Displaying publications 21 - 40 of 50 in total

  1. Engku Nur Syafirah EAR, Nurul Najian AB, Foo PC, Mohd Ali MR, Mohamed M, Yean CY
    Acta Trop., 2018 Jun;182:223-231.
    PMID: 29545156 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.03.004
    Cholera, caused by Vibrio cholerae is a foodborne disease that frequently reported in food and water related outbreak. Rapid diagnosis of cholera infection is important to avoid potential spread of disease. Among available diagnostic platforms, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is regarded as a potential diagnostic tool due to its rapidity, high sensitivity and specificity and independent of sophisticated thermalcycler. However, the current LAMP often requires multiple pipetting steps, hence is susceptible to cross contamination. Besides, the strict requirement of cold-chain during transportation and storage make its application in low resource settings to be inconvenient. To overcome these problems, the present study is aimed to develop an ambient-temperature-stable and ready-to-use LAMP assay for the detection of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae in low resource settings. A set of specific LAMP primers were designed and tested against 155 V. cholerae and non-V. cholerae strains. Analytical specifity showed that the developed LAMP assay detected 100% of pathogenic V. cholerae and did not amplified other tested bacterial strains. Upon testing against stool samples spiked with toxigenic V. cholerae outbreak isolates, the LAMP assay detected all of the spiked samples (n = 76/76, 100%), in contrast to the conventional PCR which amplified 77.6% (n = 59/76) of the tested specimens. In term of sensitivity, the LAMP assay was 100-fold more sensitive as compared to the conventional PCR method, with LOD of 10 fg per μL and 10 CFU per mL. Following lyophilisation with addition of lyoprotectants, the dry-reagent LAMP mix has an estimated shelf-life of 90.75 days at room temperature.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods*
  2. Nurul Najian AB, Foo PC, Ismail N, Kim-Fatt L, Yean CY
    Mol. Cell. Probes, 2019 04;44:63-68.
    PMID: 30876924 DOI: 10.1016/j.mcp.2019.03.001
    This study highlighted the performance of the developed integrated loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) coupled with a colorimetric DNA-based magnetogenosensor. The biosensor operates through a DNA hybridization system in which a specific designed probe captures the target LAMP amplicons. We demonstrated the magnetogenosensor assay by detecting pathogenic Leptospira, which causes leptospirosis. The color change of the assay from brown to blue indicated a positive result, whereas a negative result was indicated by the assay maintaining its brown color. The DNA biosensor was able to detect DNA at a concentration as low as 200 fg/μl, which is equivalent to 80 genomes/reaction. The specificity of the biosensor assay was 100% when it was evaluated with 172 bacterial strains. An integrated LAMP and probe-specific magnetogenosensor was successfully developed, promising simple and rapid visual detection in clinical diagnostics and service as a point-of-care device.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods*
  3. Mallepaddi PC, Lai MY, Podha S, Ooi CH, Liew JW, Polavarapu R, et al.
    Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 2018 09;99(3):704-708.
    PMID: 29943720 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.18-0177
    The present study aims to develop a method for rapid diagnosis of malaria using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) combined with a lateral flow device (LFD). By adding the biotin-labeled and fluorescein amidite-labeled loop primers to the LAMP reaction solution, the end product can be visualized on a LFD. The entire procedure takes approximately 42 minutes to complete, LAMP assay exhibited high sensitivity, as the detection limit was 0.01 pg/μL for all five Plasmodium species. It was demonstrated that all Plasmodium knowlesi (N = 90) and Plasmodium vivax (N = 56) were positively amplified by LAMP-LFD assay, whereas healthy donor samples (N = 8) were negative. However, not all mixed infections were positive, and other infected nonmalaria samples were negative. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification-LFD represents a robust approach with potential suitability for use in resource-constrained laboratories. We believe that LAMP-LFD has a potential to be developed as point-of-care diagnostic tool in future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods*
  4. Chan SK, Kuzuya A, Choong YS, Lim TS
    SLAS Discov, 2019 01;24(1):68-76.
    PMID: 30063871 DOI: 10.1177/2472555218791743
    The inherent ability of nucleic acids to recognize a complementary pair has gained wide popularity in DNA sensor applications. DNA molecules can be produced in bulk and easily incorporated with various nanomaterials for sensing applications. More complex designs and sophisticated DNA sensors have been reported over the years to allow DNA detection in a faster, cheaper, and more convenient manner. Here, we report a DNA sensor designed to function like a switch to turn "on" silver nanocluster (AgNC) generation in the presence of a specific DNA target. By defining the probe region sequence, we are able to tune the color of the AgNC generated in direct relation to the different targets. As a proof of concept, we used dengue RNA-dependent RNA polymerase conserved sequences from all four serotypes as targets. This method was able to distinguish each dengue serotype by generating the serotype-respective AgNCs. The DNA switch was also able to identify and amplify the correct target in a mixture of targets with good specificity. This strategy has a detection limit of between 1.5 and 2.0 µM depending on the sequence of AgNC. The DNA switch approach provides an attractive alternative for single-target or multiplex DNA detection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods*
  5. Lam JY, Low GK, Chee HY
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2020 02;14(2):e0008074.
    PMID: 32049960 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0008074
    BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is often difficult to diagnose because of its nonspecific symptoms. The drawbacks of direct isolation and serological tests have led to the increased development of nucleic acid-based assays, which are more rapid and accurate. A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of genetic markers for the detection of Leptospira in clinical samples.

    METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: A literature search was performed in Scopus, PubMed, MEDLINE and non-indexed citations (via Ovid) by using suitable keyword combinations. Studies evaluating the performance of nucleic acid assays targeting leptospire genes in human or animal clinical samples against a reference test were included. Of the 1645 articles identified, 42 eligible studies involving 7414 samples were included in the analysis. The diagnostic performance of nucleic acid assays targeting the rrs, lipL32, secY and flaB genes was pooled and analyzed. Among the genetic markers analyzed, the secY gene showed the highest diagnostic accuracy measures, with a pooled sensitivity of 0.56 (95% CI: 0.50-0.63), a specificity of 0.98 (95% CI: 0.97-0.98), a diagnostic odds ratio of 46.16 (95% CI: 6.20-343.49), and an area under the curve of summary receiver operating characteristics curves of 0.94. Nevertheless, a high degree of heterogeneity was observed in this meta-analysis. Therefore, the present findings here should be interpreted with caution.

    CONCLUSION: The diagnostic accuracies of the studies examined for each genetic marker showed a significant heterogeneity. The secY gene exhibited higher diagnostic accuracy measures compared with other genetic markers, such as lipL32, flaB, and rrs, but the difference was not significant. Thus, these genetic markers had no significant difference in diagnostic accuracy for leptospirosis. Further research into these genetic markers is warranted.

