Displaying publications 21 - 40 of 102 in total

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  1. Chong PP, Tung CH, Rahman NA, Yajima M, Chin FW, Yeng CL, et al.
    Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh), 2014 Nov;92(7):e569-79.
    PMID: 25043991 DOI: 10.1111/aos.12427
    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in primary and recurrent pterygia samples collected from different ethnic groups in the equatorial Malay Peninsula.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load*
  2. Naing C, Sitt T, Aung AT, Aung K
    Medicine (Baltimore), 2015 Jul;94(30):e1234.
    PMID: 26222859 DOI: 10.1097/MD.0000000000001234
    In Myanmar, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection prevalence is 2%. A combination therapy of pegylated interferon alfa-2a and ribavirin (PEG-IFNa/RBV) is a standard treatment, but the effect of this antiviral therapy needs evaluation as to determine the efficacy and safety of dual PEG-IFNa/RBV therapy in treating patients infected with HCV in Myanmar.This was a retrospective analysis of data from a single clinic exclusively for gastrointestinal diseases in Yangon, Myanmar. We assessed treatment responses at the defined time points and stratified by genotypes of HCV. We also determined incidences of adverse events (AEs). We investigated independent predictors of sustained virologic response (SVR) in the participants.A total of 362 HCV-infected cases were included in this study. The majority were females (51.7%) with mean age of 47.12 years (±11.6) and noncirrhosis patients (82%). Rapid virologic response (RVR), early virologic response (EVR), end of treatment response (ETR), and SVR 24 weeks after completion of the dual treatment were 50.3% (178/362), 88% (314/357), 80.1% (286/357), and 85.6% (167/195), respectively. The most frequently reported AEs were nausea/anorexia (72.8%) and flu-like symptoms (62.4%). In multivariate analysis, 4 factors were independently associated with SVR; SVR to genotype 3 (odds ratio [OR] 2.4, 95% CI: 1.24-4.62), EVR (OR 0.54, 95% CI: 0.3-0.95), and duration of treatment (OR 1.52, 95% CI: 1.18-1.98). Study limitations were acknowledged.The efficacy and safety of the dual therapy in treating HCV-infected patient in Myanmar was acceptable. We recommend a prospective randomized control trial looking at duration of therapy and rates of achieving SVR, which could significantly impact the care of HCV-infected patients in Myanmar and perhaps other countries as well.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load/drug effects*
  3. Ummul Haninah A, Vasan SS, Ravindran T, Chandru A, Lee HL, Shamala Devi S
    Trop Biomed, 2010 Dec;27(3):611-23.
    PMID: 21399603 MyJurnal
    This paper reports the development of a one-step SYBR-Green I-based realtime RT-PCR assay for the detection and quantification of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in human, monkey and mosquito samples by targeting the E1 structural gene. A preliminary evaluation of this assay has been successfully completed using 71 samples, consisting of a panel of negative control sera, sera from healthy individuals, sera from patients with acute disease from which CHIKV had been isolated, as well as monkey sera and adult mosquito samples obtained during the chikungunya fever outbreak in Malaysia in 2008. The assay was found to be 100-fold more sensitive than the conventional RT-PCR with a detection limit of 4.12x10(0) RNA copies/μl. The specificity of the assay was tested against other related viruses such as Dengue (serotypes 1-4), Japanese encephalitis, Herpes Simplex, Parainfluenza, Sindbis, Ross River, Yellow fever and West Nile viruses. The sensitivity, specificity and efficiency of this assay were 100%, 100% and 96.8% respectively. This study on early diagnostics is of importance to all endemic countries, especially Malaysia, which has been facing increasingly frequent and bigger outbreaks due to this virus since 1999.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load/methods*
  4. Kiertiburanakul S, Boettiger D, Ng OT, Van Kinh N, Merati TP, Avihingsanon A, et al.
    AIDS Res Ther, 2017;14:27.
    PMID: 28484509 DOI: 10.1186/s12981-017-0151-1
    BACKGROUND: Abacavir and rilpivirine are alternative antiretroviral drugs for treatment-naïve HIV-infected patients. However, both drugs are only recommended for the patients who have pre-treatment HIV RNA <100,000 copies/mL. In resource-limited settings, pre-treatment HIV RNA is not routinely performed and not widely available. The aims of this study are to determine factors associated with pre-treatment HIV RNA <100,000 copies/mL and to construct a model to predict this outcome.

