We report a case series of neuroretinitis in ocular bartonellosis and describe the serologic verification for Bartonella henselae. This is a retrospective interventional case series of four patients who presented in the ophthalmology clinic of Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia from June 2012 to March 2013. All four patients had a history of contact with cats and had fever prior to ocular symptoms. Each patient presented with neuroretinitis characterized by optic disc swelling with macular star. Serology analysis showed strongly positive for B. henselae in all of the patients. All patients were treated with oral azithromycin (except case 4, who was treated with oral doxycycline), and two patients (case 1 and case 3) had poor vision at initial presentation that warranted the use of oral prednisolone. All patients showed a good visual outcome except case 3. Vision-threatening ocular manifestation of cat scratch disease can be improved with systemic antibiotics and steroids.
Study site: Ophthalmology clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia
BACKGROUND: The Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS) is a self-assessment scale designed to evaluate anhedonia in various psychiatric disorders. In order to facilitate its use in Malaysian settings, our current study aimed to examine the validity of a Malay-translated version of the SHAPS (SHAPS-M).
METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 44 depressed patients and 82 healthy subjects were recruited from a university out-patient clinic. All participants were given both the Malay and English versions of the SHAPS, Fawcett-Clark Pleasure Scale (FCPS), General Health Questionnaire 12 (GHQ-12), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) to assess their hedonic state, general mental health condition and levels of depression.
RESULTS: The results showed that the SHAPS-M has impressive internal consistency (α = 0.96), concurrent validity and good parallel-form reliability (intraclass coefficient, ICC = 0.65).
CONCLUSION: In addition to demonstrating good psychometric properties, the SHAPS-M is easy to administer. Therefore, it is a valid, reliable, and suitable questionnaire for assessing anhedonia among depressed patients in Malaysia.
KEYWORDS: Malaysia; anhedonia; depression; neuroscience; pleasure; psychiatry; psychology; validation
Study site: Psychiatric clinic, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
The PANSI is a measure designed to assess the risk and protective factors related to suicidal behaviors. The present study evaluated the psychometric properties and factor structure of the Positive and Negative Suicide Ideation (PANSI) Inventory in a sample of clinical outpatients at a major hospital in Malaysia. In this study, 283 psychiatric patients and 200 medical (non-psychiatric) patients participated. All the patients completed the PANSI and seven other self-report instruments. Confirmative factor analysis supported the 2-factor oblique model. The internal consistency of the two subscales of PANSI-Negative and the PANSI-Positive were 0.93 and 0.84, respectively. In testing construct validity, PANSI showed sizable correlation with the other seven scales. Criterion validity was supported by scores on PANSI which differentiated psychiatric patients from medical patients. Logistic regression analyses showed PANSI can be used to classify the patients into suicidal or non-suicidal. The PANSI is a reliable and valid instrument to measure the severity of suicidal ideation among clinical outpatients in Malaysia.
Study site: Psychiatric clinic, Medical clinic, Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) clinic, Ophthalmology clinic and orthopedic clinic, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Scale, Questionnaire and Device: Positive and Negative Suicide Ideation Inventory (PANSI), Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21), Reasons for Living Inventory (RFL), Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), Provision of Social Relations (PSR), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (RSE), The Adult Trait Hope Scale (ATHS)
OBJECTIVE: To look for any possible coexistence of CACNA1A, ATP1A2, and KCNN3 gene mutations in migraine patients who had human platelet HPA-1a/1b polymorphism, which is also known as PlA1/A2 polymorphism.
METHODS: The study was carried out at the Neurology Clinic, Hospital University Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia between April 2004 and March 2005. The DNA from 4 patients who had migraine with the HPA1a/1b polymorphism were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction using the allele specific oligonucleotide technique to detect the presence of CACNA1A, ATP1A2, and KCNN3 genotypes.
RESULTS: We found that the CACNA1A gene mutation alone was present in only one patient who presented with classical migraine with aura. The gene mutations on ATP1A2 and KCNN3 were seen in none of our 4 cases with migraine.
