Frequency hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) systems with partial band interference require appropriate compounding of spread spectrum modulation, error correcting code, diversity and decoding method to receive improved transmission signal. In this paper, a fast FHSS system with regular low-density parity-check codes was employed to cater some anti-jamming competence by using good waterfall and error floor performance. The performance evalution of the previously mentioned system was conducted in the presence of partial band noise jamming. The best possible design of the system was achieved with the combination of diversity level L=2 with a probability rate of at 0.7 dB which showed the robustness of the system.
The incidence of dengue in Malaysia has increased from 15.2 per 100,000 in 1973 to 361.0 per 100,000 population by the year 2014. The same trend was seen in case fatality rates that went up from 0.16% to 0.62% between 2000 to 2013.1,2 More than 60% of the cases were from the Klang Valley region. In Pahang the dengue incidence rates from 2004 to 2014 showed a similar increase from 40.9 to 193.8 per 100,000 population and an increase in case fatality rates from 0.07% to 0.3% too was observed between 2000-2014. Fortunately these figures were below the national average.3
Comet Lulin was discovered by Lin Chi-Sheng and Ye Quanzhi using the 16-inch telescope at Lulin Observatory in Nantou, Taiwan in 2007. According to Brian Marsden of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, it reached its perihelion on 10 January 2009 at a distance of 113 million
km from the Sun. It moves in a very nearly parabolic retrograde (‘backwards’ compared to the movement of the planets) orbit at an inclination of 1.6 degrees from the ecliptic (“Newfound Comet Lulin to Grace Night Skies”). http://www.space.com/spacewatch/090206-ns-cometlulin.html). It passed nearest to the Earth at a distance of 61 million km on 23 February 2009.
The pursuit, initiation and establishment of multi-stakeholder partnerships, including with the private sector, is often a critical component of attaining and achieving the success and sustainability of many projects the world over. However, the soliciting and securing of socially, economically and environmentally constructive engagements between the private sector on the one hand, and the NGOs, CBOs and local communities on the other hand, is in reality much easier said than done. Notably, since most private sector corporations undoubtedly tend to leave behind various "ecological footprints", differing only in their size and depth, stemming from their respective forms and functions, and their ensuing impacts and implications. The interplay between the civil society and the private sector, especially for resource mobilization. (Copied from article).
The nature, extent and definition of a collaboration varies between individuals, disciplines, departments and institutions. It depends upon such factors as the people involved, the nature of the research problem, the research environment, the institutional culture and demographic factors. This paper will examine the concept of collaborative research and discuss its place and position in an evolving university.
This research focuses on the ASTER DEM generation for visual and mathematical analysis of topography, landscapes and landforms, as well as modeling of surface processes of Central Alborz, Iran. ASTER DEM 15 m generated using tie points over the Central Alborz and Damavand volcano with 5671 m height from ASTER (Advanced Space borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) satellite data using PCI Geomatica 9.1. Geomorphic parameters are useful to identify and describe geomorphologic forms and processes, which were extracted from ASTER DEM in GIS environment such as elevation, aspect, slope angle, vertical curvature, and tangential curvature. Although the elevation values are slightly low in altitudes above 5500 m asl., the ASTER DEM is useful in interpretation of the macro- and meso-relief, and provides the opportunity for mapping especially at medium scales (1:100,000 and 1:50,000). ASTER DEM has potential to be a best tool to study 3D model for to geomorphologic mapping and processes of glacial and per glacial forms above 4300 m asl.
This paper presents an experimental characterization of millimeter-wave (mm-wave) channels in the 6.5 GHz, 10.5 GHz, 15 GHz, 19 GHz, 28 GHz and 38 GHz frequency bands in an indoor corridor environment. More than 4,000 power delay profiles were measured across the bands using an omnidirectional transmitter antenna and a highly directional horn receiver antenna for both co- and cross-polarized antenna configurations. This paper develops a new path-loss model to account for the frequency attenuation with distance, which we term the frequency attenuation (FA) path-loss model and introduce a frequency-dependent attenuation factor. The large-scale path loss was characterized based on both new and well-known path-loss models. A general and less complex method is also proposed to estimate the cross-polarization discrimination (XPD) factor of close-in reference distance with the XPD (CIX) and ABG with the XPD (ABGX) path-loss models to avoid the computational complexity of minimum mean square error (MMSE) approach. Moreover, small-scale parameters such as root mean square (RMS) delay spread, mean excess (MN-EX) delay, dispersion factors and maximum excess (MAX-EX) delay parameters were used to characterize the multipath channel dispersion. Multiple statistical distributions for RMS delay spread were also investigated. The results show that our proposed models are simpler and more physically-based than other well-known models. The path-loss exponents for all studied models are smaller than that of the free-space model by values in the range of 0.1 to 1.4 for all measured frequencies. The RMS delay spread values varied between 0.2 ns and 13.8 ns, and the dispersion factor values were less than 1 for all measured frequencies. The exponential and Weibull probability distribution models best fit the RMS delay spread empirical distribution for all of the measured frequencies in all scenarios.