    METHODS: HIV-infected adults enrolled in the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database were eligible if they had an HIV RNA measurement documented at the time of ART initiation. The dataset was randomly split into a derivation data set (75% of patients) and a validation data set (25%). Factors associated with pre-treatment HIV RNA <100,000 copies/mL were evaluated by logistic regression adjusted for study site. A prediction model and prediction scores were created.

    RESULTS: A total of 2592 patients were enrolled for the analysis. Median [interquartile range (IQR)] age was 35.8 (29.9-42.5) years; CD4 count was 147 (50-248) cells/mm3; and pre-treatment HIV RNA was 100,000 (34,045-301,075) copies/mL. Factors associated with pre-treatment HIV RNA <100,000 copies/mL were age <30 years [OR 1.40 vs. 41-50 years; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-1.80, p = 0.01], body mass index >30 kg/m2(OR 2.4 vs. <18.5 kg/m2; 95% CI 1.1-5.1, p = 0.02), anemia (OR 1.70; 95% CI 1.40-2.10, p 350 cells/mm3(OR 3.9 vs. <100 cells/mm3; 95% CI 2.0-4.1, p 2000 cells/mm3(OR 1.7 vs. <1000 cells/mm3; 95% CI 1.3-2.3, p 25 yielded the sensitivity of 46.7%, specificity of 79.1%, positive predictive value of 67.7%, and negative predictive value of 61.2% for prediction of pre-treatment HIV RNA <100,000 copies/mL among derivation patients.

    CONCLUSION: A model prediction for pre-treatment HIV RNA <100,000 copies/mL produced an area under the ROC curve of 0.70. A larger sample size for prediction model development as well as for model validation is warranted.

    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load*
  5. McDonald EM, Duggal NK, Brault AC
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2017 Oct;11(10):e0005990.
    PMID: 28985234 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005990
    The Spondweni serogroup of viruses (Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) is comprised of Spondweni virus (SPONV) and Zika virus (ZIKV), which are mosquito-borne viruses capable of eliciting human disease. Numerous cases of ZIKV sexual transmission in humans have been documented following the emergence of the Asian genotype in the Americas. The African ZIKV genotype virus was previously implicated in the first reported case of ZIKV sexual transmission. Reports of SPONV infection in humans have been associated with non-specific febrile illness, but no association with sexual transmission has been reported. In order to assess the relative efficiency of sexual transmission of different ZIKV strains and the potential capacity of SPONV to be sexually transmitted, viral loads in the male reproductive tract and in seminal fluids were assessed in interferon α/β and -γ receptor deficient (AG129) mice. Male mice were inoculated subcutaneously with Asian genotype ZIKV strains PRVABC59 (Puerto Rico, 2015), FSS13025 (Cambodia, 2010), or P6-740 (Malaysia, 1966); African genotype ZIKV strain DakAr41524 (Senegal, 1984); or SPONV strain SAAr94 (South Africa, 1955). Infectious virus was detected in 60-72% of ejaculates collected from AG129 mice inoculated with ZIKV strains. In contrast, only 4% of ejaculates from SPONV-inoculated AG129 males were found to contain infectious virus, despite viral titers in the testes that were comparable to those of ZIKV-inoculated mice. Based on these results, future studies should be undertaken to assess the role of viral genetic determinants and host tropism that dictate the differential sexual transmission potential of ZIKV and SPONV.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load*
  6. Ng KT, Oong XY, Lim SH, Chook JB, Takebe Y, Chan YF, et al.
    Clin. Infect. Dis., 2018 07 02;67(2):261-268.
    PMID: 29385423 DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciy063
    Background: Rhinovirus (RV) is one of the main viral etiologic agents of acute respiratory illnesses. Despite the heightened disease burden caused by RV, the viral factors that increase the severity of RV infection, the transmission pattern, and seasonality of RV infections remain unclear.