CONCLUSION: There is no coexistence between the platelet HPA-1a/1b polymorphism and the ATP1A2 and KCNN3 gene mutations, though one classical migraine patient with HPA-1a/1b polymorphism had the CACNA1A gene mutation. Larger studies are warranted to confirm these findings.
Study site: Neurology Clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM), Kelantan, Malaysia
INTRODUCTION: Psoriasis is a common, chronic, relapsing, immune-mediated inflammatory disease. Our objective is to review the clinical profile, co-morbidities, and outcome of patients with psoriasis.
METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of outpatient psoriasis patients attending the dermatology clinic, Hospital Sultan Abdul Halim (HSAH) between January 2012 and June 2014. Data collection was based on Malaysian Psoriasis Registry.
RESULTS: Among 296 patients with psoriasis, Malays were the most common 175 (59.1%), followed by Indians 82 (27.7%), Chinese 37 (12.5%) and others 2 (0.6%). Male to female ratio was 1.2:1. More than half (54.7%) of the patients had early onset disease (age 40 or less). Only 26 patients (8.8%) have positive family history. The most common clinical presentation was chronic plaque psoriasis (89.9%), followed by erythrodermic psoriasis (4.7%), guttate psoriasis (3.0%) and pustular psoriasis (1.7%). Twenty eight percent had nail involvement while arthropathy was seen only in 14.7%. Common triggers were sunlight (46.0%), stress (31.1%), trauma (5.4%), food (4.0%), pregnancy (4.0%), and upper respiratory tract infections (2.7%). Co-morbidities observed include ischaemic heart disease (7.1%), hypertension (26.7%), dyslipidemia (17.6%), and diabetes mellitus (22.0%). All patients were on topical medications. About 6.8% of the patients were treated with phototherapy. One third of patients (35.5%) were given systemic therapy. Out of these, 84 patients (80.0%) were on methotrexate while only 16 (15.2%) on acitretin. None was on cyclosporine or biologic. In term of disease severity, 41.7% of patients had BSA >10% and 31.4% patients had DLQI > 10.
CONCLUSION: Our patients show a similar clinical profile and outcome as our Malaysian psoriasis population. However they tend to have a more severe disease. There is a need for a more effective targeted therapy for a better outcome.
Study site: Dermatology clinic, Hospital Sultan Abdul Halim (HSAH), Sungai Petani, Kedah, Malaysia
Despite evidence showing that structured rehabilitation after stroke improves functional outcomes, providing seamless rehabilitation from hospital to community has been elusive. The service provided should be able to accommodate variable degree of impairments and needs of the stroke survivors. This study aimed to assess the outcome of a multidisciplinary-based outpatient rehabilitation service for stroke patients living in the community. Patients who were discharged from Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre after an acute stroke were referred to the Combined Stroke Rehabilitation Clinic (CSRC). Post stroke patients were assigned individually designed programs which were problem based and used task specific activities to achieve desired goals. Patients were reviewed on a regular basis either up to completion of the 2 year program, or are able to be discharged to the community, whichever is earlier. Modified Barthel Index (MBI) and Berg Balance Scores (BBS) were used for monitoring. A total of 68 patients were managed in CSRC for two years since its initiation, with mean age of 62.4 years (SD 12.4) with the mean duration of stroke when first reviewed in CSRC was 11.5 months (SD 11.9). Majority of patients (64.7%) received either two or three types of intervention. Both MBI and BBS demonstrated significant improvement over 12-months period (p value of 0.006 and 0.017 respectively). CSRC proved that structured rehabilitation intervention was beneficial in terms of functional status and improvement in balance to post-stroke patients.
Study site: Combined Stroke Rehabiltation clinics, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
INTRODUCTION: Although the Feldenkrais method of rehabilitating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients have been suggested, its use among practitioners is not widespread owing to preference of the more familiar standard program presently available. Several advantageous of the Feldenkrais Method have been suggested which includes improving the efficiency of movement, posture and, breathing. However how this compares to the standard rehabilitation protocol or pulmonary rehabilitation program (PRP) have not been previously demonstrated. The present study was thus conducted to compare the effectiveness of the Feldenkrais Method to the standard PRP using Borg score and 6 minute walked distance (6MWD) as outcome measurement tools.