    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods*
  6. Lim KB, Jeevan NH, Jaya P, Othman MI, Lee YH
    Forensic Sci. Int., 2001 Jun 01;119(1):109-12.
    PMID: 11348801
    Allele frequencies for the nine STRs genetic loci included in the AmpFlSTR Profiler kit were obtained from samples of unrelated individuals comprising 139-156 Malays, 149-153 Chinese and 132-135 Indians, residing in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/instrumentation; Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods
  7. Sayad A, Ibrahim F, Mukim Uddin S, Cho J, Madou M, Thong KL
    Biosens Bioelectron, 2018 Feb 15;100:96-104.
    PMID: 28869845 DOI: 10.1016/j.bios.2017.08.060
    Outbreaks of foodborne diseases have become a global health concern; hence, many improvements and developments have been made to reduce the risk of food contamination. We developed a centrifugal microfluidic automatic wireless endpoint detection system integrated with loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for monoplex pathogen detection. Six identical sets were designed on the microfluidic compact disc (CD) to perform 30 genetic analyses of three different species of foodborne pathogens. The consecutive loading, mixing, and aliquoting of the LAMP primers/reagents and DNA sample solutions were accomplished using an optimized square-wave microchannel, metering chambers and revulsion per minute (RPM) control. We tested 24 strains of pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp and Vibrio cholerae), with 8 strains of each bacterium, and performed DNA amplification on the microfluidic CD for 60min. Then, the amplicons of the LAMP reaction were detected using the calcein colorimetric method and further analysed via the developed electronic system interfaced with Bluetooth wireless technology to transmit the results to a smartphone. The system showed a limit of detection (LOD) of 3 × 10-5ngμL-1 DNA by analysing the colour change when tested with chicken meat spiked with the three pathogenic bacteria. Since the entire process was performed in a fully automated way and was easy to use, our microdevice is suitable for point-of-care (POC) testing with high simplicity, providing affordability and accessibility even to poor, resource-limited settings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/economics; Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/instrumentation*
  8. Ramlah Zainudin, Augustine Gawin, Dency Flenny
    Limnonectes kuhlii and Limnonectes leporinus are two of the Bornean fanged frogs (without advertisement call) which are widely distributed, thus thought to exhibit different evolutionary lineages and the existence of genetically cryptic species. Yet, the two species are still under study especially at the molecular level. Hence, cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) of mitochondrial gene was used to investigate suitable parameters for DNA amplification using the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method. Three PCR programmes (varied in the temperatures and period of each PCR step) were employed to identify the most efficient parameters in amplifying PCR products for both species. From the three programmes, Programme B (Initial denaturation: 96°C for 5 min; denaturation: 95°C for 45 sec; annealing: 48-53°C for 1 min 30 sec; extension: 72°C for 1 min 30 sec; final extension: 72°C for 10 min, 30 cycles) showed the highest percentage (53%) of optimal PCR products. The other two programmes showed non-specific products or “primer-dimers”. The results also suggest that the annealing temperature of 52°C, 0.025-0.05 units/µl of 1.5mM Taq polymerase, 0.04 mM of
    dNTPs mix and optimal concentrations of magnesium in 50 µl of reaction mixture were sufficient enough to amplify high quality PCR products for both species. However, using Programme B, the re-amplification of the PCR products yielded “primer-dimer”. In addition, a ‘Hot-Start’ PCR method was also applied and mostly yielded in an optimal PCR amplification. Nevertheless, further research on the second amplification of the two species should be conducted to determine the causes of the primer-dimer production.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques
  9. Britton S, Cheng Q, Grigg MJ, Poole CB, Pasay C, William T, et al.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2016 Feb;10(2):e0004443.
    PMID: 26870958 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004443
    INTRODUCTION: Plasmodium vivax malaria has a wide geographic distribution and poses challenges to malaria elimination that are likely to be greater than those of P. falciparum. Diagnostic tools for P. vivax infection in non-reference laboratory settings are limited to microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests but these are unreliable at low parasitemia. The development and validation of a high-throughput and sensitive assay for P. vivax is a priority.

    METHODS: A high-throughput LAMP assay targeting a P. vivax mitochondrial gene and deploying colorimetric detection in a 96-well plate format was developed and evaluated in the laboratory. Diagnostic accuracy was compared against microscopy, antigen detection tests and PCR and validated in samples from malaria patients and community controls in a district hospital setting in Sabah, Malaysia.

    RESULTS: The high throughput LAMP-P. vivax assay (HtLAMP-Pv) performed with an estimated limit of detection of 1.4 parasites/ μL. Assay primers demonstrated cross-reactivity with P. knowlesi but not with other Plasmodium spp. Field testing of HtLAMP-Pv was conducted using 149 samples from symptomatic malaria patients (64 P. vivax, 17 P. falciparum, 56 P. knowlesi, 7 P. malariae, 1 mixed P. knowlesi/P. vivax, with 4 excluded). When compared against multiplex PCR, HtLAMP-Pv demonstrated a sensitivity for P. vivax of 95% (95% CI 87-99%); 61/64), and specificity of 100% (95% CI 86-100%); 25/25) when P. knowlesi samples were excluded. HtLAMP-Pv testing of 112 samples from asymptomatic community controls, 7 of which had submicroscopic P. vivax infections by PCR, showed a sensitivity of 71% (95% CI 29-96%; 5/7) and specificity of 93% (95% CI87-97%; 98/105).

    CONCLUSION: This novel HtLAMP-P. vivax assay has the potential to be a useful field applicable molecular diagnostic test for P. vivax infection in elimination settings.

