Displaying publications 21 - 40 of 1455 in total

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  1. Sosroseno W, Herminajeng E, Bird P
    Biomed. Pharmacother., 2015 Mar;70:294-8.
    PMID: 25776514 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2014.12.039
    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of immune status, age and genetic background on the induction of oral tolerance to Actinomyces viscosus. Suppression of delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) response and antigen-specific serum antibody levels could be induced in DBA/2 mice intragastrically and systemically immunized with A. viscocus, suggesting the induction of oral tolerance. In contrast, this immune suppression could be abrogated if the animals had been systemically immunized prior to the induction of oral tolerance with the same bacterium. Long-term systemic immunization prior to intragastric immunization with A. viscocus suppressed DTH response only. Cell transfer of this group of animals also suppressed DTH response in the donors, indicating the action of suppressor cells for inhibition of DTH response. Furthermore, oral tolerance to A. viscocus failed to occur in mice aged at 3 days and 1, 2, 4, 6 and 36 weeks old. Mice bearing H-2(d) haplotype were the most susceptible to oral tolerization, followed by H-2(b) and H-2(k). Therefore, the results of the presence study suggest that the induction of oral tolerance to A. viscosus in mice may be dependence on the immune status and genetic background but not age.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred BALB C; Mice, Inbred C3H; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Mice, Inbred DBA; Mice
  2. Sanchez-Bezanilla S, Nilsson M, Walker FR, Ong LK
    Front Mol Neurosci, 2019;12:181.
    PMID: 31417355 DOI: 10.3389/fnmol.2019.00181
    2,3,5-Triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining is a commonly used method to determine the volume of the cerebral infarction in experimental stroke models. The TTC staining protocol is considered to interfere with downstream analyses, and it is unclear whether TTC-stained brain samples can be used for biochemistry analyses. However, there is evidence indicating that, with proper optimization and handling, TTC-stained brains may remain viable for protein analyses. In the present study, we aimed to rigorously assess whether TTC can reliably be used for western blotting of various markers. In this study, brain samples obtained from C57BL/6 male mice were treated with TTC (TTC+) or left untreated (TTC-) at 1 week after photothrombotic occlusion or sham surgery. Brain regions were dissected into infarct, thalamus, and hippocampus, and proteins were extracted by using radioimmunoprecipitation assay buffer. Protein levels of apoptosis, autophagy, neuronal, glial, vascular, and neurodegenerative-related markers were analyzed by western blotting. Our results showed that TTC+ brains display similar relative changes in most of the markers compared with TTC- brains. In addition, we validated that these analyses can be performed in the infarct as well as other brain regions such as the thalamus and hippocampus. Our findings demonstrate that TTC+ brains are reliable for protein analyses using western blotting. Widespread adoption of this approach will be key to lowering the number of animals used while maximizing data.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred C57BL; Mice
  3. Nigjeh SE, Yeap SK, Nordin N, Rahman H, Rosli R
    Molecules, 2019 Sep 05;24(18).
    PMID: 31492037 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24183241
    Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among females globally. The tumorigenic activities of cancer cells such as aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity and differentiation have contributed to relapse and eventual mortality in breast cancer. Thus, current drug discovery research is focused on targeting breast cancer cells with ALDH activity and their capacity to form secondary tumors. Citral (3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal), from lemon grass (Cymbopogoncitrates), has been previously reported to have a cytotoxic effect on breast cancer cells. Hence, this study was conducted to evaluate the in vivo effect of citral in targeting ALDH activity of breast cancer cells. BALB/c mice were challenged with 4T1 breast cancer cells followed by daily oral feeding of 50 mg/kg citral or distilled water for two weeks. The population of ALDH+ tumor cells and their capacity to form secondary tumors in both untreated and citral treated 4T1 challenged mice were assessed by Aldefluor assay and tumor growth upon cell reimplantation in normal mice, respectively. Citral treatment reduced the size and number of cells with ALDH+ activity of the tumors in 4T1-challenged BALB/c mice. Moreover, citral-treated mice were also observed with smaller tumor size and delayed tumorigenicity after reimplantation of the primary tumor cells into normal mice. These findings support the antitumor effect of citral in targeting ALDH+ cells and tumor recurrence in breast cancer cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred BALB C; Mice
  4. Chin, V.K., Chong, W.C., Hassan, H., Zakaria, Z.A., Nordin, N., Basir, R., et al.
    JUMMEC, 2019;22(2):4-12.
    MyJurnal
    Background: The cytokine cascade in the immunopathogenesis of malaria infection had been widely studied.
    However, their specific association with survival and severe infection remained obscure.