RESULTS: There were 17 subjects in the Feldenkrais group (FG) and 19 subjects in the pulmonary group (PG), both of which received therapy for 8 weeks and assessed before and after receiving therapy. There were no improvements observed in the Borg score for the FG (after and before; 6.06+ 1.09 vs. 6.00+0.94). However, improvements in the PG group could be seen (after and before; 3.58+ 1.17 vs. 5.84 +1.01). Improvements in the 6MWD was observed in both groups with no significance differences noted (FG vs. PG; 379+129m vs. 374+80m).
CONCLUSION: The Feldenkrais method does not offer any advantage over the present PRP and in fact the latter offers better improvement in terms of the Borg score. However in view of the small study sample, further study would be needed before a final conclusion can be made.
Study site: Respiratory clinic, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Globally, stroke is the commonest cause of long-term disability. The residual disabilities among post stroke patients affect their daily living activities. The aim of rehabilitation therapy is to help stroke survivors to gain back their functional ability. The present study aimed to determine the relationship between post stroke duration with functionality status of post-stroke survivals at a teaching hospital in Kuala Lumpur. A cross-sectional study involved one hundred nine five post stroke patients who attended the Rehabilitation Clinic over a 4-month period. The data on post stroke duration was reveale from patient’s cleckship. Their functional status was assessed with Modified Barthel Index (MBI). Results showed the mean age of participants was 61 years (SD=13.86, range:22-87 years), with 118 males and 81 females having a median duration of 12 months post-stroke (range: 1-79 months). The prevalence 123 (63.1%) of stroke survivors are found to be dependent in their daily living activity. A Chi-square test for independence indicated there was significant relationship between post-stroke duration with levels of functioning, χ2 (2 , n=195) = 6.455, p<0.05,phi = 0.182. Patients in post-stroke duration of 13-24 months were independent (52.1) than ≤ 12 months and ≥ 24 months.
Keywords: functional status, post-stroke disability, mbi, activities of daily living, rehabilition therapy
Study site: rehabilitation clinic , Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM)
BACKGROUND: Anxious distress in major depressive disorder (MDD) is common and associated with poor outcomes and management difficulties.
AIMS: This post hoc analysis aimed to examine the socio-demographic and clinical correlates of anxiety distress in Asian outpatients with MDD.
METHODS: Instead of two out of five specifiers defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Version-5, anxious distress defined in this study was operationalized as the presence of at least two out of four proxy items drawn from the 90-item Symptom Checklist, Revised (SCL-90-R). Other measures included the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), the Fatigue Severity Scale, the Sheehan Disability Scale and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support.
RESULTS: The data of 496 patients with MDD were included. Anxious distress was found in 371 participants (74.8%). The binary logistic regression analysis found that anxious distress was independently and significantly correlated with working status, higher MADRS scores, severe insomnia and functional impairment.
CONCLUSIONS: Three-fourths of Asian patients with MDD in tertiary care settings may have DSM-5 anxious distress of at least moderate distress. Its prevalence may vary among working groups. The specifier was associated with greater depressive symptom severity, severe insomnia and functional impairment.
Study site: n tertiary care
settings in China, Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan and
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) may result in progressive visual impairment and blindness which affects the diabetic patients‟ morbidity and quality of life significantly. The objective of this study was to determine the proportions and prognostic factors of DR severity among Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. A cross sectional study was conducted at the Ophthalmology Clinic in a tertiary hospital using the medical record database from 2005 to 2011. A total of 216DR patients were randomly selected. The study outcome was DR severity which was classified into four grading based on the International Clinical Diabetic Retinopathy Scale. Descriptive statistics and Ordinal Logistic Regression were applied using Stata SE/11. The mean (SD) age of DR
in this study was 56.06 (9.98) years old with almost equal sex ratio. Proportion of mild non proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) was 48.6% (95% CI: 40.0, 60.0), moderate NPDR was 28.2% (95%CI: 22.0, 40.0), severe NPDR was 6.9% (95% CI: 4.0, 11.0) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) was 16.2% (95%CI: 10.0, 22.0). Diabetic patients that suffered from diabetes mellitus for more than 10 years, having nephropathy, every increased of HbA1c by 1% and higher total cholesterol were at increased risk of worsening DR.