Rhythmically coordinating with a partner can increase pro-sociality, but pro-sociality does not appear to change in proportion to coordination success, or particular classes of coordination. Pro-social benefits may have more to do with simply coordinating in a social context than the details of the actual coordination (Cross et al., 2016). This begs the question, how stripped down can a coordination task be and still affect pro-sociality? Would it be sufficient simply to imagine coordinating with others? Imagining a social interaction can lead to many of the same effects as actual interaction (Crisp and Turner, 2009). We report the first experiments to explore whether imagined coordination affects pro-sociality similarly to actual coordination. Across two experiments and over 450 participants, mentally simulated coordination is shown to promote some, but not all, of the pro-social consequences of actual coordination. Imagined coordination significantly increased group cohesion and de-individuation, but did not consistently affect cooperation.
Microalgae are considered promising feedstock for the production of biofuels and other bioactive compounds, yet there are still challenges on commercial applications of microalgae-based products. This review focuses on the economic analysis, environmental impact, and industrial potential of biofuels production from microalgae. The cost of biofuels production remains higher compared to conventional fuel sources. However, integration of biorefinery pathways with biofuels production for the recovery of value-added products (such as antioxidants, natural dyes, cosmetics, nutritional supplements, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and so forth) could substantially reduce the production costs. It also paves the way for sustainable energy resources by significantly reducing the emissions of CO2 , NOx , SOx , and heavy metals. Large-scale biofuels production has yet to be successfully commercialized with many roadblocks ahead and heavy competition with conventional fuel feedstock as well as technological aspects. One of the prominent challenges is to develop a cost-effective method to achieve high-density microalgal cultivation on an industrial scale. The biofuels industry should be boosted by Government's support in the form of subsidies and incentives, for addressing the pressing climate change issues, achieving sustainability, and energy security.
The emergence of wireless technologies such as WirelessHART and ISA100 Wireless for deployment at industrial process plants has urged the need for research and development in wireless control. This is in view of the fact that the recent application is mainly in monitoring domain due to lack of confidence in control aspect. WirelessHART has an edge over its counterpart as it is based on the successful Wired HART protocol with over 30 million devices as of 2009. Recent works on control have primarily focused on maintaining the traditional PID control structure which is proven not adequate for the wireless environment. In contrast, Internal Model Control (IMC), a promising technique for delay compensation, disturbance rejection and setpoint tracking has not been investigated in the context of WirelessHART. Therefore, this paper discusses the control design using IMC approach with a focus on wireless processes. The simulation and experimental results using real-time WirelessHART hardware-in-the-loop simulator (WH-HILS) indicate that the proposed approach is more robust to delay variation of the network than the PID.
In order to manage blue swimming crabs in Pangkajene Kepulauan, management measures are required. Since the environment which affects the abundance of the blue swimming crab varies seasonally, it is necessary to take into account the seasonal nature with the aim of developing a management strategy. The objectives of this study are to define the abundance of and fishing season of blue swimming crabs in the Pangkajene Kepulauan waters, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. The fishing season was analysed using seasonal index analysis, while fish abundance was analysed by means of Equilibrium-Schaefer. The result of this study demonstrated that fishermen allocate their fishing gear all year, although the fish catch is seasonal. Based on analysis of the result, the fishing season for the blue swimming crabs is short. The peak fishing season starts in May and finishes in June. However, in order to enable their families to earn a living, fishermen operated their fishing gear throughout the year. As a result, both catch landing and effort were close to maximum sustainable yield (MSY). In order to reduce fishing pressure, it is necessary to reduce fishing gear and have a seasonal arrangement regarding fishing gear allocation.
Students are characterized according to their own distinct learning styles. Discovering students' learning style is significant in the educational system in order to provide adaptivity. Past researches have proposed various approaches to detect the students' learning styles. Among all, the Bayesian network has emerged as a widely used method to automatically detect students' learning styles. On the other hand, tree augmented naive Bayesian network has the ability to improve the naive Bayesian network in terms of better classification accuracy. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of the tree augmented naive Bayesian in automatically detecting students' learning style in the online learning environment. The experimental results are promising as the tree augmented naive Bayes network is shown to achieve higher detection accuracy when compared to the Bayesian network.
Dengue is the most rapidly increasing arthropodborne
disease globally. The disease burden has increased
exponentially, doubling almost every decade from the
estimated 8.3 million cases in 2010 to about 58.4 million
cases in 2013.1
The number of countries reporting
dengue has also increased. Before 1970, less than 9
countries reported dengue but now it has been reported
in more than 100 countries worldwide. It is transmitted
by two species of Aedes mosquito, Aedes aegypti and Ae.
albopictus. (Copied from article).