    Methods: An observational study was conducted among 3935 patients presenting with acute upper respiratory illnesses in the ambulatory settings between 2012 and 2014.

    Results: The VP4/VP2 gene was genotyped from all 976 RV-positive specimens, where the predominance of RV-A (49%) was observed, followed by RV-C (38%) and RV-B (13%). A significant regression in median nasopharyngeal viral load (VL) (P < .001) was observed, from 883 viral copies/µL at 1-2 days after symptom onset to 312 viral copies/µL at 3-4 days and 158 viral copies/µL at 5-7 days, before declining to 35 viral copies/µL at ≥8 days. In comparison with RV-A (median VL, 217 copies/µL) and RV-B (median VL, 275 copies/µL), RV-C-infected subjects produced higher VL (505 copies/µL; P < .001). Importantly, higher RV VL (median, 348 copies/µL) was associated with more severe respiratory symptoms (Total Symptom Severity Score ≥17, P = .017). A total of 83 phylogenetic-based transmission clusters were identified in the population. It was observed that the relative humidity was the strongest environmental predictor of RV seasonality in the tropical climate.

    Conclusions: Our findings underline the role of VL in increasing disease severity attributed to RV-C infection, and unravel the factors that fuel the population transmission dynamics of RV.

    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load*
  7. Rich KM, Wickersham JA, Valencia Huamaní J, Kiani SN, Cabello R, Elish P, et al.
    LGBT Health, 2019 3 16;5(8):477-483.
    PMID: 30874476 DOI: 10.1089/lgbt.2017.0186
    PURPOSE: Globally, transgender women (TGW) experience a high burden of adverse health outcomes, including a high prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) as well as psychiatric disorders and substance use disorders. To address gaps in HIV research in Peru focused specifically on TGW, this study presents characteristics of a sample of HIV-positive TGW and identifies factors associated with viral suppression.

    METHODS: Between June 2015 and August 2016, 50 HIV-positive TGW were recruited in Lima, Peru. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with viral suppression (<200 copies/mL) among the TGW.

    RESULTS: Among TGW, 85% achieved viral suppression. Approximately half (54%) reported anal sex with more than five partners in the past 6 months, 38% reported sex work, 68% had not disclosed their HIV status to one or more of their partners, and 38% reported condomless sex with their last partner. The prevalence of alcohol use disorders was high (54%), and 38% reported use of drugs in the past year. Moderate-to-severe drug use significantly reduced odds of achieving viral suppression (adjusted odds ratio 0.69; 95% confidence interval: 0.48-0.98).

    CONCLUSION: Our findings highlight the need for integrated treatment for substance disorders in HIV care to increase the viral suppression rate among TGW in Lima, Peru.