    Methods: The study investigated the cytokine profiles and histopathological features of malaria in the severe
    infection and survival models by using male ICR mice and male Sprague Dawley rats respectively.

    Results: The severe model, the infected ICR mice, exhibited a high parasitemia with 100% mortality after
    peak parasitemia at day 5 post-infection. The survival model, the infected Sprague Dawley rats, showed
    mild parasitemia with full recovery by day 14 of infection. Both severe and survival models showed similar
    histopathological severity during peak parasitemia. The severe model produced highly elevated levels of proinflammatory
    cytokines, TNF-α and IL-1α, and low levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-4; while the
    survival model showed low levels of TNF-α and IL-1α with high levels of IL-4.

    Conclusion: There were differences in the pathogenesis of the severe and survival models of malaria infection.
    These could be a basis for immunotherapy of malaria in the future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred ICR; Mice
  5. Zain MA, Pandy V, Majeed ABA, Wong WF, Mohamed Z
    Exp. Anim., 2019 Feb 26;68(1):113-124.
    PMID: 30393276 DOI: 10.1538/expanim.18-0078
    Chronic stress has been associated with impairment of memory, learning, and social cognition. In animal studies, chronic stress has been shown to impair rodent sociability behaviour which mimics social withdrawal as observed in depression patients. The effect of chronic stress on social recognition, however, is uncertain. Moreover, with reference to spatial learning and memory, the effect of chronic stress is dependent on the type of behavioural task: an appetitively or aversively motivated tasks. The effect of chronic stress was consistent in impairing spatial learning and memory in the appetitive task; however, the effect was inconsistent in an aversive task like the Morris water maze. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effect of chronic restraint stress on sociability and social recognition by using a modified protocol of the three-chamber paradigm and the effect of chronic restraint stress on spatial learning and memory by using the Morris water maze test in young adult C57BL/6J male mice. The present report also describes a modified protocol of the three-chamber paradigm. Our modification is based on measurement of sniffing behaviour, which is a direct social interaction that represents sociability. We used the chronic restraint stress paradigm for 6 h/day for 21 days to induce depression-like symptoms in male C57BL/6J mice which were validated by forced-swim test. We observed that the stressed group had impairments in their sociability behaviour but that social recognition was not affected. Furthermore, we confirmed that chronic stress produced no significant impairment in spatial learning and memory of the mice in the water maze.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred C57BL; Mice
  6. Wan Nasri WN, Makpol S, Mazlan M, Tooyama I, Wan Ngah WZ, Damanhuri HA
    J. Alzheimers Dis., 2019;70(s1):S239-S254.
    PMID: 30507571 DOI: 10.3233/JAD-180496
    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of memory and other cognitive abilities. AD is associated with aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) deposited in the hippocampal brain region. Our previous work has shown that tocotrienol rich fraction (TRF) supplementation was able to attenuate the blood oxidative status, improve behavior, and reduce fibrillary-type Aβ deposition in the hippocampus of an AD mouse model. In the present study, we investigate the effect of 6 months of TRF supplementation on transcriptome profile in the hippocampus of APPswe/PS1dE9 double transgenic mice. TRF supplementation can alleviate AD conditions by modulating several important genes in AD. Moreover, TRF supplementation attenuated the affected biological process and pathways that were upregulated in the AD mouse model. Our findings indicate that TRF supplementation can modulate hippocampal gene expression as well as biological processes that can potentially delay the progression of AD.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Transgenic; Mice
  7. Ilangkovan M, Jantan I, Mesaik MA, Bukhari SN
    Phytother Res, 2016 Aug;30(8):1330-8.
    PMID: 27137750 DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5633
    Phyllanthus amarus has been shown to have strong inhibitory effects on phagocytic activity of human neutrophils and on cellular immune responses in Wistar-Kyoto rats. In this study, we investigated the effects of daily treatment of standardized extract of P. amarus at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg for 14 days in Balb/C mice by measuring the myeloperoxidase activity (MPO), nitric oxide (NO) release, macrophage phagocytosis, swelling of footpad in delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH), and serum immunoglobulins, ceruloplasmin and lysozyme levels. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the extract using validated reversed-phase HPLC methods identified phyllanthin, hypophyllanthin, corilagin and geraniin as the biomarkers. Significant dose-dependent inhibitions of MPO activity and NO release were observed in treated mice. The extract also inhibited E. coli phagocytic capacity of peritoneal macrophages of treated mice and inhibited the sheep red blood cells (sRBC)-induced swelling rate of mice paw in the DTH. There was also a significant decrease in non-specific humoral immunity including ceruloplasmin and lysozyme levels in the extract-fed groups as well as the release of serum level immunoglobulins. The strong inhibitory effects of the extract on the cellular and humoral immune responses suggest the potential of the plant to be developed as an effective immunosuppressive agent. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred BALB C; Mice
