Rubber leaf powder (an agricultural waste) was treated with potassium permanganate followed by sodium carbonate and its performance in the removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution was evaluated. The interactions between Pb(II) ions and functional groups on the adsorbent surface were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX). The effects of several important parameters which can affect adsorption capacity such as pH, adsorbent dosage, initial lead concentration and contact time were studied. The optimum pH range for lead adsorption was 4-5. Even at very low adsorbent dosage of 0.02 g, almost 100% of Pb(II) ions (23 mg/L) could be removed. The adsorption capacity was also dependent on lead concentration and contact time, and relatively a short period of time (60-90 min) was required to reach equilibrium. The equilibrium data were analyzed with Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms. Based on Langmuir model, the maximum adsorption capacity of lead was 95.3 mg/g. Three kinetic models including pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order and Boyd were used to analyze the lead adsorption process, and the results showed that the pseudo second-order fitted well with correlation coefficients greater than 0.99.
Morphological features and Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) polymorphism were employed to analyse 21 Corynespora cassiicola isolates obtained from a number of Hevea clones grown in rubber plantations in Malaysia. The C. cassiicola isolates used in this study were collected from several states in Malaysia from 1998 to 2005. The morphology of the isolates was characteristic of that previously described for C. cassiicola. Variations in colony and conidial morphology were observed not only among isolates but also within a single isolate with no inclination to either clonal or geographical origin of the isolates. ISSR analysis delineated the isolates into two distinct clusters. The dendrogram created from UPGMA analysis based on Nei and Li's coefficient (calculated from the binary matrix data of 106 amplified DNA bands generated from 8 ISSR primers) showed that cluster 1 encompasses 12 isolates from the states of Johor and Selangor (this cluster was further split into 2 sub clusters (1A, 1B), sub cluster 1B consists of a unique isolate, CKT05D); while cluster 2 comprises of 9 isolates that were obtained from the other states. Detached leaf assay performed on selected Hevea clones showed that the pathogenicity of representative isolates from cluster 1 (with the exception of CKT05D) resembled that of race 1; and isolates in cluster 2 showed pathogenicity similar to race 2 of the fungus that was previously identified in Malaysia. The isolate CKT05D from sub cluster 1B showed pathogenicity dissimilar to either race 1 or race 2.
One of the concerns of assembling de novo transcriptomes is determining the amount of read sequences required to ensure a comprehensive coverage of genes expressed in a particular sample. In this report, we describe the use of Illumina paired-end RNA-Seq (PE RNA-Seq) reads from Hevea brasiliensis (rubber tree) bark to devise a transcript mapping approach for the estimation of the read amount needed for deep transcriptome coverage.
The cytosolic mevalonate (MVA) pathway in Hevea brasiliensis latex is the conventionally accepted pathway which provides isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) for cis-polyisoprene (rubber) biosynthesis. However, the plastidic 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway may be an alternative source of IPP since its more recent discovery in plants. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) expression profiles of genes from both pathways in latex showed that subcellular compartmentalization of IPP for cis-polyisoprene synthesis is related to the degree of plastidic carotenoid synthesis. From this, the occurrence of two schemes of IPP partitioning and utilization within one species is proposed whereby the supply of IPP for cis-polyisoprene from the MEP pathway is related to carotenoid production in latex. Subsequently, a set of latex unique gene transcripts was sequenced and assembled and they were then mapped to IPP-requiring pathways. Up to eight such pathways, including cis-polyisoprene biosynthesis, were identified. Our findings on pre- and post-IPP metabolic routes form an important aspect of a pathway knowledge-driven approach to enhancing cis-polyisoprene biosynthesis in transgenic rubber trees.
Hevea brasiliensis is the most widely cultivated species for commercial production of natural rubber (cis-polyisoprene). In this study, 10,040 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were generated from the latex of the rubber tree, which represents the cytoplasmic content of a single cell type, in order to analyse the latex transcription profile with emphasis on rubber biosynthesis-related genes. A total of 3,441 unique transcripts (UTs) were obtained after quality editing and assembly of EST sequences. Functional classification of UTs according to the Gene Ontology convention showed that 73.8% were related to genes of unknown function. Among highly expressed ESTs, a significant proportion encoded proteins related to rubber biosynthesis and stress or defence responses. Sequences encoding rubber particle membrane proteins (RPMPs) belonging to three protein families accounted for 12% of the ESTs. Characterization of these ESTs revealed nine RPMP variants (7.9-27 kDa) including the 14 kDa REF (rubber elongation factor) and 22 kDa SRPP (small rubber particle protein). The expression of multiple RPMP isoforms in latex was shown using antibodies against REF and SRPP. Both EST and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (QRT-PCR) analyses demonstrated REF and SRPP to be the most abundant transcripts in latex. Besides rubber biosynthesis, comparative sequence analysis showed that the RPMPs are highly similar to sequences in the plant kingdom having stress-related functions. Implications of the RPMP function in cis-polyisoprene biosynthesis in the context of transcript abundance and differential gene expression are discussed.