    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods*
  10. Britton S, Cheng Q, Grigg MJ, William T, Anstey NM, McCarthy JS
    Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 2016 07 06;95(1):120-2.
    PMID: 27162264 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.15-0670
    The simian parasite Plasmodium knowlesi is now the commonest cause of malaria in Malaysia and can rapidly cause severe and fatal malaria. However, microscopic misdiagnosis of Plasmodium species is common, rapid antigen detection tests remain insufficiently sensitive and confirmation of P. knowlesi requires polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Thus available point-of-care diagnostic tests are inadequate. This study reports the development of a simple, sensitive, colorimetric, high-throughput loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay (HtLAMP) diagnostic test using novel primers for the detection of P. knowlesi. This assay is able to detect 0.2 parasites/μL, and compared with PCR has a sensitivity of 96% for the detection of P. knowlesi, making it a potentially field-applicable point-of-care diagnostic tool.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods*
  11. Kong BH, Hanifah YA, Yusof MY, Thong KL
    Trop Biomed, 2011 Dec;28(3):563-8.
    PMID: 22433885 MyJurnal
    Acinetobacter baumannii, genomic species 3 and 13TU are being increasingly reported as the most important Acinetobacter species that cause infections in hospitalized patients. These Acinetobacter species are grouped in the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus- Acinetobacter baumannii (Acb) complex. Differentiation of the species in the Acb-complex is limited by phenotypic methods. Therefore, in this study, amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) was applied to confirm the identity A. baumannii strains as well as to differentiate between the subspecies. One hundred and eighty-five strains from Intensive Care Unit, Universiti Malaya Medical Center (UMMC) were successfully identified as A. baumannii by ARDRA. Acinetobacter genomic species 13TU and 15TU were identified in 3 and 1 strains, respectively. ARDRA provides an accurate, rapid and definitive approach towards the identification of the species level in the genus Acinetobacter. This paper reports the first application ARDRA in genospecies identification of Acinetobacter in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods*
  12. Lau YL, Fong MY, Mahmud R, Chang PY, Palaeya V, Cheong FW, et al.
    Malar. J., 2011;10:197.
    PMID: 21774805 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-10-197
    The emergence of Plasmodium knowlesi in humans, which is in many cases misdiagnosed by microscopy as Plasmodium malariae due to the morphological similarity has contributed to the needs of detection and differentiation of malaria parasites. At present, nested PCR targeted on Plasmodium ssrRNA genes has been described as the most sensitive and specific method for Plasmodium detection. However, this method is costly and requires trained personnel for its implementation. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), a novel nucleic acid amplification method was developed for the clinical detection of P. knowlesi. The sensitivity and specificity of LAMP was evaluated in comparison to the results obtained via microscopic examination and nested PCR.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods*
  13. Gaydos CA, Ngeow YF, Lee HH, Canavaggio M, Welsh LE, Johanson J, et al.
    Sex Transm Dis, 1996 9 1;23(5):402-6.
    PMID: 8885072
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Noninvasive urine screening for Chlamydia trachomatis infections offers a valuable public health tool, which could be of vast importance in chlamydial control programs. The authors evaluated a new DNA amplification method, ligase chain reaction (LCR).

    GOALS: The goal was to ascertain whether urine testing could be used as screening method to detect C. trachomatis infections in commercial sex workers, patients at sexually transmitted diseases clinic, and asymptomatic patients in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    METHODS: First-void urine specimens from 300 men and 300 women were tested by LCR, as well as by a commercially available enzyme immunoassay. The LCR assay amplifies specific sequences within the chlamydial plasmid with ligand-labeled probes, and the resultant amplicons are detected by an automated immunoassay. Specimens with discrepant results were confirmed by another LCR of the specimen that targeted the gene for the major outer membrane protein (OMP1).

    RESULTS: There were 31 LCR-positive male urine and 37 LCR-positive female urine specimens. The resolved sensitivity and specificity for the LCR of the male urine specimens were 100% and 99.6%, respectively, whereas for female urine specimens, the sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 98.5%, respectively. After resolution of discrepant test results by OMP1 LCR, the prevalence was 10% for men and 11% for women. The urine enzyme immunoassay was not useful in diagnosing C. trachomatis infections in either men or women, as the resolved sensitivities were 10% and 15.2%, respectively. The specificities were 99.6% for men and 98.9% for women.

