METHODS: 89 AIS Lenke 1 and 2 cases were assessed prospectively using the new clinical neck tilt grading. Shoulder imbalance and neck tilt were correlated with coracoid height difference (CHD), clavicle\rib intersection distance (CRID), clavicle angle (CA), radiographic shoulder height (RSH), T1 tilt and cervical axis.
RESULTS: Mean age was 17.2 ± 3.8 years old. 66.3 % were Lenke type 1 and 33.7 % were type 2 curves. Strong intraobserver (0.79) and interobserver (0.75) agreement of the clinical neck tilt grading was noted. No significant correlation was observed between clinical neck tilt and shoulder imbalance (0.936). 56.3 % of grade 3 neck tilt, 50.0 % grade 2 neck tilt patients had grade 0 shoulder imbalance. In patients with grade 2 shoulder imbalance, 42.9 % had grade 0, 35.7 % grade 1, 14.3 % grade 2 and only 7.1 % had grade 3 neck tilt. CHD, CRID, CA and RSH correlated with shoulder imbalance. T1 tilt and cervical axis measurements correlated with neck tilt.
CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, neck tilt is distinct from shoulder imbalance. Clinical neck tilt has poor correlation with clinical shoulder imbalance. Clinical neck tilt grading correlated with cervical axis and T1 tilt whereas clinical shoulder grading correlated with CHD, RSH CRID and CA.
Methods: Nineteen young state-level weightlifters performed concentric strength tests of the upper limbs using an isokinetic dynamometer. Peak torque/body weight was measured for each weightlifter in dominant and non-dominant limbs.
Results: Peak torque/body weight was significantly different in external rotation (p 0.05). Time to peak torque in external rotation was less in the dominant than in the non-dominant limb. However, opposite results were obtained in external rotation, whereby time to peak torque was longer in the dominant limb compared to the non-dominant limb. Similarly, no significant difference was found between dominant and non-dominant limbs in terms of average power (p > 0.05).
Conclusions: The findings of this study may help in establishing potential imbalance in variables of muscular contractions between dominant and non-dominant limbs of weightlifters. This may help to maximise performance and minimise potential shoulder injury.