeneration (100.0%) were recorded on MS media containing 3% sucrose and 0.8% agar with and without 0.1 mg/L BAP. However, a low germination rate (6.67%) was obtained using top soil as a sowing substrate. The germination rate of the encapsulated microshoots decreased from 93.33% to 3.33% after 30 days of storage at 4°C in the dark. Therefore, further research is being done to improve the germination rate of the synthetic seeds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Oryza/growth & development*; Plant Shoots/growth & development*
  12. Rahman MA, Yusoff FM, Arshad A, Shamsudin MN, Amin SM
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2012;2012:938482.
    PMID: 23055824 DOI: 10.1100/2012/938482
    Salmacis sphaeroides (Linnaeus, 1758) is one of the regular echinoids, occuring in the warm Indo-West Pacific, including Johor Straits, between Malaysia and Singapore. In order to investigate the developmental basis of morphological changes in embryos and larvae, we documented the ontogeny of S. sphaeroides in laboratory condition. Gametes were obtained from adult individuals by 0.5 M KCl injection into the coelomic cavity. Fertilization rate at limited sperm concentration (10(-5) dilution) was 96.6 ± 1.4% and the resulting embryos were reared at 24°C. First cleavage (2-cell), 4-cell, 8-cell, 16-cell, 32-cell, and multicell (Morulla) stages were achieved 01.12, 02.03, 02.28, 02.51, 03.12, and 03.32 h postfertilization. Ciliated blastulae with a mean length of 174.72 ± 4.43 μm hatched 08.45 h after sperm entry. The gastrulae formed 16.15 h postfertilization and the archenteron elongated constantly while ectodermal red-pigmented cells migrated synchronously to the apical plate. Pluteus larva started to feed unicellular algae in 2 d, grew continuously, and finally attained metamorphic competence in 35 d after fertilization. Metamorphosis took approximately 1 h 30 min from attachment to the complete resorption of larval tissues and the development of complete juvenile structure with adult spines, extended tubefeet and well-developed pedicellaria, the whole event of which usually took place within 1 d postsettlement. This study represents the first successful investigation on embryonic, larval, and early juvenile development of S. sphaeroides. The findings would greatly be helpful towards the understanding of ontogeny and life-history strategies, which will facilitate us to develop the breeding, seed production, and culture techniques of sea urchins in captive condition.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva/growth & development*; Sea Urchins/growth & development*
  13. Hadibarata T, Zubir MM, Rubiyatno, Chuang TZ
    Bioprocess Biosyst Eng, 2013 Sep;36(9):1229-33.
    PMID: 23135490 DOI: 10.1007/s00449-012-0850-x
    Armillaria sp. F022, a white-rot fungus isolated from decayed wood in tropical rain forest was used to biodegrade anthracene in cultured medium. The percentage of anthracene removal by Armillaria sp. F022 reached 13 % after 7 days and at the end of the experiment, anthracene removal level was at 87 %. The anthracene removal through sorption and transformation was investigated. 69 % of eliminated anthracene was transformed by Armillaria sp. F022 to form other organic structure, while only 18 % was absorbed in the mycelia. In the kinetic experiment, anthracene dissipation will not stop even though the biomass had stopped growing. Anthracene removal by Armillaria sp. F022 was correlated with protein concentration (whole biomass) in the culture. The production of enzyme was affected by biomass production. Anthracene was transformed to two stable metabolic products. The metabolites were extracted in ethyl-acetate, isolated by column chromatography, and then identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).
    Matched MeSH terms: Mycelium/growth & development; Armillaria/growth & development
  14. Kumara TK, Abu Hassan A, Che Salmah MR, Bhupinder S
    Trop Biomed, 2012 Mar;29(1):197-9.
    PMID: 22543622 MyJurnal
    A burned human remain was found outdoor (5º 27' N, 100º 16' E) in Penang Island. The deceased was last seen alive on 23 April 2010 at 2230 h and was found burned on 24 April 2010 at 1920 h. Larval aggregation of second instar Chrysomya megacephala was observed on the chest of the deceased.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diptera/growth & development*; Larva/growth & development
  15. Salim MM, Malek NANN
    PMID: 26652350 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2015.09.099
    The antibacterial activity of regenerated NaY zeolite (thermal treatment from cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB)-modified NaY zeolite and pretreatment with Na ions) loaded with silver ions were examined using the broth dilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method against Escherichia coli (E. coli ATCC 11229) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus ATCC 6538). X-ray diffraction (XRD), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and chemical elemental analyses were used to characterize the regenerated NaY and AgY zeolites. The XRD patterns indicated that the calcination and addition of silver ions on regenerated NaY zeolite did not affect the structure of the regenerated NaY zeolite as the characteristic peaks of the NaY zeolite were retained, and no new peaks were observed. The regenerated AgY zeolite showed good antibacterial activity against both bacteria strains in distilled water, and the antibacterial activity of the samples increased with increasing Ag loaded on the regenerated AgY zeolite; the regenerated AgY zeolite was more effective against E. coli than S. aureus. However, the antibacterial activity of the regenerated AgY was not effective in saline solution for both bacteria. The study showed that CTAB-modified NaY zeolite materials could be regenerated to NaY zeolite using thermal treatment (550°C, 5h) and this material has excellent performance as an antibacterial agent after silver ions loading.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli/growth & development*; Staphylococcus aureus/growth & development*
