Displaying publications 21 - 40 of 101 in total

  1. Asplund M, Kjartansdóttir KR, Mollerup S, Vinner L, Fridholm H, Herrera JAR, et al.
    Clin Microbiol Infect, 2019 Oct;25(10):1277-1285.
    PMID: 31059795 DOI: 10.1016/j.cmi.2019.04.028
    OBJECTIVES: Sample preparation for high-throughput sequencing (HTS) includes treatment with various laboratory components, potentially carrying viral nucleic acids, the extent of which has not been thoroughly investigated. Our aim was to systematically examine a diverse repertoire of laboratory components used to prepare samples for HTS in order to identify contaminating viral sequences.

    METHODS: A total of 322 samples of mainly human origin were analysed using eight protocols, applying a wide variety of laboratory components. Several samples (60% of human specimens) were processed using different protocols. In total, 712 sequencing libraries were investigated for viral sequence contamination.

    RESULTS: Among sequences showing similarity to viruses, 493 were significantly associated with the use of laboratory components. Each of these viral sequences had sporadic appearance, only being identified in a subset of the samples treated with the linked laboratory component, and some were not identified in the non-template control samples. Remarkably, more than 65% of all viral sequences identified were within viral clusters linked to the use of laboratory components.

    CONCLUSIONS: We show that high prevalence of contaminating viral sequences can be expected in HTS-based virome data and provide an extensive list of novel contaminating viral sequences that can be used for evaluation of viral findings in future virome and metagenome studies. Moreover, we show that detection can be problematic due to stochastic appearance and limited non-template controls. Although the exact origin of these viral sequences requires further research, our results support laboratory-component-linked viral sequence contamination of both biological and synthetic origin.

    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling/methods*
  2. Lopez JB, Peng CL
    Clin Chem Lab Med, 2003 Oct;41(10):1369-72.
    PMID: 14580168
    The concentration of homocysteine (Hcy) rises rapidly after the collection of blood. This feature requires blood to be collected into the anticoagulants EDTA or heparin and the plasma to then be immediately separated; alternatively, the blood may be kept on ice and centrifuged within 1 hour. The use of chemical preservatives has been proposed as a means of stabilising Hcy levels in whole blood after collection. The objective of this study was to determine whether the commonly available fluoride-oxalate (Fl-Ox) and sodium citrate (Na-Cit) containers could stabilise Hcy levels in blood. Our results showed that when blood was collected into potassium EDTA (K-EDTA) tubes, Hcy levels rose from initial levels, on standing at room temperature (approximately 25 degrees C), by an average of 21% after 3 hours and 32% after 5 hours. The initial Hcy levels of blood collected into Fl-Ox and Na-Cit containers, however, were lower, at averages of 89% and 91%, respectively, compared to that of the same samples when collected into K-EDTA tubes. Hcy in these samples subsequently rose on standing, and after 5 hours was, on the average, 10 and 13% higher, respectively, compared with the initial levels in K-EDTA tubes. We conclude that Fl-Ox and Na-Cit do not stabilise Hcy in blood after collection and should not be used as preservatives.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling*
  3. Liew TS, Vermeulen JJ, Marzuki ME, Schilthuizen M
    Zookeys, 2014.
    PMID: 24715783 DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.393.6717
    Plectostoma is a micro land snail restricted to limestone outcrops in Southeast Asia. Plectostoma was previously classified as a subgenus of Opisthostoma because of the deviation from regular coiling in many species in both taxa. This paper is the first of a two-part revision of the genus Plectostoma, and includes all non-Borneo species. In the present paper, we examined 214 collection samples of 31 species, and obtained 62 references, 290 pictures, and 155 3D-models of 29 Plectostoma species and 51 COI sequences of 19 species. To work with such a variety of taxonomic data, and then to represent it in an integrated, scaleable and accessible manner, we adopted up-to-date cybertaxonomic tools. All the taxonomic information, such as references, classification, species descriptions, specimen images, genetic data, and distribution data, were tagged and linked with cyber tools and web servers (e.g. Lifedesks, Google Earth, and Barcoding of Life Database). We elevated Plectostoma from subgenus to genus level based on morphological, ecological and genetic evidence. We revised the existing 21 Plectostoma species and described 10 new species, namely, P. dindingensis sp. n., P. mengaburensis sp. n., P. whitteni sp. n., P. kayiani sp. n., P. davisoni sp. n., P. relauensis sp. n., P. kubuensis sp. n., P. tohchinyawi sp. n., P. tenggekensis sp. n., and P. ikanensis sp. n. All the synthesised, semantic-tagged, and linked taxonomic information is made freely and publicly available online.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling
  4. Scharpf C
    Zootaxa, 2015;3986(4):499-500.