Note: content of full text inconsistent with title and abstract. Author informed.
Background: Respiratory Medication Therapy Adherence Clinic (RMTAC) is an initiative by the Ministry of Health (MOH) Malaysia to improve patients' medication adherence, as an adjunct to the usual physician care (UC). This study aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of combined strategy of RMTAC and UC (RMTAC + UC) vs. UC alone in asthma patients, from the MOH Malaysia perspective.
Methods: A lifetime horizon dynamic adherence Markov model with monthly cycle was developed, for quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained and hospitalization averted outcomes. Transition probabilities of composite asthma control and medication adherence, utilities, costs, and mortality rates due to all causes were measured from local data sources. Effectiveness, exacerbation rates, and asthma mortality rates were taken from non-local data sources. One-way sensitivity analysis (SA) was conducted for assessing parameter uncertainties, whereas probabilistic SA (PSA) was conducted on a different set of utilities and effectiveness data. Costs were adjusted to 2014 US dollars ($). Both costs and benefits were discounted at a 3% rate annually.
Results: RMTAC + UC was found to be a dominant alternative compared to UC alone; $- 13,639.40 ($- 109,556.90 to $104,445.54) per QALY gained and $- 428.93 ($- 521.27 to ($- 328.69)) per hospitalization averted. These results were found to be robust against changes in all parameters except utilities in the one-way SA, and for both scenarios in PSA.
Conclusions: RMTAC + UC is more effective and yet cheaper than UC alone, from the MOH perspective. For the benefit of both MOH and patients, RMTAC is thus recommended to be remained, and expanded to more healthcare settings where possible.
Objective: To evaluate the impact of pharmacist-led warfarin management and standardized treatment protocol.
Methods: A retrospective cohort study was carried out in a cardiology referral hospital located in central Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, from 2009 to 2014. The inclusion criteria were: adult patients who were diagnosed and treated for atrial fibrillation (AF) with warfarin, attended the warfarin medication therapy adherence clinic (WMTAC) for at least 12 weeks, and with at least four international normalized ratio (INR) readings. The electronic medical records were reviewed for demographics, type of AF, warfarin dose, INRs, adverse events, co-morbidities, and drug-drug interactions. The outcome measures included the mean time to therapeutic INR, the mean percentage of time in therapeutic range (TTR), bleeding events, and common drug interactions.
Results: Out of 473 patients, 151 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The findings revealed that there were significant associations between the usual medical care (UMC) group and pharmacist-led WMTAC in terms of TTR (p = 0.01) and INR (p = 0.02) levels. A positive impact of pharmacists' involvement in the WMTAC clinic was where the "pharmacist's recommendation accepted" (p = 0.01) and "expanded therapeutic INR range" (p = 0.04) were statistically significantly higher in the WMTAC group.
Conclusion: There was a significant positive association between the pharmacist-led WMTAC and anticoagulation effect (therapeutic TTR, INR). The identified findings revealed that expanded role of pharmacist in pharmacist-managed warfarin therapy is beneficial to optimize the warfarin therapy. This study also highlighted the critical roles that pharmacists can actively play to ensure optimal anticoagulation pharmaceutical care.
Key messages: What is already known on this subject?
• Pharmacist-managed warfarin therapy is beneficial for optimizing warfarin therapy. In such therapy, recommendations such as dose adjustment and safer alternative drugs (given drug-drug interactions and/or food-drug interactions) are made.
• The active involvement of pharmacists in warfarin adherence clinics could significantly improve adherence.
• However, the warfarin treatment outcomes from UMC, pharmacist-and-physician-led care and pharmacist-led care have not been studied.
• The impact of the implementation of the standardized protocol for the warfarin adherence clinic has not been assessed.
What this study adds?
• INR levels among UMC group and WMTAC group were significantly different.
• Though the TTR level for the WMTAC group was not significantly different than the UMC group, it was higher and close to the targeted 60% level.