  8. Loong SK, Mahfodz NH, Wali HA, Talib SA, Nasrah SN, Wong PF, et al.
    J. Vet. Med. Sci., 2016 May 3;78(4):715-7.
    PMID: 26782013 DOI: 10.1292/jvms.15-0472
    Accurate identification and separation of non-classical Bordetella species is very difficult. These species have been implicated in animal infections. B. hinzii, a non-classical Bordetella, has been isolated from mice in experimental facilities recently. We isolated and characterized one non-classical Bordetella isolate from the trachea and lung of an ICR mouse. Isolate BH370 was initially identified as B. hinzii by 16S ribosomal DNA and ompA sequencing. Additionally, isolate BH370 also displayed antimicrobial sensitivity profiles similar to B. hinzii. However, analyses of nrdA sequences determined its identity as Bordetella genogroup 16. The isolation of BH370 from a healthy mouse suggests the possibility of it being a commensal. The nrdA gene was demonstrated to possess greater phylogenetic resolution as compared with 16S ribosomal DNA and ompA for the discrimination of non-classical Bordetella species.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred ICR; Mice
  9. Jusof WH, Khan NA, Rajikin MH, Satar NA, Mustafa MF, Jusoh N, et al.
    Int J Fertil Steril, 2015 07 27;9(2):221-9.
    PMID: 26246881
    BACKGROUND: Timing of the first zygotic cleavage is an accurate predictor of embryo quality. Embryos that cleaved early (EC) have been shown to exhibit higher develop- mental viability compared to those that cleaved at a later period (LC). However, the vi- ability of EC embryos in comparison to LC embryos after vitrification is unknown. The present study aims to investigate the post-vitrification developmental viability of murine EC versus LC embryos.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this experimental study, female ICR mice (6-8 weeks old) were superovulated and cohabited with fertile males for 24 hours. Afterwards, their ovi- ducts were excised and embryos harvested. Embryos at the 2-cell stage were catego- rized as EC embryos, while zygotes with two pronuclei were categorized as LC embryos. Embryos were cultured in M16 medium supplemented with 3% bovine serum albumin (BSA) in a humidified 5% CO2atmosphere. Control embryos were cultured until the blastocyst stage without vitrification. Experimental embryos at the 2-cell stage were vitri- fied for one hour using 40% v/v ethylene glycol, 18% w/v Ficoll-70 and 0.5 M sucrose as the cryoprotectant. We recorded the numbers of surviving embryos from the control and experimental groups and their development until the blastocyst stage. Results were analyzed using the chi-square test.

    RESULTS: A significantly higher proportion of EC embryos (96.7%) from the control group developed to the blastocyst stage compared with LC embryos (57.5%, P<0.0001). Similarly, in the experimental group, a significantly higher percentage of vitrified EC embryos (69.4%) reached the blastocyst stage compared to vitrified LC embryos (27.1%, P<0.0001).

    CONCLUSION: Vitrified EC embryos are more vitrification tolerant than LC embryos. Prese- lection of EC embryos may be used as a tool for selection of embryos that exhibit higher developmental competence after vitrification.

    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred ICR; Mice
  10. Tan CH, Tan NH, Sim SM, Fung SY, Jayalakshmi P, Gnanathasan CA
    Toxicon, 2012 Dec 1;60(7):1259-62.
    PMID: 22975088 DOI: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2012.08.012
    Mice experimentally envenomed with Hypnale hypnale venom (1× and 1.5×LD₅₀) developed acute kidney injury (AKI) principally characterized by raised blood urea and creatinine. Prolonged blood clotting time and hemorrhage in lungs implied bleeding tendency. Pallor noted in most renal cortices was suggestive of renal ischemia secondary to consumptive coagulopathy. Intravenous infusion of Hemato polyvalent antivenom following experimental envenoming effectively prevented death and AKI in all mice, supporting its potential therapeutic use in envenoming cases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred ICR; Mice
  11. Tang JC, Wong SF, Mak JW, Ho TM
    Trop Biomed, 2011 Aug;28(2):223-36.