    PMID: 26250205 DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3986.4.10
    In a meristic, morphometric and distributional study of Neolissochilus from Peninsular Malaysia, Khaironizam et al. (2015) subsumed Lissochilus tweediei Herre in Herre & Myers 1937 and a taxon they called "Tor soro Bishop 1973" into the synonymy of N. soroides (Duncker 1904) based on data collected from museum specimens. However, "Bishop 1973" is not the correct author citation for Tor soro. Instead, Tor (now placed in Neolissochilus) soro was originally described as Barbus soro by Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes (1842:191). Since "Tor soro Bishop 1973" is not a valid name/author combination, Neolissochilus soro, as treated by Khaironizam et al. (2015), cannot be considered a junior synonym of N. soroides.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling
  5. Teoh XY, Goh CF, Aminu N, Chan SY
    J Pharm Biomed Anal, 2021 Jan 05;192:113631.
    PMID: 33011581 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpba.2020.113631
    Atovaquone (ATQ) is a poorly soluble drug. Therefore, formulating ATQ into its supersaturated state through solid dispersion for bioavailability enhancement can be of great value. However, due to fast crystallising properties of ATQ, the quantification of ATQ in a supersaturated solid dispersion system can be complicated. Therefore, in pursuit of accurate quantification of such sample, a simple HPLC analytical method utilising a C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm ID, 5 μm) for the quantitation of ATQ has been developed and validated. Atovaquone elution using the proposed method demonstrated a retention time around 7.6 min with good linearity (R2 > 0.999). The system suitability is also detailed with the tailing factor at 1.365 ± 0.002. The addition of solubilising agent as sample treatment step aided in ensuring the accurate quantitation of the fast crystallising ATQ. The developed HPLC quantitation method has been successfully employed in the analysis of ATQ from solid dispersion samples in in vitro dissolution as well as ex vivo permeation studies for formulation development.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling
  6. Yahaya ZS, Izzaudin NA, Razak AF
    Trop Life Sci Res, 2017 Jan;28(1):145-149.
    PMID: 28228922 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/tlsr2017.28.1.10
    A study on the prevalence of a common endoparasite in the wild population of the American cockroach was conducted in Penang Island using a trapping method at several sampling sites on the island. Gregarine blattarum was found in the digestive tract in 5 out of 115, or 4.35%, of the wild American cockroaches, Periplaneta americana, that were sampled. This is the first report in Malaysia of Gregarine blattarum in local American cockroaches.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling
  7. Morni WZ, Rahim SA, Rumpet R, Musel J, Hassan R
    Trop Life Sci Res, 2017 Jan;28(1):117-129.
    PMID: 28228920 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/tlsr2017.28.1.8
    This study provides the first marine gastropod checklist from the Sarawak Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). Gastropod samples were collected from selected stations in the Sarawak EEZ using an otter trawl net with a stretched mesh size of 38 mm at the cod end. The trawling operations were conducted more than 12 nautical miles from the coast, and the area was divided into three depth strata: I) 20-50 m, II) 50-100 m and III) 100-200 m. A total of 23 gastropod species were identified during the two-month sampling period from 16 August until 6 October 2015, representing 8 superfamilies, 15 families and 20 genera. Superfamily Tonnoidea was represented by 7 species, followed by Muricoidea (5 species), Cypraeoidea (4 species), and Buccinoidea and Conoidea (both with 2 species). Other superfamilies were represented by a single species. Only 3 species were obtained in 2 depth strata, namely Melo melo, Murex aduncospinosus and Tonna galea. In addition, 9, 13 and 4 species of gastropods were found in strata I, II and III, respectively. The information on gastropod distributions at different depth strata in the Sarawak EEZ could be useful in updating the Malaysian species diversity database.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling
  8. Meor Yusoff, M.S., Masliana, M., Wilfred, P.
    Even though EDXRF analysis has major advantages in the analysis of stainless steel samples such as simultaneous determination of the minor elements, analysis can be done without sample preparation and non-destructive analysis, the matrix issue arised from the inter element interaction can make the the final quantitative result to be in accurate. The paper relates a comparative quantitative analysis using standard and standardless methods in the determination of these elements. Standard method was done by plotting regression calibration graphs of the interested elements using BCS certified stainless steel standards. Different calibration plots were developed based on the available certified standards and these stainless steel grades include low alloy steel, austentic, ferritic and high speed. The standardless method on the other hand uses a mathematical modelling with matrix effect correction derived from Lucas-Tooth and Price model. Further
    improvement on the accuracy of the standardless method was done by inclusion of pure elements into the development of the model. Discrepancy tests were then carried out for these quantitative methods on different certified samples and the results show that the high speed method is most reliable for determining of Ni and the standardless method for Mn.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling
  9. Hawkes D
    Med J Malaysia, 2021 09;76(5):718.
    PMID: 34508380
    No abstract provided.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling
  10. Ho HC, Smith DG, Mccosker JE, Hibino Y, Loh KH, Tighe KA, et al.
    Zootaxa, 2015;4060:140-89.
    PMID: 26701598 DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4060.1.16
    An annotated checklist of eels, orders Anguilliformes and Saccopharyngiformes, occurring in Taiwanese waters is presented. The checklist is the result of a series of systematic studies conducted by the authors in the past few years. The eel fauna of Taiwan is one of the richest in the world with a total of 206 species in 74 genera and 13 families in Anguilliformes and a single species in Saccopharyngiformes. The most species-rich families are the Muraenidae with 71 species, followed by the Ophichthidae with 60 species, the Congridae with 29 species, and the Synaphobranchidae with 17 species. Moreover, three genera and 42 species have been described based on at least one type specimen collected from Taiwan. Of these, 36 species are recognized as valid and 23 species are known only from Taiwanese waters at present. Historical records of all Taiwanese eel species are reviewed by examining the original descriptions and figures, vouchers, as well as the recently collected specimens, where available. This represents the first detailed checklist of eels from Taiwanese waters.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling
  11. Theng TL, Mohamed CA
    J Environ Radioact, 2005;80(3):273-86.
    PMID: 15725503
    Natural radionuclides, such as (210)Po and (210)Pb were measured in the water samples collected from six stations at Kuala Selangor, Malaysia. Results for (210)Po and (210)Pb in dissolved and particulate phases have showed the difference in distribution and chemical behavior. The fluctuation activities of (210)Po and (210)Pb depend on wave action, geology and degree of fresh water input occurring at study areas and probably due to different sampling dates. The distribution coefficient, K(d), values of (210)Po and (210)Pb ranged from 2.0 x 10(3)lg(-1) to 265.15 x 10(5)lg(-1), and from 3.0 x 10(3)lg(-1) to 558.16 x 10(5)lg(-1), respectively. High K(d) values of (210)Po and (210)Pb indicated that a strong adsorption of (210)Po and (210)Pb onto suspended particles, and the sinking of both nuclides on the seabed at study locations were controlled by the characteristics of suspended particles.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling
  12. Takaoka H, Sofian-Azirun M, Ya'cob Z, Chen CD, Lau KW, Fernandez K, et al.
    Zootaxa, 2015;3985(1):1-30.
    PMID: 26250021 DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3985.1.1
    Species of the Simulium (Simulium) melanopus species-group in Sabah are taxonomically revised by examining type specimens of S. (S.) crassimanum S. (S.) laterale, and S. (S.) nigripilosum, all described from females by Edwards in 1933, and newly collected samples from the vicinity of Mt. Kinabalu. The females of these three species are redescribed, and their males and pupae are described for the first time based on adults reared from pupae. Simulium (S.) liewi Takaoka, 2007 and S. (S.) kinabaluense Smart & Clifford, 1969 are synonymized with S. (S.) crassimanum and S. (S.) laterale, respectively. Simulium (S.) cheedhangi Takaoka, Sofian-Azirun & Ya'cob, 2015 is newly recorded from Sabah. Two new related species, S. (S.) lardizabalae and S. (S.) timpohonense, are described from males reared from pupae. Keys to identify eight species of the S. melanopus species-group in Sabah are provided for females, males, pupae and mature larvae.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling
  13. Putri Noradyani Megat Hashim, Mohamed Kamel Abdul Ghani, Norhayati Moktar, Anisah Nordin, Yusof Suboh, Mimi Fazah Zainudin, et al.