    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load/statistics & numerical data*
  8. López M
    AIDS Rev, 2013 Jul-Sep;15(3):190-1.
    PMID: 24002204
    The 7th IAS Conference held in July 2013 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, heard about a number of cases of "functional cure" in people who had started antiretroviral therapy soon after HIV infection, including a German case that can now be added to the "Mississippi baby" report presented at CROI 2012 and 14 individuals of the French VISCONTI cohort. All these persons maintained an undetectable viral load after coming off antiretrovirals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  9. Mok L, Wynne JW, Grimley S, Shiell B, Green D, Monaghan P, et al.
    J. Gen. Virol., 2015 Jul;96(Pt 7):1787-94.
    PMID: 25748429 DOI: 10.1099/vir.0.000112
    In recent years, bats have been identified as a natural reservoir for a diverse range of viruses. Nelson Bay orthoreovirus (NBV) was first isolated from the heart blood of a fruit bat (Pteropus poliocephalus) in 1968. While the pathogenesis of NBV remains unknown, other related members of this group have caused acute respiratory disease in humans. Thus the potential for NBV to impact human health appears plausible. Here, to increase our knowledge of NBV, we examined the replication and infectivity of NBV using different mammalian cell lines derived from bat, human, mouse and monkey. All cell lines supported the replication of NBV; however, L929 cells showed a greater than 2 log reduction in virus titre compared with the other cell lines. Furthermore, NBV did not induce major cytopathic effects in the L929 cells, as was observed in other cell lines. Interestingly, the related Pteropine orthoreoviruses, Pulau virus (PulV) and Melaka virus (MelV) were able to replicate to high titres in L929 cells but infection resulted in reduced cytopathic effect. Our study demonstrates a unique virus-host interaction between NBV and L929 cells, where cells effectively control viral infection/replication and limit the formation of syncytia. By elucidating the molecular mechanisms that control this unique relationship, important insights will be made into the biology of this fusogenic virus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  10. Kim JH, Chong CK, Sinniah M, Sinnadurai J, Song HO, Park H
    J. Clin. Virol., 2015 Apr;65:11-9.
    PMID: 25766980 DOI: 10.1016/j.jcv.2015.01.018
    BACKGROUND: Dengue is a mosquito-borne disease that causes a public health problem in tropical and subtropical countries. Current immunological diagnostics based on IgM and/or nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) antigen are limited for acute dengue infection due to low sensitivity and accuracy.
    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to develop a one-step multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay showing higher sensitivity and accuracy than previous approaches.
    STUDY DESIGN: Serotype-specific primers and probes were designed through the multiple alignment of NS1 gene. The linearity and limit of detection (LOD) of the assay were determined. The assay was clinically validated with an evaluation panel that was immunologically tested by WHO and Malaysian specimens.
    RESULTS: The LOD of the assay was 3.0 log10 RNA copies for DENV-1, 2.0 for DENV-3, and 1.0 for DENV-2 and DENV-4. The assay showed 95.2% sensitivity (20/21) in an evaluation panel, whereas NS1 antigen- and anti-dengue IgM-based immunological assays exhibited 0% and 23.8-47.6% sensitivities, respectively. The assay showed 100% sensitivity both in NS1 antigen- and anti-dengue IgM-positive Malaysian specimens (26/26). The assay provided the information of viral loads and serotype with discrimination of heterotypic mixed infection.
    CONCLUSIONS: The assay could be clinically applied to early dengue diagnosis, especially during the first 5 days of illness and approximately 14 days after infection showing an anti-dengue IgM-positive response.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  11. Kosalaraksa P, Boettiger DC, Bunupuradah T, Hansudewechakul R, Saramony S, Do VC, et al.
    J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc, 2017 Jun 01;6(2):173-177.
    PMID: 27295973 DOI: 10.1093/jpids/piw031
    Background.: Regular CD4 count testing is often used to monitor antiretroviral therapy efficacy. However, this practice may be redundant in children with a suppressed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral load.

    Methods: Study end points were as follows: (1) a CD4 count <200 cells/mm3 followed by a CD4 count ≥200 cells/mm3 (transient CD4 <200); (2) CD4 count <200 cells/mm3 confirmed within 6 months (confirmed CD4 <200); and (3) a new or recurrent World Health Organization (WHO) stage 3 or 4 illness (clinical failure). Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression were used to evaluate rates and predictors of transient CD4 <200, confirmed CD4 <200, and clinical failure among virally suppressed children aged 5-15 years who were enrolled in the TREAT Asia Pediatric HIV Observational Database.