    PMID: 22041741
    House dust mites and storage mites are well-known causes for allergenic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunogenic sites of Blomia tropicalis, Aleurogyphus ovatus and Glycycometus malaysiensis. The mites were maintained in a culture medium at 25ºC and 75% relative humidity. Mites were harvested either with heat escape or floatation method, purified, homogenized, quantified and used for the production of polyclonal antibody and immunostaining. For each species of mites, five male mice and five male rats were randomly selected and immunized intraperitoneally with respective crude mite extract at two-weekly intervals. Blomia tropicalis, A. ovatus or G. malaysiensis whole mites and paraffin-embedded mite sections were immunostained with the respective polyclonal antibody. The faecal pellets of mites were intensely stained for all the three species in the present study. The legs of sectioned A. ovatus were not immunogenic as compared with those of G. malaysiensis and B. tropicalis. The outer layer (cuticle) of whole mites and the eggs for these species were very immunogenic. Hence, the polyclonal antibodies obtained in this study may serve as potential tools in detecting the eggs and immature mites in environmental samples. Future studies should focus on the antigenic components of eggs since they were relatively abundant in dust and highly antigenic as seen in the present study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred BALB C; Mice
  12. Omar Farouk FN, Stott D, Vlad M
    Anim. Sci. J., 2011 Jun;82(3):420-7.
    PMID: 21615835 DOI: 10.1111/j.1740-0929.2010.00869.x
    This study was conducted to examine the potential for implantation and sustainable fetal development of mouse embryos cultured from the pronuclear to blastocyst stage. Pronuclear embryos from ICR mice (Harlan Sprague-Dawley) were cultured in Sydney IVF sequential media (Cook) to the blastocyst stage in medium only or co-cultured with autologous cumulus cells. We also experimented with co-culture in 100 µL drops. Drop co-culture produced blastocyst formation rates with a mean of 47.0%, which was significantly higher (P < 0.05) compared to embryos cultured in identical culture conditions except without cumulus cells at 27.3%. Blastocysts obtained in vitro in Cook medium only and co-cultured in Cook medium with cumulus cells were transferred to pseudopregnant females of ICR strain. The day of blastocyst transfer into surrogate females was designated as post-transfer of blastocyst day 1 (PT 1). The implantation and fetal development was compared to embryo transfer of in vivo derived blastocysts, which served as controls. There were no statistical differences for implantation and fetal development rates for blastocysts cultured in vitro in either Cook medium only or co-culture in Cook medium with cumulus cells compared to in vivo-derived blastocysts. The advantage of the co-culture system is in generating more blastocysts available for transfer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred ICR; Mice
  13. Perumal R, Tan I
    IUBMB Life, 2007 Jul;59(7):465-8.
    PMID: 17654123
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred C57BL; Mice
  14. Aminuddin BS
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2004 May;59 Suppl B:3-4.
    PMID: 15468790
    Management of severe tracheal anomalies remains a clinical challenge. Tissue engineering offers new hope in trachea reconstruction surgery. However to date no optimal technique achieved in the formation of human or animal trachea. The main problem lies on the biomaterial used and the complex city of forming trachea in vivo. This study was aimed at creating tissue-engineered trachea cartilage from easily accessible human and animal nasal septum cartilage using internal scaffold and biodegradable human and animal fibrin.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Nude; Mice
  15. Tay ST, Rohani MY, Ho TM, Devi S
    PMID: 12693592
    The pathogenicity of Malaysian isolates of Orientia tsutsugamushi was investigated by a mouse virulence assay. The isolates could be differentiated as low (4 isolates), moderately (3 isolates) and highly virulent (2 isolates) based on the different responses in infected mice. No direct correlation between severity of human scrub typhus infections and virulence of the O. tsutsugamushi in mice was observed. Mice infected with virulent strains of O. tsutsugamushi showed splenomegaly, ascitis accumulation and enlargement of kidneys and livers whereas avirulent O. tsutsugamushi strains were asymptomatic and exhibited ruffled fur for a short period after infection. There was low antibody response in mice infected with isolates of low pathogenicity as compared with those of highly virulent isolates. Upon dissection of the infected mice, enlargement of mouse organs such as spleen, kidney and liver was noted. Presence of rickettsemia in mice was confirmed by the growth of O. tsutsugamushi in the L929 cells when inoculated with blood from infected mice. O. tsutsugamushi was also cultured from the peritoneal exudates of the infected mice. However, DNA of O. tsutsugamushi was only detected in the peritoneal exudates (by PCR) and blood (by cell culture) and not from other tissue samples.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred ICR; Mice
  16. Chin VK, Foong KJ, Maha A, Rusliza B, Norhafizah M, Chong PP
    Int J Mol Sci, 2014;15(8):14848-67.