The natural rubber of Para rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis, is the main crop involved in industrial rubber production due to its superior quality. The Hevea bark is commercially exploited to obtain latex, which is produced from the articulated secondary laticifer. The laticifer is well defined in the aspect of morphology; however, only some genes associated with its development have been reported. We successfully induced secondary laticifer in the jasmonic acid (JA)-treated and linolenic acid (LA)-treated Hevea bark but secondary laticifer is not observed in the ethephon (ET)-treated and untreated Hevea bark. In this study, we analysed 27,195 gene models using NimbleGen microarrays based on the Hevea draft genome. 491 filtered differentially expressed (FDE) transcripts that are common to both JA- and LA-treated bark samples but not ET-treated bark samples were identified. In the Eukaryotic Orthologous Group (KOG) analysis, 491 FDE transcripts belong to different functional categories that reflect the diverse processes and pathways involved in laticifer differentiation. In the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and KOG analysis, the profile of the FDE transcripts suggest that JA- and LA-treated bark samples have a sufficient molecular basis for secondary laticifer differentiation, especially regarding secondary metabolites metabolism. FDE genes in this category are from the cytochrome (CYP) P450 family, ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family, short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) family, or cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) family. The data includes many genes involved in cell division, cell wall synthesis, and cell differentiation. The most abundant transcript in FDE list was SDR65C, reflecting its importance in laticifer differentiation. Using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) as part of annotation and functional prediction, several characterised as well as uncharacterized transcription factors and genes were found in the dataset. Hence, the further characterization of these genes is necessary to unveil their role in laticifer differentiation. This study provides a platform for the further characterization and identification of the key genes involved in secondary laticifer differentiation.
A comparative study on solid substrate fermentation (SSF) of sago 'hampas', oil palm frond parenchyma tissue (OPFPt) and rubberwood sawdust with Pycnoporus sanguineus for laccase production was carried out. Optimal mycelial growth of Pyc. sanguineus was observed on all the substrates studied over a 21 days time-course fermentation. Laccase productivity was highest during degradation of sago 'hampas' and OPFPt and a range from 7.5 to 7.6 U/g substrate on the 11th day of fermentation compared to degradation of rubberwood sawdust with a maximum laccase productivity of 5.7 U/g substrate on day 11 of SSF. Further optimization of laccase production was done by varying the inoculum age, density and nitrogen supplementation. SSF of OPFPt by Pyc. sanguineus gave maximum productivity of laccase of 46.5 U/g substrate on day 6 of fermentation with a 30% (w/w) of 4 weeks old inoculum and 0.92% nitrogen in the form of urea supplemented in the substrate. The extraction of laccase was also optimized in this study. Recovery of laccase was fourfold higher at 30.6 U/g substrate on day 10 of SSF using unadjusted tap water at pH 8.0 as extraction medium at 25+/-2 degrees C compared to laccase recovery of 7.46 U/g substrate using sodium acetate buffer at pH 4.8 at 4 degrees C. Further optimization showed that laccase recovery was increased by 50% with a value of 46.5 U/g substrate on day 10 of SSF when the extraction medium was tap water adjusted to pH 5.0 at 25+/-2 degrees C.
As the living cytoplasm of laticiferous cells, Hevea brasiliensis latex is a rich blend of organic substances that include a mélange of proteins. A small number of these proteins have given rise to the problem of latex allergy. The salient characteristics of H. brasiliensis latex allergens that are recognized by the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS) are reviewed. These are the proteins associated with the rubber particles, the cytosolic C-serum proteins and the B-serum proteins that originate mainly from the lutoids. Procedures for the isolation and purification of latex allergens are discussed, from latex collection in the field to various preparative approaches adopted in the laboratory. As interest in recombinant latex allergens increases, there is a need to validate recombinant proteins to ascertain equivalence with their native counterparts when used in immunological studies, diagnostics, and immunotherapy.