    Results: Data from 967 children were included in the analysis. At the time of confirmed viral suppression, median age was 10.2 years, 50.4% of children were female, and 95.4% were perinatally infected with HIV. Median CD4 cell count was 837 cells/mm3, and 54.8% of children were classified as having WHO stage 3 or 4 disease. In total, 18 transient CD4 <200 events, 2 confirmed CD4 <200 events, and10 clinical failures occurred at rates of 0.73 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.46-1.16), 0.08 (95% CI, 0.02-0.32), and 0.40 (95% CI, 0.22-0.75) events per 100 patient-years, respectively. CD4 <500 cells/mm3 at the time of viral suppression confirmation was associated with higher rates of both CD4 outcomes.

    Conclusions: Regular CD4 testing may be unnecessary for virally suppressed children aged 5-15 years with CD4 ≥500 cells/mm3.

    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  12. Hashim H, Sahari NS, Sazlly Lim SM, Hoo FK
    Iran Red Crescent Med J, 2015 Oct;17(10):e19546.
    PMID: 26568856 DOI: 10.5812/ircmj.19546
    INTRODUCTION: The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), in 1996, has resulted in marked reductions in the rate of illness and death, due to HIV infection. The HAART has transformed HIV infection into a manageable chronic disease. However, although many regimens lower plasma viral load, to below the limit of detection, in most patients, maintaining viral load suppression remains challenging, because of adverse effects and toxicity in the long term, which can lead to non-adherence, virologic failure and drug resistance. Although rare, lactic acidosis often develops fatal complications, as reported in several human immunodeficiency virus infected patients treated with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). The purpose of this paper is to report a case of tenofovir induced lactic acidosis and review the literature.

    CASE PRESENTATION: A 52-year-old Malay gentleman, with hepatitis C virus and HIV infection was admitted to the intensive care unit for severe lactic acidosis, with concurrent Escherichia coli bacteremia with multiorgan dysfunction. The patient was started on highly active antiretroviral therapy, which included tenofovir, 5 weeks before presentation. Antimicrobial therapy, continuous veno-venous hemofiltration, and other supportive treatments were instituted. However, the patient eventually succumbed to his illness.

    CONCLUSIONS: It is essential for clinicians to be able to recognize the signs and symptoms of lactic acidosis in NRTIs treated HIV patients, as an early diagnosis is important to institute treatment.