    PMID: 25153636 DOI: 10.3390/ijms150814848
    Different murine species differ in their susceptibility to systemic infection with Candida albicans, giving rise to varied host immune responses, and this is compounded by variations in virulence of the different yeast strains used. Hence, this study was aimed at elucidating the pathogenesis of a clinical C. albicans isolate (HVS6360) in a murine intravenous challenge model by examining the different parameters which included the counts of red blood cells and associated components as well as the organ-specific expression profiles of cytokines and chemokines. Kidneys and brains of infected mice have higher fungal recovery rates as compared to other organs and there were extensive yeast infiltration with moderate to severe inflammation seen in kidney and brain tissues. Red blood cells (RBCs) and haemoglobin (Hb) counts were reduced throughout the infection period. Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), chemokines and cytokine transcription profiles were varied among the different organs (kidney, spleen and brain) over 72 h post infections. Transcription of most of the PRRs, cytokines and chemokines were suppressed at 72 h post infection in spleen while continuous expression of PRRs, cytokines and chemokines genes were seen in brain and kidney. Reduction in red blood cells and haemoglobin counts might be associated with the action of extracellular haemolysin enzyme and haeme oxygenase of C. albicans in conjunction with iron scavenging for the fungal growth. Renal cells responsible for erythropoietin production may be injured by the infection and hence the combined effect of haemolysis plus lack of erythropoietin-induced RBC replenishment leads to aggravated reduction in RBC numbers. The varied local host immune profiles among target organs during systemic C. albicans infection could be of importance for future work in designing targeted immunotherapy through immunomodulatory approaches.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred BALB C; Mice
  17. Macdonald WW, Smith CE, Dawson PS, Ganapathipillai A, Mahadevan S
    J. Med. Entomol., 1967 May;4(2):146-57.
    PMID: 4383192
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice*
  18. Awaluddin AB, Jacobs JJ, Bourne DW, Maddalena DJ, Wilson JG, Boyd RE
    Int J Rad Appl Instrum A, 1987;38(8):671-4.
    PMID: 2822626
    Potential tumor imaging radiopharmaceutical agents have been prepared by attaching a cisplatin derivative to a ligand capable of forming a stable complex with 99mTc. Three new organometallic compounds, with iminodiacetic acid as the 99mTc chelating group and 2,3-diaminopropionamide as the platinum complexing group, have been prepared and characterized. Preliminary biodistribution studies in tumor bearing mice support the utility of this approach.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred BALB C; Mice
  19. Yeap, S.K., Beh, B.K., Liang, W.S., Ho, W.Y., Yousr, A.N., Alitheen, N.B.
    MyJurnal
    The spray-dried Vernonia amygdalina water extract was evaluated for antidiabetic effect using normoglycaemic, glucose induced hyperglycaemic and streptozotocin induced diabetic mice. This effect was compared with an oral dose of Momordica charantia. Besides, acute toxicity of the extract was also evaluated at concentration 2000 and 5000 mg/kg body weight. The extract was able to reduce blood glucose level in glucose and streptozotocin induced hyperglycaemic mice without causing hypoglycemic effect on fasting normoglycaemic mice. Moreover, mice appeared to be normal and no mortality was observed in the acute toxicity study after treated with up to 5000mg/kg of extract. These results indicated that the spray-dried Vernonia amygdalina water extract was a potential antidiabetic agent which does not induce hypoglycemic and acute toxicity on normal subject.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Obese; Mice
  20. Priya SP, Sakinah S, Ling MP, Chee HY, Higuchi A, Hamat RA, et al.
    Acta Trop., 2017 Jul;171:213-219.
    PMID: 28427958 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.04.010
    Dengue virus (DENV) has emerged as a major economic concern in developing countries, with 2.5 billion people believed to be at risk. Vascular endothelial cells (ECs) lining the circulatory system from heart to end vessels perform crucial functions in the human body, by aiding gas exchange in lungs, gaseous, nutritional and its waste exchange in all tissues, including the blood brain barrier, filtration of fluid in the glomeruli, neutrophil recruitment, hormone trafficking, as well as maintenance of blood vessel tone and hemostasis. These functions can be deregulated during DENV infection. In this study, BALB/c mice infected with DENV serotype 2 were analyzed histologically for changes in major blood vessels in response to DENV infection. In the uninfected mouse model, blood vessels showed normal architecture with intact endothelial monolayer, tunica media, and tunica adventitia. In the infected mouse model, DENV distorted the endothelium lining and disturbed the smooth muscle, elastic laminae and their supporting tissues causing vascular structural disarrangement. This may explain the severe pathological illness in DENV-infected individuals. The overall DENV-induced damages on the endothelial and it's supporting tissues and the dysregulated immune reactions initiated by the host were discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred BALB C; Mice
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