    CONCLUSIONS: Testing first-void urine specimens by LCR is a highly sensitive and specific method to diagnose C. trachomatis infections in men and women, providing health care workers and public health officials with a new molecular amplification assay that uses noninvasive urine specimens for population-based screening purposes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques*
  14. Liew PS, Teh CS, Lau YL, Thong KL
    Trop Biomed, 2014 Dec;31(4):709-20.
    PMID: 25776596 MyJurnal
    Shigellosis is a foodborne illness caused by the genus Shigella and is an important global health issue. The development of effective techniques for rapid detection of this pathogen is essential for breaking the chain of transmission. Therefore, we have developed a novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the invasion plasmid antigen H (ipaH) gene to rapidly detect Shigella species. This assay could be performed in 90 min at an optimal temperature of 64ºC, with endpoint results visualized directly. Notably, the method was found to be more sensitive than conventional PCR. Indeed, the detection limit for the LAMP assay on pure bacterial cultures was 5.9 x 10(5) CFU/ml, while PCR displayed a limit of 5.9 x 10(7) CFU/ml. In spiked lettuce samples, the sensitivity of the LAMP assay was 3.6 x 10(4) CFU/g, whereas PCR was 3.6 x 10(5) CFU/g. Overall, the assay accurately identified 32 Shigella spp. with one enteroinvasive Escherichia coli displaying positive reaction while the remaining 32 non-Shigella strains tested were negative.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods*
  15. Tan le V, Tuyen NT, Thanh TT, Ngan TT, Van HM, Sabanathan S, et al.
    J. Virol. Methods, 2015 Apr;215-216:30-6.
    PMID: 25704598 DOI: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2015.02.011
    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) has emerged as the most important cause of large outbreaks of severe and sometimes fatal hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) across the Asia-Pacific region. EV-A71 outbreaks have been associated with (sub)genogroup switches, sometimes accompanied by recombination events. Understanding EV-A71 population dynamics is therefore essential for understanding this emerging infection, and may provide pivotal information for vaccine development. Despite the public health burden of EV-A71, relatively few EV-A71 complete-genome sequences are available for analysis and from limited geographical localities. The availability of an efficient procedure for whole-genome sequencing would stimulate effort to generate more viral sequence data. Herein, we report for the first time the development of a next-generation sequencing based protocol for whole-genome sequencing of EV-A71 directly from clinical specimens. We were able to sequence viruses of subgenogroup C4 and B5, while RNA from culture materials of diverse EV-A71 subgenogroups belonging to both genogroup B and C was successfully amplified. The nature of intra-host genetic diversity was explored in 22 clinical samples, revealing 107 positions carrying minor variants (ranging from 0 to 15 variants per sample). Our analysis of EV-A71 strains sampled in 2013 showed that they all belonged to subgenogroup B5, representing the first report of this subgenogroup in Vietnam. In conclusion, we have successfully developed a high-throughput next-generation sequencing-based assay for whole-genome sequencing of EV-A71 from clinical samples.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods*
  16. Teh CS, Chua KH, Lim YA, Lee SC, Thong KL
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:457839.
    PMID: 24967435 DOI: 10.1155/2014/457839
    We have successfully developed a Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay that could specifically detect generic Escherichia coli (E. coli). This assay was tested on 85 bacterial strains and successfully identified 54 E. coli strains (average threshold time, Tt = 21.26). The sensitivity of this assay was evaluated on serial dilutions of bacterial cultures and spiked faeces. The assay could detect 10(2) CFU/mL for bacterial culture with Tt = 33.30 while the detection limit for spiked faeces was 10(3) CFU/mL (Tt = 31.12). We have also detected 46 generic E. coli from 50 faecal samples obtained from indigenous individuals with 16% of the positive samples being verocytotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC) positive. VT1/VT2 allele was present in one faecal sample while the ratio of VT1 to VT2 was 6 : 1. Overall, our study had demonstrated high risk of VTEC infection among the indigenous community and most of the asymptomatic infection occurred among those aged below 15 years. The role of asymptomatic human carriers as a source of dissemination should not be underestimated. Large scale screening of the VTEC infection among indigenous populations and the potential contamination sources will be possible and easy with the aid of this newly developed rapid and simple LAMP assay.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods*
  17. Abdullah J, Saffie N, Sjasri FA, Husin A, Abdul-Rahman Z, Ismail A, et al.
    Braz. J. Microbiol., 2014;45(4):1385-91.
    PMID: 25763045
    An in-house loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) reaction was established and evaluated for sensitivity and specificity in detecting the presence of Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi) isolates from Kelantan, Malaysia. Three sets of primers consisting of two outer and 4 inner were designed based on locus STBHUCCB_38510 of chaperone PapD of S. Typhi genes. The reaction was optimised using genomic DNA of S. Typhi ATCC7251 as the template. The products were visualised directly by colour changes of the reaction. Positive results were indicated by green fluorescence and negative by orange colour. The test was further evaluated for specificity, sensitivity and application on field samples. The results were compared with those obtained by gold standard culture method and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). This method was highly specific and -10 times more sensitive in detecting S. Typhi compared to the optimised conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods*
  18. Britton S, Cheng Q, Sutherland CJ, McCarthy JS
    Malar. J., 2015;14:335.
    PMID: 26315027 DOI: 10.1186/s12936-015-0848-3
    To detect all malaria infections in elimination settings sensitive, high throughput and field deployable diagnostic tools are required. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) represents a possible field-applicable molecular diagnostic tool. However, current LAMP platforms are limited by their capacity for high throughput.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods*
  19. Lim KT, Teh CS, Thong KL
    Biomed Res Int, 2013;2013:895816.
    PMID: 23509796 DOI: 10.1155/2013/895816
    Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), is an important human pathogen that produces a variety of toxins and causes a wide range of infections, including soft-tissue infections, bacteremia, and staphylococcal food poisoning. A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the arcC gene of S. aureus was developed and evaluated with 119 S. aureus and 25 non-S. aureus strains. The usefulness of the assay was compared with the PCR method that targets spa and arcC genes. The optimal temperature for the LAMP assay was 58.5°C with a detection limit of 2.5 ng/μL and 10(2) CFU/mL when compared to 12.5 ng/μL and 10(3) CFU/mL for PCR (spa and arcC). Both LAMP and PCR assays were 100% specific, 100% sensitive, 100% positive predictive value (PPV), and 100% negative predictive value (NPV). When tested on 30 spiked blood specimens (21 MRSA, eight non-S. aureus and one negative control), the performance of LAMP and PCR was comparable: 100% specific, 100% sensitive, 100% PPV, and 100% NPV. In conclusion, the LAMP assay was equally specific with a shorter detection time when compared to PCR in the identification of S. aureus. The LAMP assay is a promising alternative method for the rapid identification of S. aureus and could be used in resource-limited laboratories and fields.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods*
  20. Piera KA, Aziz A, William T, Bell D, González IJ, Barber BE, et al.
    Malar. J., 2017 01 13;16(1):29.
    PMID: 28086789 DOI: 10.1186/s12936-016-1676-9
    BACKGROUND: Plasmodium knowlesi is the most common cause of malaria in Malaysia. However, microscopic diagnosis is inaccurate and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are insufficiently sensitive. PCR is sensitive and specific but not feasible at a district level. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) shows potential with only basic requirements. A commercially available LAMP assay, the Eiken Loopamp™ MALARIA Pan Detection kit, is sensitive for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, but has not previously been evaluated for P. knowlesi. This study aims to determine the sensitivity of this LAMP assay for detecting P. knowlesi infection.