The natural rubber latex extracted from the bark of Hevea brasiliensis plays various important roles in modern society. Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of the latex proteins are important for the stability and functionality of the proteins. In this study, latex proteins were acquired from the C-serum, lutoids, and rubber particle layers of latex without using prior enrichment steps; they were fragmented using collision-induced dissociation (CID), higher-energy collisional dissociation (HCD), and electron-transfer dissociation (ETD) activation methods. PEAKS 7 were used to search for unspecified PTMs, followed by analysis through PTM prediction tools to crosscheck both results. There were 73 peptides in 47 proteins from H. brasiliensis protein sequences derived from UniProtKB were identified and predicted to be post-translationally modified. The peptides with PTMs identified include phosphorylation, lysine acetylation, N-terminal acetylation, hydroxylation, and ubiquitination. Most of the PTMs discovered have yet to be reported in UniProt, which would provide great assistance in the research of the functional properties of H. brasiliensis latex proteins, as well as being useful biomarkers. The data are available via the MassIVE repository with identifier MSV000082419.
Ammonium-enriched skim latex serum - used for absorption of contaminating ammonia gas - when composted with other rubber tree wastes, is promising as a good compost. The objective of this research was to utilize ammonium-enriched skim latex serum (S) as a raw composting ingredient after being combined with para sawdust (W1) and para rubber leaves (W2). Several ratios of S, W1 and W2 were experimented in a 15L composting vessel to determine the most effective compost. The best ratio was found to be 3:1:3 by weight at 12-day retention. The modified 30 L composting reactor employed with the derived optimum mixing conditions yielded N, P and K of 2.40, 1.51 and 14.84 %w/w. The growth of Brassica alboglabra after application of this compost combined with a chemical fertilizer generated the highest fresh weight (4.48 g/plant). Thus, compost from these wastes could be used as a fertilizer and logically should contribute to cost saving of waste disposal.
A study has been carried out to characterize hydrocarbons emitted from the burning of three tropical wood species. The woods were burned to ember and smoke aerosols emitted were sampled using high volume sampler fitted with a pre-cleaned glass fibre filters. Hydrocarbons were extracted using ultrasonic agitation with dichloromethane-methanol (3:1 v/v) as solvent and the extracts obtained were then fractionated on silica-alumina column. Detection and quantification of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) compounds were carried out using GC-MS. The results indicated that the major aliphatic hydrocarbons characterized were straight chain n-alkanes in the range of C12-C35 with Cmax in the range of C27-C33. Rhizophora apiculata and Hevea brasiliensis wood smoke exhibited a weak odd to even carbon number predominance with carbon preference index (CPI) values greater than one whereas Melaleuca cajuputi wood smoke aerosols did not exhibit similar pattern with CPI obtained close to one. The results obtained also indicated that burning of these wood resulted in formation of PAHs compounds in their smoke aerosols with predominance of three to four rings PAHs over the two, five and lesser of six rings PAHs. PAH diagnostic ratios calculated except for Flan/(Flan+Py) and Indeno/(Indeno+BgP) were consistent with the ratios suggested for wood combustion source as reported in literatures. In the case of the latter, two diagnostic ratios, the values were generally lower than the range normally reported for wood combustion.
The stabilization mechanism of natural rubber (NR) latex from Hevea brasiliensis was studied to investigate the components involved in base-catalyzed ester hydrolysis, namely, hydrolyzable lipids, ammonia, and the products responsible for the desired phenomenon observed in ammonia-preserved NR latex. Latex stability is generally thought to come from a rubber particle (RP) dispersion in the serum, which is encouraged by negatively charged species distributed on the RP surface. The mechanical stability time (MST) and zeta potential were measured to monitor field latices preserved in high (FNR-HA) and low ammonia (FNR-LA) contents as well as that with the ester-containing components removed (saponified NR) at different storage times. Amounts of carboxylates of free fatty acids (FFAs), which were released by the transformation and also hypothesized to be responsible for the like-charge repulsion of RPs, were measured as the higher fatty acid (HFA) number and corroborated by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) both qualitatively and quantitatively. The lipids and their FFA products interact differently with Nile red, which is a lipid-selective and polarity-sensitive fluorophore, and consequently re-emit characteristically. The results were confirmed by conventional ester content determination utilizing different solvent extraction systems to reveal that the lipids hydrolyzed to provide negatively charged fatty acid species were mainly the polar lipids (glycolipids and phospholipids) at the RP membrane but not those directly linked to the rubber molecule and, to a certain extent, those suspended in the serum. From new findings disclosed herein together with those already reported, a new model for the Hevea rubber particle in the latex form is proposed.
