METHODS: The study was on 2322 non-institutionalized Malaysian elderly. The hierarchy logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate the risk of independent variables for urinary incontinence among respondents.
RESULTS: The findings indicated that approximately 3.80% of subjects had urinary incontinence. In addition, constipation was found a significant factor that increased the risk of urinary incontinence in samples (p=0.006; OR=3.77). The increase in dietary monounsaturated fat (p=0.038; OR=0.59) and plasma triglyceride levels (p=0.029; OR=0.56) significantly reduced the risk of incontinence in subjects. Many of suspected variables including socio-demographic factors, diseases, nutritional minerals, blood components and body weight were non-relevant factors to urinary incontinence in respondents.
CONCLUSIONS: Constipation increased the risk of urinary incontinence in subjects, and increase in dietary monounsaturated fat and plasma triglyceride levels decreased the risk.
METHODS: This cross-sectional, retrospective cohort study was conducted at the University of Malaya Medical Centre from 1 May 2013 until 30 May 2013. We analyzed the lipid profiles (total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides) of 629 patients before and at least 3 months after switching them from proprietary atorvastatin (Lipitor®) to generic atorvastatin (atorvastatin calcium from Ranbaxy Laboratories, Inc.). We also investigated if there was any difference in the effectiveness of both atorvastatin formulations in various ethnic groups.
RESULTS: 266 patients were included in this study. When comparing the median values we found no statistically significant differences (Wilcoxon signed-rank test; p
METHOD: This is a cross-sectional study of 65 Malay obese class I and class II adults aged 20-62 years (21 male, 44 female) from sub-urban areas of Malaysia. Overnight fasting venous blood samples were obtained to determine the triglyceride level (mmol/L). Subjects were classified into either normal or elevated triglyceride level groups based on the triglyceride level (normal < 1.6 mmol/L, elevated > 1.7 mmol/L). Unhealthy lifestyle behaviors, defined as smoking status, hours per day spent on sitting passively and sitting with active motion, and the amount of saturated fat, mono-unsaturated and polyunsaturated fat from dietary intake, were measured from 24-h dietary intake and physical activity recall. We compare the variables of unhealthy lifestyle behaviors between subjects with normal and elevated triglyceride level using independent samples t-test.
RESULTS: Among 65 obese class I and II adults, 16 subjects (24.6%) were found to have elevated triglyceride levels (mean ± standard deviation of body mass index 31.89 ± 3.29 kg/m2). There are significant differences between subjects having normal and elevated triglyceride level with gender, marital status, the number of children, smoking status, weight and monounsaturated fat intake (all P-values < .05).
CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study highlighted elevated triglyceride level in obese adults might be influenced by unhealthy lifestyle behaviors. We suggest that lifestyle modification intervention is appropriate to prevent cardiovascular disease among Malay obese class I and II adults.
DESIGN: Two cross-sectional studies using the WHO STEPS methodology.
SETTING: Both the urban and rural areas of the Yangon Region, Myanmar.
PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1370 men and women aged 25-74 years participated based on a multistage cluster sampling. Physically and mentally ill people, monks, nuns, soldiers and institutionalised people were excluded.
RESULTS: Compared with rural counterparts, urban dwellers had a significantly higher age-standardised prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia (50.7% vs 41.6%; p=0.042) and a low HDL level (60.6% vs 44.4%; p=0.001). No urban-rural differences were found in the prevalence of hypertriglyceridaemia and high LDL. Men had a higher age-standardised prevalence of hypertriglyceridaemia than women (25.1% vs 14.8%; p<0.001), while the opposite pattern was found in the prevalence of a high LDL (11.3% vs 16.3%; p=0.018) and low HDL level (35.3% vs 70.1%; p<0.001).Compared with rural inhabitants, urban dwellers had higher age-standardised mean levels of total cholesterol (5.31 mmol/L, SE: 0.044 vs 5.05 mmol/L, 0.068; p=0.009), triglyceride (1.65 mmol/L, 0.049 vs 1.38 mmol/L, 0.078; p=0.017), LDL (3.44 mmol/L, 0.019 vs 3.16 mmol/L, 0.058; p=0.001) and lower age-standardised mean levels of HDL (1.11 mmol/L, 0.010 vs 1.25 mmol/L, 0.012; p<0.001). In linear regression, the total cholesterol was significantly associated with an urban location among men, but not among women.
CONCLUSION: The mean level of total cholesterol and the prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia were alarmingly high in men and women in both the urban and rural areas of Yangon Region, Myanmar. Preventive measures to reduce cholesterol levels in the population are therefore needed.