• The identified findings show that pharmacists' focus on intervention for missed doses, adherence and dose adjustment provide positive impact on patients' warfarin therapy.
Background: Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease affecting 2-3% of the general population.
Aim: To evaluate the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of patients with psoriasis who seek treatment in outpatient dermatology clinics throughout hospitals in Malaysia.
Materials and Methods: Data were obtained from the Malaysian Psoriasis Registry (MPR). All patients (aged 18 and above) who were notified to the registry from July 2017 to December 2017 were included in this study.
Results: Among 15,794 patients, Malays were the most common (50.4%), followed by Chinese (21.4%), Indian (17.6%), and others (10.6%). The mean age onset of psoriasis for our study population was 35.14 ± 16.16 years. Male to female ratio was 1.3 : 1. 23.1% of patients had positive family history of psoriasis. The most common clinical presentation was chronic plaque psoriasis (85.1%), followed by guttate psoriasis (2.9%), erythrodermic psoriasis (1.7%), and pustular psoriasis (1.0%). Majority of our patients (76.6%) had a mild disease with BSA < 10%. 57.1% of patients had nail involvement, while arthropathy was seen in 13.7% of patients. Common triggers of the disease include stress (48.3%), sunlight (24.9%), and infection (9.1%). Comorbidities observed include obesity (24.3%), hypertension (25.6%), hyperlipidemia (18%), diabetes mellitus (17.2%), ischaemic heart disease (5.4%), and cerebrovascular disease (1.6%). The mean DLQI (Dermatology Life Quality Index) was 8.5 ± 6.6. One-third (33.1%) of the patients had a DLQI score of more than 10, while 14.2% of patients reported no effect at all.
Conclusion: Our study on the epidemiological data of adult patients with psoriasis in Malaysia showed a similar clinical profile and outcome when compared to international published studies on the epidemiology of psoriasis.
In Malaysia, chest radiograph is a part of compulsory investigations during routine medical examination. Majority of these chest radiographs are interpreted by medical officers at the outpatient clinic. This study was to determine the concordance of chest radiograph interpretations between medical officers and radiologist. Medical officers' report of routine chest radiographs at the outpatient clinic Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia over a 6-month period were compared to that of a radiologist. Of 408 chest radiographs reported, the concordance of interpretation between medical officers and radiologist was 93.6% (382 of 408). Medical officers correctly interpret 98.2% (378/385) of normal chest radiograph compared to 17.4% of abnormal chest radiographs (4/23). Therefore, routine chest radiograph interpretations of normal radiographs by medical officers were generally accurate. However, they were weak in interpreting abnormal chest radiographs. Medical officers need to be trained on detecting abnormalities on chest X-ray since most routine chest X-ray reporting is done based on their interpretation.
Study site: outpatient clinic Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia
The aim of the study was to determine the psychometric properties of the Malay translated State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) for use in exploring the burden of anxiety amongst parents of a child visited hospital for medical treatment. The instrument was administered to 53 parents of children seen in the Emergency Department and 52 parents in the outpatient Physiotherapy Unit. Internal consistency reliability (α) for state anxiety and trait anxiety subscale was high with values of 0.94 and 0.84, respectively. Test-retest reliability demonstrated wide range of scores with only 25 items showed significant intra-class correlation
coefficients, ICC (range 0.60 – 0.94, 95% CI, p<0.05) after 4-weeks retest. Performances of matrix following a factor analysis were consistent with 4-factors
structure of original STAI. A few items did not perform as expected but did not impair the overall performance. This Malay translated version is a valid and reliable measure of anxiety for parents with children visiting hospital for medical treatment, with caution in the interpretation of some items.
Keywords: anxiety, factor analysis, psychometrics, reliability
Study site: Emergency department, outpatient physiotherapy unit, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
The Department of Primary Care Medicine was established in UHKL in 1987. This article examines the philosophy of primary care, the clinical services provided by UHKL Family Practice Clinic and the quality assurance activities.