  16. Zi-Ni T, Rosma A, Napisah H, Karim AA, Liong MT
    J. Food Sci., 2015 Apr;80(4):H875-82.
    PMID: 25739421 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.12817
    Resistant starch type III (RS3 ) was produced from sago (Metroxylon sagu) and evaluated for its characteristics as a prebiotic. Two RS3 samples designated sago RS and HCl-sago RS contained 35.71% and 68.30% RS, respectively, were subjected to hydrolyses by gastric juice and digestive enzymes and to absorption. Both sago RS and HCl-sago RS were resistant to 180 min hydrolysis by gastric acidity at pH 1 to 4 with less than 0.85% hydrolyzed. Both samples were also resistant toward hydrolysis by gastrointestinal tract enzymes and intestinal absorption with 96.75% and 98.69% of RS3 were recovered respectively after 3.5 h digestion and overnight dialysis at 37 °C. Sago RS3 supported the growth of both beneficial (lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria) and pathogenic microbes (Escherichia coli, Campylobacter coli, and Clostridium perfringens) in the range of 2.60 to 3.91 log10 CFU/mL. Hence, prebiotic activity score was applied to describe the extent to which sago RS3 supports selective growth of the lactobacilli and bifidobacteria strains over pathogenic bacteria. The highest scores were obtained from Bifidobacterium sp. FTDC8943 grown on sago RS (+0.26) and HCl-sago RS (+0.24) followed by L. bulgaricus FTDC1511 grown on sago RS (+0.21). The findings had suggested that sago RS3 has the prebiotic partial characteristics and it is suggested to further assess the suitability of sago RS3 as a prebiotic material.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bifidobacterium/growth & development*; Lactobacillus/growth & development*
  17. Jong ZW, Kassim NFA, Naziri MA, Webb CE
    J. Vector Ecol., 2017 06;42(1):105-112.
    PMID: 28504428 DOI: 10.1111/jvec.12244
    The fundamental approach to the biological control of Aedes albopictus requires the mass rearing of mosquitoes and the release of highly competitive adults in the field. As the fitness of adults is highly dependent on the development of immatures, we aimed to identify the minimum feeding regime required to produce viable and competitive adults by evaluating three response parameters: development duration, immature mortality, and adult wing length. Our study suggests at least 0.60 mg/larva/day of larval diet composed of dog food, dried beef liver, yeast, and milk powder in a weight ratio of 2:1:1:1 is required to maximize adult fitness. With standardized protocols in mass rearing, intensive studies can be readily conducted on mosquito colonies to facilitate comparisons across laboratories. This study also evaluated the differences in response of laboratory and field strains under different feeding regimes. We found that strain alone did not exert substantial effects on all response parameters. However, the field strain exhibited significantly lower immature mortality than the laboratory strain under the minimum feeding regime. Females and males of the laboratory strain had longer wing lengths under nutritional constraint due to the higher mortality that resulted in reduced interactions with the remaining larvae. Meanwhile, the field strain exhibited heterogeneous duration of immature development compared with the laboratory strain. The disparities demonstrated by the two strains in this study suggest the effect of inbreeding surfaced after a long term of laboratory colonization. Despite the trade-offs resulting from laboratory colonization, the competitiveness of the laboratory strain of Ae. albopictus is comparable to the field strain, provided the larvae are fed optimally.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aedes/growth & development*; Larva/growth & development*
  18. Lee HL
    Malays J Pathol, 1996 Dec;18(2):125-7.
    PMID: 10879234
    Forensically important entomological specimens recovered from 95 forensic cases of human cadavers from April 1993 to May 1996 in Malaysia were identified and analysed. The results indicated that 73.7% of these specimens were Chrysomya species, occurring either as single or mixed infestations. Of these, the most prominent species were Ch megacephala (F.) and Ch rufifacies (Macquart). Other fly maggots recovered included Sarcophaga spp., Lucilia spp. and Hermetia spp., mostly occurring together with other calliphorine flies. A member of Muscidae fly, Ophyra spp. was also recovered for the first time.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diptera/growth & development*; Larva/growth & development
  19. Chooi KF, Chulan U
    Vet. Rec., 1985 Mar 30;116(13):354.
    PMID: 4002545
    Matched MeSH terms: Growth Disorders/pathology; Growth Disorders/veterinary*
  20. Chiang GL, Cheong WH, Loong KP, Eng KL, Samarawickrema WA
    J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 1985 Jun;1(2):186-90.
    PMID: 2906664
    Methods are described for the laboratory colonization of Mansonia uniformis, Ma. indiana and Ma. bonneae in Malaysia. Gravid females oviposited in 500 ml beakers with a layer of water covered with small leaves of Salvinia. Newly hatched larvae were set up in a basal medium of guinea pig dung and water or liver powder, yeast powder and water. Larvae attached to aquatic plants or 'Keaykolour' ruffia snow white paper. The cultures with paper gave better yields than those with plants. Production of Ma. uniformis was higher than the other two species. Twelve generations of Ma. uniformis and 11 generations of Ma. indiana and Ma. bonneae were monitored in the laboratory.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva/growth & development; Culicidae/growth & development*
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