    Keratitis Acanthamoeba merupakan sejenis inflamasi kornea yang dikaitkan dengan penggunaan kanta sentuh. la disebabkan oleh Acanthamoeba spp., ameba hidup bebas yang tersebar luas di pelbagai persekitaran manusia. Kontaminasi Acanthamoeba spp. pada bekas penyimpanan kanta sentuh merupakan faktor kehadiran ameba pada kanta seterusnya menjangkiti mata. Kajian ini bertujuan untuk melihat kehadiran Acanthamoeba spp. pada bekas penyimpanan kanta sentuh pengguna asimptomatik. Seramai 90 orang pengguna kanta sentuh asimptomatik terlibat dalam kajian ini. Sampel diambil secara swab pada bekas kanta sentuh dan dikulturkan ke atas agar bukan nutrien yang dilapisi Escherichia coli. Plat agar diperiksa setiap hart bagi mengesan kehadiran ameba. Kultur positif seterusnya disahkan di bawah 'Image Analysis with Video TesT 4.0'. Acanthamoeba spp. didapati positif pada lapan daripada 90 sampel (8. 7%) dan kesemua strain adalah kumpulan II (polyphagids). Penemuan ini membuktikan Acanthamoeba spp. boleh Nadir pada bekas penyimpanan kanta sentuh pengguna asimptomatik dan boleh menjadi risiko jangkitan keratitis Acanthamoeba.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling
  14. Schilthuizen M, Berenyi AEA, Limin A, Brahim A, Cicuzza D, Eales AJ, et al.
    PMID: 30740026 DOI: 10.3897/BDJ.7.e32555
    Background: Clavicornaltica is a genus of very small flea beetles living in the leaf litter layer of Asian forests, easily sampled with Winkler extraction. The genus is presumably very rich in species, but their taxonomy is hampered by their small size and morphological uniformity.

    New information: On a 'taxon expedition'-style field course at Kuala Belalong Field Studies Centre in Brunei Darussalam (Borneo), a new species, Clavicornaltica belalongensis n. sp., was discovered and taxonomically treated by the course participants. We also present the first DNA barcodes for the genus.

    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling
  15. Jusman Y, Ng SC, Abu Osman NA
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:289817.
    PMID: 25610902 DOI: 10.1155/2014/289817
    This paper investigated the effects of critical-point drying (CPD) and hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) sample preparation techniques for cervical cells on field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray (FE-SEM/EDX). We investigated the visualization of cervical cell image and elemental distribution on the cervical cell for two techniques of sample preparation. Using FE-SEM/EDX, the cervical cell images are captured and the cell element compositions are extracted for both sample preparation techniques. Cervical cell image quality, elemental composition, and processing time are considered for comparison of performances. Qualitatively, FE-SEM image based on HMDS preparation technique has better image quality than CPD technique in terms of degree of spread cell on the specimen and morphologic signs of cell deteriorations (i.e., existence of plate and pellet drying artifacts and membrane blebs). Quantitatively, with mapping and line scanning EDX analysis, carbon and oxygen element compositions in HMDS technique were higher than the CPD technique in terms of weight percentages. The HMDS technique has shorter processing time than the CPD technique. The results indicate that FE-SEM imaging, elemental composition, and processing time for sample preparation with the HMDS technique were better than CPD technique for cervical cell preparation technique for developing computer-aided screening system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling/methods*
  16. Salleh FM, Moktar N, Yasin AM, Al-Mekhlafi HM, Anuar TS
    J Microbiol Methods, 2014 Nov;106:143-145.