The efficacy of SEBA-MED. a synthetic detergent recommended for use on eczematous skin (especially seborrhoeic eczema), acne vulgaris, furunculosis and mycosis, was evaluated as an adjunctive agent in the management of childhood eczema. 50 patients with eczema from the Paediatric Skin Outpatient Clinic, University Hospital, were studied. Preliminary results of this trial show that SEBA-MED is well-tolerated as a cleansing agent in childhood eczema with no side effects noted. However, as atopic eczema is associated with dry skin in the majority of cases, the concomitant use of 'refatting' agents (such as SEBA-MED cream/lotion) is recommended.
Study site: Skin clinic, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Endoscopy gives a more accurate diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal pathology than barium studies. General practitioners should be able to request this valuable diagnostic service so that a rapid diagnosis would ensure that patients with dyspepsia are not treated empirically with expensive drugs and that patients with carcinoma or ulcer receive prompt and appropriate therapy. This paper examines the Changi Hospital's open-access endoscopy service to the local general practitioners and government outpatient doctors working at nearby outpatient dispensaries, and will serve to underline the value of such a service and why it obviates that long queue for the barium meal appointment.
Study site: Surgical outpatient clinic, Changi Hospital, Singapore
BACKGROUND: Co-infection by human immunodeficiency and hepatitis C viruses (HIV/HCV) is common and results in significant morbidity and mortality despite effective antiretroviral therapies (ART).
METHOD: A retrospective and prospective evaluation of the efficacy and safety of pegylated interferon alfa 2a/2b plus ribavirin (PEG-IFN/RBV) in consecutive HIV/HCV co-infected patients treated in real life clinical practice in Malaysia.
RESULTS: Forty-five HIV/HCV co-infected patients with a median age (interquartile range, IQR) of 41 years (37; 47) were assessed for treatment with PEG-IFN/RBV. All except one are of male gender and the most common risk behaviour was injecting drug use. At baseline 75.5% was on ART and the median (IQR) CD4 count was 492 cells/μl (376; 621). The HCV genotypes (GT) were 73 % GT3 and 27% GT1. Liver biopsies in forty patients showed 10% had liver cirrhosis and another 50% had significant liver fibrosis. The treatment completion rate was 79.5% with 15.9% dropped out of treatment due to adverse effects (AE) or default and 4.6% due to lack of early virological response. The AE causing premature discontinuations were neuropsychiatric and haematological. The overall sustained virological response (SVR) was 63.6% with a trend towards higher SVR in GT3 compared with GT1 (71.9% vs. 41.7%; p=0.064). In patients with bridging fibrosis plus occasional nodules or cirrhosis on liver biopsy, the SVR was significantly lower at 20% (p=0.030) compared to those with milder fibrosis.
CONCLUSION: HIV/HCV co-infected patients can be successfully and safely treated with PEG-IFN/RBV achieving high rates of SVR except in cirrhotic patients.
Study site: co-infection clinics at Sungai Buloh Hospita
Objectives: The current study aimed to determine the prevalence of Complementary and Alternative Medicines (CAM) and its types used in diabetes patients in Quetta, Pakistan.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken with diabetes patients, attending different government and private hospitals and clinic of Quetta city, Pakistan. A self-administered questionnaire containing 16 questions (5 questions related with disease and remaining questions were for information regarding CAM use). Descriptive statistics were applied to evaluate the patient’s demographics. Inferential statistics were used to fine the association between demographics characteristics and CAM (p<0.05).
Results: A total of 500 questionnaires were distributed and 451 were returned (with response rate of 90.2%). Out of 451 patients 148 (32.8%) used CAM for the diabetes treatment, out of which 87 (58.8%) were females and 61 (41.2%) were males. Most of the participants were uneducated 51 (34.5%) and belongs to large families 89 (60.1%). Fifty (33.8%) participants were using mind body intervention, followed by alternative medical system (33.1%) and herbal products (31.8%) respectively for treatment of diabetes. Type of family, monthly income and per month medicine cost were significant associated (p<0.05) with CAM use.
Conclusions: The current study indicated that diabetes patients used mind body intervention, alternative medical system and herbal products are the most common CAM type used for diabetes control. Further research is recommended to evaluate the diabetes control in patients with CAM used.