    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  13. Abiola, Abdulrahman Surajudeen, Lekhraj Rampal, Norlijah Othman, Faisal Ibrahim, Hayati Kadir@Shahar, Anuradha P. Radhakrishnan
    MyJurnal
    Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) prevents disease progression, and the emergence of resistant mutations. It also reduces morbidity, and the necessity for more frequent, complicated regimens which are also relatively more expensive. Minimum adherence levels of 95% are required for treatment success. Poor adherence to treatment remains a stumbling block to the success of treatment programs. This generates major concerns about possible resistance of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to the currently available ARVs. This paper aims to describe baseline results from a cohort of 242 Malaysian patients receiving ART within the context of an intervention aimed to improve adherence and treatment outcomes among patients initiating ART. A single-blinded Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial was conducted between January and December, 2014 in Hospital Sungai Buloh. Data on socio-demographic factors, clinical symptoms and adherence behavior of respondents was collected using modified, pre-validated Adult AIDS Clinical Trials Group (AACTG) adherence questionnaires. Baseline CD4 count, viral load, weight, full blood count, blood pressure, Liver function and renal profile tests were also conducted and recorded. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 22 and R software. Patients consisted of 215 (89%) males and 27 (11%) females. 117 (48%) were Malays, 98 (40%) were Chinese, 22 (9%) were Indians while 5 (2%) were of other ethnic minorities. The mean age for the intervention group was 32.1 ± 8.7 years while the mean age for the control group was 34.7 ± 9.5 years. Mean baseline adherence was 80.1 ± 19.6 and 85.1 ± 15.8 for the intervention and control groups respectively. Overall mean baseline CD4 count of patients was 222.97 ± 143.7 cells/mm³ while overall mean viral load was 255237.85 ± 470618.9. Patients had a mean weight of 61.55 ± 11.0 kg and 61.47 ± 12.3 kg in the intervention and control groups, respectively. Males account for about 90% of those initiating ART in the HIV clinic, at a relatively low CD4 count, high viral load and sub-optimal medication adherence levels at baseline.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  14. Mohammed Saad, A.M., Mohammed Imad, A.M., Aini, H.H., Seman, M.R.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction: HCV infection is frequent in patients undergoing maintenance haemodialysis, with prevalence between 8 and 10%. Hepatitis C has an adverse effect on both patient and graft survival in those who get renal transplants. There are relatively scarce reports on the natural fluctuation in viral load level in patients on chronic haemodialysis. Materials and Methods: This is a longitudinal short-term three months study, where 27 chronic haemodialysis patients infected with known HCV genotypes were recruited from seven haemodialysis centres in Pahang. Serum samples were collected monthly, both pre- and post-haemodialysis sessions, over a period of three months. Viral RNA was extracted from serum using QIAamp Viral RNA Extraction kit (Qiagen). The HCV viral load was measured using one-step reverse transcriptase qPCR (Applied Biosystems) targeting the 5`HCV non-coding region (5’UTR). The serum α-IFN level was measured using commercial ELISA kit (Amersham, UK). Six biochemical liver function tests (AST, ALP, TP, albumin, ALT and TB) were also done for all pre-haemodialysis samples. Results: All patients showed persistent low level viral load that varied significantly over the study period (p = 0.001). HCV genotype 1 viral load was significantly higher than that of genotype 3. Conclusion: No apparent correlation could be recognized between the viral loads and the corresponding interferon-alpha levels which were detectable in only a few patients during the period of study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  15. Zain RM, Ibrahim N, Ismail S, Suppiah J, Mat Rahim NA, Thayan R
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2017 Jan;10(1):75-78.
    PMID: 28107870 DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.12.005
    OBJECTIVE: To determine drug resistance mutations and the HIV-1 subtypes among antiretroviral treatment naive HIV-1 patients in Peninsular Malaysia.

    METHODS: A total of 45 samples from four hospitals that provide HIV viral load services were subjected to the amplification of the protease and two third of reverse transcriptase regions of the pol gene by RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing. Drug resistance mutation (DRM) interpretation reports the presence of mutations related to protease inhibitors (PIs), Nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) and Non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) based on analysis using Stanford HIV database program.

    RESULTS: DRMs were identified in 35% of patients, among which 46.7% of them showed minor resistance to protease inhibitor with A71V and L10l were the commonest DRMs detected. About 21.4% and 50.0% of patients had mutations to NRTIs and NNRTIs, respectively. CRF01_AE was found to be the predominant HIV-1 subtype.

    CONCLUSIONS: These findings have served as an initial crucial data in determining the prevalence of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance for the country. However, more samples from various parts of the country need to be accumulated and analyzed to provide overall HIV-1 drug resistance in the country.

    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  16. Raihan R, Tabassum S, Al-Mahtab M, Nessa A, Jahan M, Shamim Kabir CM, et al.
    Euroasian J Hepatogastroenterol, 2015 Jan-Jun;5(1):7-10.
    PMID: 29201677 DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1120
    Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has many faces. Precore and core promoter mutants resemble inactive carrier status. The identification of hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) in hepatocytes may have variable clinical significance. The present study was undertaken to detect HBcAg in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients and to assess the efficacy of detection system by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) and indirect immunoperoxidase (IIP).

    Materials and methods: The study was done in 70 chronic HBV-infected patients. Out of 70 patients, eight (11.4%) were hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positive and 62 (88.57%) were HBeAg negative. Hepatitis B core antigen was detected by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) and indirect immunoperoxidase (IIP) methods in liver tissue.