    PMID: 25193442 DOI: 10.1016/j.mimet.2014.08.019
    To improve the stool concentration procedure, we modified different steps of the standard formalin-ether concentration technique and evaluated these modifications by examining stool samples collected in the field. Seven samples were found positive by the modified formalin-ether concentration technique (M-FECT). Therefore, the M-FECT procedure provides enhanced detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling/methods*
  17. Srijaya TC, Ramasamy TS, Kasim NH
    J Transl Med, 2014;12:243.
    PMID: 25182194 DOI: 10.1186/s12967-014-0243-9
    The inadequacy of existing therapeutic tools together with the paucity of organ donors have always led medical researchers to innovate the current treatment methods or to discover new ways to cure disease. Emergence of cell-based therapies has provided a new framework through which it has given the human world a new hope. Though relatively a new concept, the pace of advancement clearly reveals the significant role that stem cells will ultimately play in the near future. However, there are numerous uncertainties that are prevailing against the present setting of clinical trials related to stem cells: like the best route of cell administration, appropriate dosage, duration and several other applications. A better knowledge of these factors can substantially improve the effectiveness of disease cure or organ repair using this latest therapeutic tool. From a certain perspective, it could be argued that by considering certain proven clinical concepts and experience from synthetic drug system, we could improve the overall efficacy of cell-based therapies. In the past, studies on synthetic drug therapies and their clinical trials have shown that all the aforementioned factors have critical ascendancy over its therapeutic outcomes. Therefore, based on the knowledge gained from synthetic drug delivery systems, we hypothesize that by employing many of the clinical approaches from synthetic drug therapies to this new regenerative therapeutic tool, the efficacy of stem cell-based therapies can also be improved.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling/methods
  18. Looi ML, Zakaria H, Osman J, Jamal R
    Clin. Lab., 2012;58(3-4):307-12.
    PMID: 22582505
    Saliva has been suggested as an attractive resource for evaluating physiological and pathological conditions in humans. This study aims to evaluate saliva sampling as an alternative to blood sampling for molecular testing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling/methods*
  19. Chik Z, Johnston A, Tucker AT, Burn RT, Perrett D
    Biomed Chromatogr, 2007 Aug;21(8):775-9.
    PMID: 17497758
    A fast and simple capillary zone electrophoresis method was developed and validated for the determination of lidocaine in skin using tape samples. Separation was performed in a 350 mm (265 mm to window) x 50 microm i.d. fused silica capillary using a background electrolyte of phosphoric acid-Tris pH 2.5. The extraction of lidocaine from tape samples was achieved using methanol, which was diluted to 50% with water before injection. Procaine was the internal standard. The migration times for procaine and lidocaine were 2.9 and 3.2 min, respectively. The limit of quantification for lidocaine was 50 microg, with signal to noise ratio greater than 10. The calibration curve was linear from 50 to 1000 microg with r(2) greater than 0.99. The CV for both within- and between-assay imprecision and the percentage of inaccuracy for the quality control samples including lower and upper limits of quantitation were 97%. The accuracy and selectivity of this method allowed the measurement of lidocaine in tape samples obtained from a skin tape stripping study of local anesthetics in healthy subjects.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling/methods*
  20. Choi JR, Tang R, Wang S, Wan Abas WA, Pingguan-Murphy B, Xu F
    Biosens Bioelectron, 2015 Dec 15;74:427-39.
    PMID: 26164488 DOI: 10.1016/j.bios.2015.06.065
    Nucleic acid testing (NAT), as a molecular diagnostic technique, including nucleic acid extraction, amplification and detection, plays a fundamental role in medical diagnosis for timely medical treatment. However, current NAT technologies require relatively high-end instrumentation, skilled personnel, and are time-consuming. These drawbacks mean conventional NAT becomes impractical in many resource-limited disease-endemic settings, leading to an urgent need to develop a fast and portable NAT diagnostic tool. Paper-based devices are typically robust, cost-effective and user-friendly, holding a great potential for NAT at the point of care. In view of the escalating demand for the low cost diagnostic devices, we highlight the beneficial use of paper as a platform for NAT, the current state of its development, and the existing challenges preventing its widespread use. We suggest a strategy involving integrating all three steps of NAT into one single paper-based sample-to-answer diagnostic device for rapid medical diagnostics in the near future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling/instrumentation
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