PURPOSE: To develop a reliable and precise prognosis method for EOP activity and severity based on personalized combination of risk factors in specific patients by multidimensional linear regression modeling.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: A group of 139 patients (278 orbits) with newly diagnosed EOP associated with toxic diffuse goiter was observed during 1 year by an ophthalmologist and an endocrinologist; patient examination interval was 6 months. More than 250 indices were dynamically analyzed in the course of the study. Linear regression analysis was chosen as the research method; it allowed detection of linear dependencies between dependent and explanatory variables.
RESULTS: More than 600 various linear regression equations were derived that enabled prediction of EOP onset risk and development timeline, estimation of activity and/or severity of the disease, duration of active period in specific patients for the immediate and long-term outcome. From the derived models, the most reliable and safest for practical application were picked out. The present study introduces nine optimized models that can be used for patient follow-up since day one.
CONCLUSION: The onset risk, progression and outcome of the disease can be determined by a combination of factors revealed in the study.
METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among Malaysian adults in three northern states of Malaysia. A pre-developed questionnaire consisting of both the EQ-5D and SF-12 items was used for data collection. Concurrent, convergent, and known group validity of EQ-5D were assessed against SF-12 and several known relationships with participants' demographic and illness characteristics.
RESULTS: A total of 596 Malaysians participated in the study. The mean EQ-5D score was 0.93 (SD = 0.13), while the mean physical component score (PCS-12) and mental component score (MCS-12) scores were 48.9 (SD = 7.4) and 49.1 (SD = 8.0), respectively. Participants with a current medical problem had lower PCS-12 and MCS-12 scores and reported more problems with all of the EQ-5D dimensions; they also had lower EQ-5D and EQ-VAS scores (P < 0.05). Convergent validity was supported by a moderately positive correlation between EQ-5D and EQ-VAS with MCS-12 and PCS-12 scores; moreover, the stronger effect sizes between PCS-12 and the physical dimensions of EQ-5D as well as between MCS-12 with anxiety/depression scores further supported the convergent validity of EQ-5D. Responses to the EQ-5D dimensions only supported two of the four known group validity hypotheses of higher quality of life among individuals who are better educated and no medical problem. No association was found between income and gender with EQ-5D score.
CONCLUSION: This study has demonstrated acceptable construct validity of the EQ-5D among the Malaysian population.