In this study, RNA sequencing of several Hevea brasiliensis clones grown in Malaysia with different annual rubber production yields and disease resistance was performed on the Illumina platform. A total of 29,862,548 reads were generated, resulting in 101,269 assembled transcripts that were used as the reference transcripts. A similarity search against the non-redundant (nr) protein databases presented 83,771 (83%) positive BLASTx hits. The transcriptome was annotated using gene ontology (GO), the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and the Pfam database. A search for putative molecular markers was performed to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Overall, 3,210,629 SNPs were detected and a total of 1314 SNPs associated with the genes involved in MVA and MEP pathways were identified. A total of 176 SNP primer pairs were designed from sequences that were related to the MVA and MEP pathways. The transcriptome of RRIM 3001 and RRIM 712 were subjected to pairwise comparison and the results revealed that there were 1262 significantly differentially expressed genes unique to RRIM 3001, 1499 significantly differentially expressed genes unique to RRIM 712 and several genes related to the MVA and MEP pathways such as AACT, HMGS, PMK, MVD, DXS and HDS were included. The results will facilitate the characterization of H. brasiliensis transcriptomes and the development of a new set of molecular markers in the form of SNPs from transcriptome assembly for the genotype identification of various rubber varieties with superior traits in Malaysia.
Corynespora cassiicola is an important plant pathogenic Ascomycete causing the damaging Corynespora Leaf Fall (CLF) disease in rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). A small secreted glycoprotein named cassiicolin was previously described as an important effector of C. cassiicola. In this study, the diversity of the cassiicolin-encoding gene was analysed in C. cassiicola isolates sampled from various hosts and geographical origins. A cassiicolin gene was detected in 47 % of the isolates, encoding up to six distinct protein isoforms. In three isolates, two gene variants encoding cassiicolin isoforms Cas2 and Cas6 were found in the same isolate. A phylogenetic tree based on four combined loci and elucidating the diversity of the whole collection was strongly structured by the toxin class, as defined by the cassiicolin isoform. The isolates carrying the Cas1 gene (toxin class Cas1), all grouped in the same highly supported clade, were found the most aggressive on two rubber tree cultivars. Some isolates in which no Cas gene was detected could nevertheless generate moderate symptoms, suggesting the existence of other yet uncharacterized effectors. This study provides a useful base for future studies of C. cassiicola population biology and epidemiological surveys in various host plants.
The lipid fraction of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis (kunth. Muell)) seed was extracted and analyzed for toxicological effect. The toxicological compound such as linamarin in rubber seed oil (RSO) extracted using different solvents, such as hexane (RSOh), mixture of chloroform + methanol (RSOchl+mth) and ethanol (RSOeth) were also studied. Various methods analysis such as Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and colorimetric methods were carried out to determine the present of such compounds.
Aerobic granular sludge (AGS) was successfully cultivated at 27±1 °C and pH 7.0±1 during the treatment of rubber wastewater using a sequential batch reactor system mode with complete cycle time of 3 h. Results showed aerobic granular sludge had an excellent settling ability and exhibited exceptional performance in the organics and nutrients removal from rubber wastewater. Regular, dense and fast settling granule (average diameter, 1.5 mm; settling velocity, 33 m h(-1); and sludge volume index, 22.3 mL g(-1)) were developed in a single reactor. In addition, 96.5% COD removal efficiency was observed in the system at the end of the granulation period, while its ammonia and total nitrogen removal efficiencies were up to 94.7% and 89.4%, respectively. The study demonstrated the capabilities of AGS development in a single, high and slender column type-bioreactor for the treatment of rubber wastewater.