    Results: All HBeAg positive patients expressed HBcAg by both IIF and IIP methods. Out of 62 patients with HBeAg-negative CHB, HBcAg was detected by IIF in 55 (88.7%) patients and by IIP in 51 (82.26%) patients. A positive relation among viral load and HBcAg detection was also found. This was more evident in the case of HBeAg negative patients and showed a positive relation with HBV DNA levels.

    Conclusion: Hepatitis B core antigen can be detected using the IIF from formalin fixed paraffin block preparation and also by IIP method. This seems to reflect the magnitudes of HBV replication in CHB.

    How to cite this article: Raihan R, Tabassum S, Al-Mahtab M, Nessa A, Jahan M, Kabir CMS, Kamal M, Aguilar JC. Hepatitis B Core Antigen in Hepatocytes of Chronic Hepatitis B: Comparison between Indirect Immunofluorescence and Immunoperoxidase Method. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2015;5(1):7-10.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  17. Barré-Sinoussi F, Abdool Karim SS, Albert J, Bekker LG, Beyrer C, Cahn P, et al.
    J Int AIDS Soc, 2018 07;21(7):e25161.
    PMID: 30044059 DOI: 10.1002/jia2.25161
    INTRODUCTION: Globally, prosecutions for non-disclosure, exposure or transmission of HIV frequently relate to sexual activity, biting, or spitting. This includes instances in which no harm was intended, HIV transmission did not occur, and HIV transmission was extremely unlikely or not possible. This suggests prosecutions are not always guided by the best available scientific and medical evidence.

    DISCUSSION: Twenty scientists from regions across the world developed this Expert Consensus Statement to address the use of HIV science by the criminal justice system. A detailed analysis of the best available scientific and medical research data on HIV transmission, treatment effectiveness and forensic phylogenetic evidence was performed and described so it may be better understood in criminal law contexts. Description of the possibility of HIV transmission was limited to acts most often at issue in criminal cases. The possibility of HIV transmission during a single, specific act was positioned along a continuum of risk, noting that the possibility of HIV transmission varies according to a range of intersecting factors including viral load, condom use, and other risk reduction practices. Current evidence suggests the possibility of HIV transmission during a single episode of sex, biting or spitting ranges from no possibility to low possibility. Further research considered the positive health impact of modern antiretroviral therapies that have improved the life expectancy of most people living with HIV to a point similar to their HIV-negative counterparts, transforming HIV infection into a chronic, manageable health condition. Lastly, consideration of the use of scientific evidence in court found that phylogenetic analysis alone cannot prove beyond reasonable doubt that one person infected another although it can be used to exonerate a defendant.

    CONCLUSIONS: The application of up-to-date scientific evidence in criminal cases has the potential to limit unjust prosecutions and convictions. The authors recommend that caution be exercised when considering prosecution, and encourage governments and those working in legal and judicial systems to pay close attention to the significant advances in HIV science that have occurred over the last three decades to ensure current scientific knowledge informs application of the law in cases related to HIV.

    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  18. Tan TS, Sharifah Syed Hassan, Yap WB
    Sains Malaysiana, 2016;45:787-793.
    The use of cell lines such as Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) and African Green Monkey Kidney (Vero) cells in
    influenza vaccine production is much advocated presently as a safer alternative to chicken embryonated eggs. It is
    thus essential to understand the influenza virus replication patterns in these cell lines prior to utilizing them in vaccine
    production. The infectivity of avian influenza A virus (A/Chicken/Malaysia/5858/2004) H5N1 in MDCK and Vero cell
    lines was first assessed by comparing the cytopathic effect (CPE) caused by the virus infection. The viral loads in both
    of the infected media and cells were also compared. The results showed that both of the MDCK and Vero cells began to
    exhibit significant CPE (p<0.05) after 48 h post-infection (h p.i). The MDCK cell line was more susceptible to the virus
    infection compared to Vero cell line throughout the incubation period. A higher viral load was also detected in the host
    cells compared to their respective culturing media. Interestingly, after reaching its maximum titer at 48 h p.i, the viral
    load in MDCK cells declined meanwhile the viral load in Vero cells increased gradually and peaked at 120 h p.i. Overall,
    both cell lines support efficient H5N1 virus replication. While the peak viral loads measured in the two cell lines did
    not differ much, a more rapid replication was observed in the infected MDCK samples. The finding showed that MDCK
    cell line might serve as a more time-saving and cost-effective cell culture-based system compared to Vero cell line for
    influenza vaccine production.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  19. Bartlett AW, Mohamed TJ, Sudjaritruk T, Kurniati N, Nallusamy R, Hansudewechakul R, et al.
    Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J., 2019 03;38(3):287-292.
    PMID: 30281549 DOI: 10.1097/INF.0000000000002208
    BACKGROUND: Perinatally HIV-infected adolescents (PHIVA) are exposed to a chronic systemic infection and long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART), leaving them susceptible to morbidities associated with inflammation, immunodeficiency and drug toxicity.