    METHODS: Study participants included 73 uncomplicated malaria patients with PCR species confirmation: 50 P. knowlesi, 20 P. falciparum and 3 P. vivax. Nineteen malaria-negative, non-endemic area controls were also included. The sensitivity of the Eiken Loopamp™ MALARIA Pan Detection kit (Pan LAMP) for detecting each Plasmodium species was evaluated. Sensitivity and specificity of the Eiken Loopamp™ MALARIA Pf Detection kit (Pf LAMP) for P. falciparum were also determined. The limit of detection for each LAMP assay was evaluated, with results compared to PCR. All P. knowlesi patients were also tested by CareStart™ (Pf/VOM) and OptiMAL-IT™ (Pan/Pf) RDTs.

    RESULTS: The sensitivity of the Pan LAMP assay was 100% for P. knowlesi (95% CI 92.9-100), P. falciparum (95% CI 83.2-100), and P. vivax (95% CI 29.2-100). The Pf LAMP was 100% sensitive and specific for P. falciparum detection, with all P. knowlesi samples having a negative reaction. LAMP sensitivity was superior to both RDTs, with only 10 and 28% of P. knowlesi samples testing positive to CareStart™ and OptiMAL-IT™, respectively. Limit of detection using the Pan LAMP for both P. knowlesi and P. vivax was 2 parasites/μL, comparable to PCR. For P. falciparum both the Pan LAMP and Pf LAMP demonstrated a limit of detection of 20 parasites/μL.

    CONCLUSIONS: The Eiken Loopamp™ MALARIA Pan Detection kit is sensitive for detection of P. knowlesi in low parasitaemia clinical infections, as well as P. falciparum and P. vivax. However, a P. knowlesi-specific field assay in a simpler format would assist correct species identification and initiation of optimal treatment for all malaria patients.

    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods*
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