The efficiency of sodium hydroxide treated rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) leaves powder (NHBL) for removing copper ions from aqueous solutions has been investigated. The effects of physicochemical parameters on biosorption capacities such as stirring speed, pH, biosorbent dose, initial concentrations of copper, and ionic strength were studied. The biosorption capacities of NHBL increased with increase in pH, stirring speed and copper concentration but decreased with increase in biosorbent dose and ionic strength. The isotherm study indicated that NHBL fitted well with Langmuir model compared to Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich models. The maximum biosorption capacity determined from Langmuir isotherm was 14.97 mg/g at 27 degrees C. The kinetic study revealed that pseudosecond order model fitted well the kinetic data, while Boyd kinetic model indicated that film diffusion was the main rate determining step in biosorption process. Based on surface area analysis, NHBL has low surface area and categorized as macroporous. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analyses revealed that hydroxyl, carboxyl, and amino are the main functional groups involved in the binding of copper ions. Complexation was one of the main mechanisms for the removal of copper ions as indicated by FT-IR spectra. Ion exchange was another possible mechanism since the ratio of adsorbed cations (Cu2+ and H+) to the released cations (Na+, Ca2+, and Mg2+) from NHBL was almost unity. Copper ions bound on NHBL were able to be desorbed at > 99% using 0.05 mol/L HCl, 0.01 mol/L HNO3, and 0.01 mol/L EDTA solutions.
Hevea brasiliensis latex serum is commonly used as the in vivo and in vitro reference antigen for latex allergy diagnosis as it contains the full complement of latex allergens.
This study quantifies the concentrations of the significant allergens in latex serum and examines its suitability as an antigen source in latex allergy diagnosis and immunotherapy.
The serum phase was extracted from centrifuged latex that was repeatedly freeze-thawed or glycerinated. Quantitation of latex allergens was performed by two-site immunoenzymetric assays. The abundance of RNA transcripts of the latex allergens was estimated from the number of their clones in an Expressed Sequence Tags library.
The latex allergens, Hev b 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 13, were detected in freeze-thawed and glycerinated latex serum at levels ranging from 75 (Hev b 6) to 0.06 nmol/mg total proteins (Hev b 4). Hev b 6 content in the latex was up to a thousand times higher than the other seven latex allergens, depending on source and/or preparation procedure. Allergen concentration was reflected in the abundance of mRNA transcripts. When used as the antigen, latex serum may bias the outcome of latex allergy diagnostic tests towards sensitization to Hev b 6. Tests that make use of latex serum may fail to detect latex-specific IgE reactivity in subjects who are sensitized only to allergens that are present at low concentrations.
Latex allergy diagnostics and immunotherapy that use whole latex serum as the antigen source may not be optimal because of the marked imbalance of its constituent allergens.
Hev b 4 is an allergenic natural rubber latex (NRL) protein complex that is reactive in skin prick tests and in vitro immunoassays. On SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), Hev b 4 is discerned predominantly at 53-55 kDa together with a 57 kDa minor component previously identified as a cyanogenic glucosidase. Of the 13 NRL allergens recognized by the International Union of Immunological Societies, the 53-55 kDa Hev b 4 major protein is the only candidate that lacks complete cDNA and protein sequence information.
We sought to clone the transcript encoding the Hev b 4 major protein, and characterize the native protein and its recombinant form in relation to IgE binding.
The 5'/3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends method was employed to obtain the complete cDNA of the Hev b 4 major protein. A recombinant form of the protein was over-expressed in Escherichia coli. The native Hev b 4 major protein was deglycosylated by trifluoromethane sulphonic acid. Western immunoblots of the native, deglycosylated and recombinant proteins were performed using both polyclonal antibodies and sera from latex-allergic patients.
The cDNA encoding the Hev b 4 major protein was cloned. Its open reading frame matched lecithinases in the conserved domain database and contained 10 predicted glycosylation sites. Detection of glycans on the Hev b 4 lecithinase homologue confirmed it to be a glycoprotein. The deglycosylated lecithinase homologue was discerned at 40 kDa on SDS-PAGE, this being comparable to the 38.53 kDa mass predicted by its cDNA. Deglycosylation of the lecithinase homologue resulted in the loss of IgE recognition, although reactivity to polyclonal rabbit anti-Hev b 4 was retained. IgE from latex-allergic patients also failed to recognize the non-glycosylated E. coli recombinant lecithinase homologue.
The IgE epitopes of the Hev b 4 lecithinase homologue reside mainly in its carbohydrate moiety, which also account for the discrepancy between the observed molecular weight of the protein and the value calculated from its cDNA.