    METHODS: Data collected 2001 to 2016 from PHIVA 10-19 years of age within a regional Asian cohort were analyzed using competing risk time-to-event and Poisson regression analyses to describe the nature and incidence of morbidity events and hospitalizations and identify factors associated with disease-related, treatment-related and overall morbidity. Morbidity was defined according to World Health Organization clinical staging criteria and U.S. National Institutes of Health Division of AIDS criteria.

    RESULTS: A total 3,448 PHIVA contributed 17,778 person-years. Median age at HIV diagnosis was 5.5 years, and ART initiation was 6.9 years. There were 2,562 morbidity events and 307 hospitalizations. Cumulative incidence for any morbidity was 51.7%, and hospitalization was 10.0%. Early adolescence was dominated by disease-related infectious morbidity, with a trend toward noninfectious and treatment-related morbidity in later adolescence. Higher overall morbidity rates were associated with a CD4 count <350 cells/µL, HIV viral load ≥10,000 copies/mL and experiencing prior morbidity at age <10 years. Lower overall morbidity rates were found for those 15-19 years of age compared with 10-14 years and those who initiated ART at age 5-9 years compared with <5 or ≥10 years.

    CONCLUSIONS: Half of our PHIVA cohort experienced a morbidity event, with a trend from disease-related infectious events to treatment-related and noninfectious events as PHIVA age. ART initiation to prevent immune system damage, optimize virologic control and minimize childhood morbidity are key to limiting adolescent morbidity.

    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  20. Mohamed Amin Z, Che Ani MA, Tan SW, Yeap SK, Alitheen NB, Syed Najmuddin SUF, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2019 Sep 30;9(1):13999.
    PMID: 31570732 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-50222-z
    The Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain AF2240 is an avian avulavirus that has been demonstrated to possess oncolytic activity against cancer cells. However, to illicit a greater anti-cancer immune response, it is believed that the incorporation of immunostimulatory genes such as IL12 into a recombinant NDV backbone will enhance its oncolytic effect. In this study, a newly developed recombinant NDV that expresses IL12 (rAF-IL12) was tested for its safety, stability and cytotoxicity. The stability of rAF-IL12 was maintained when passaged in specific pathogen free (SPF) chicken eggs from passage 1 to passage 10; with an HA titer of 29. Based on the results obtained from the MTT cytotoxic assay, rAF-IL12 was determined to be safe as it only induced cytotoxic effects against normal chicken cell lines and human breast cancer cells while sparing normal cells. Significant tumor growth inhibition (52%) was observed in the rAF-IL12-treated mice. The in vivo safety profile of rAF-IL12 was confirmed through histological observation and viral load titer assay. The concentration and presence of the expressed IL12 was quantified and verified via ELISA assay. In summary, rAF-IL12 was proven to be safe, selectively replicating in chicken and cancer cells and was able to maintain its stability throughout several passages; thus enhancing its potential as an anti-breast cancer vaccine.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
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