In recent years, the utility grid system is more essential for the power
transmission and distribution system because it cannot produce harmful
gases or no discharge waste in the environment. PWM based phase
synchronous invert systems are generally utilised in the high efficiency
energy supply, long distance and higher power quality. The inverter output
voltage depends on the coupling transformer, input sources and invert
controllers. An inverter using a three leg IGBT has been designed for utility
grid and simulated by using MATLAB2014a. In this paper, both sides of
the LCL filters are used for removing the DC ripple current, reducing the
noise and synchronous the output phase between inverter and the utility
grid. The PWM controller has created pulse signal to control the inverter,
electronic switches and precisely synchronise with grid line frequency. In
this system, the input DC voltage 500V, switching frequency 1.65 kHz, grid
frequency 50Hz, 20 km feeder (resistance, inductance and capacitance per
unit length, which are 0.1153, 1.05e-3 and 11.33e-09 ohms/km) with 30MW
three phase load (active and inductive reactive power which are 30e6 W
and 2e6 var) and also a balanced utility grid load of star configuration (00,
1200, and 2400 degree) are considered in the design. On the other hand,
three phase transformer consists of three signal phase transformers, normal
power 100e3, magnetization resistance and inductance which are 500 pu and
416.67pu are considered in this design. The system conversion efficiency
is 99.94% and 99.96%, while the total THD are 0.06% on inverter side
and 0.04% on grid side.
This paper investigated the throughput performance of a secondary user (SU) for a random primary user (PU) activity in a realistic experimental model. This paper proposed a sensing and frame duration of the SU to maximize the SU throughput under the collision probability constraint. The throughput of the SU and the probability of collisions depend on the pattern of PU activities. The pattern of PU activity was obtained and modelled from the experimental data that measure the wireless local area network (WLAN) environment. The WLAN signal has detected the transmission opportunity length (TOL) which was analyzed and clustered into large and small durations in the CTOL model. The performance of the SU is then analyzed and compared with static and dynamic PU models. The results showed that the SU throughput in the CTOL model was higher than the static and dynamic models by almost 45% and 12.2% respectively. Furthermore, the probability of collisions in the network and the SU throughput were influenced by the value of the minimum contention window and the maximum back-off stage. The simulation results revealed that the higher contention window had worsened the SU throughput even though the channel has a higher number of TOLs.
Logging activity is one of the most important activities for tropical countries
including Malaysia, as it produces quality trees for papers. One of the important tree
species is the Acacia Mangium which it produces a soft tree for papermaking enterprises.
The papers are exported to Europe and countries which have high demand for paper
due to the rapid development of the printing industry. Thus we analyzed the height for
individual trees. We investigate the maximum height of the trees from 1990 to 2006
and we fit the data using extreme value model. Some of the data are missing and three
imputation methods we used to solve this problem.
Improving organizational performance is the main objective of any organization. Six
Sigma is one of the most important approaches to improve performance and sustain
competitive advantage. This article reviewed the literature related to organizational
performance and explains the potential impact of Six Sigma and innovation culture on
organizational performance. Given that previous studies have reported inconclusive
results, this paper tries to establish a mechanism to explain the role of Six Sigma in
improving organizational performance. Therefore, based on the theoretical foundation
and comprehensive review of previous literature, a research framework is proposed.
This proposed framework is grounded in the implementation of Six Sigma projects; it
also establishes that innovation culture can help organizations to achieve success in a
turbulent business environment.
Various claims have been made about the extinction of Malay Reservation Land in the country. Before
independence, the land depreciation was due to the acquisition of land by the British colonial
government for mining, opening of new villages during the communist threat and the mortgage and
sale activities by the Malay landowners to non-Malays. After independence, land depreciation linked
with the acquisition of land by the government through the Land Acquisition Act, 1960. This study is a
content analysis study involving material derived from the secondary source text and earlier research
findings. Emphasis is given to analyze the statistical size of Malay Reservation Land in the country.
Results show that the allegations regarding the depreciation trend of the Malay Reservation Land is
inaccurate and misleading. While the analysis of the size of the Malay Reservation Land found that the
actual percentage of Malay Reservation Land in 2009 was 30.13 percent instead of 11.83 percent as
claimed. The percentage grew steadily in 2013 to 31.85 percent. The analysis also found that there was
confusion about the actual size of Malay Reservation Land in the country.
Pedestrians' fatality trend in road crashes has been improving in recent years though it remains third in rank behind
motorcyclists and car occupants. Based on the statistics, young pedestrians were the most affected group and the
commonest injury regions were head and legs. Pedestrian crashes occurred primarily in rural areas and straight roads
and at low light environment, and often involve cars and motorcycles. In addition to existing issues of careless and
illegal crossing practices, there are potential new hazards face by pedestrian, which are mobile electronic device use
and electric vehicle, especially when crossing roads. Road safety programs and interventions shall consider these new
Workplace deviant behavior is an action performed voluntarily by an individual and harms the
organizational norms and affects individual, organization or both. Therefore, it is a priority to the
organization to understand and look at the workplace deviant behavior issue because different
individual and environment will cause differences in how an individual behaves. Understanding the
terms, factors, typologies and effects of deviant behavior will enable organization to draw the
rehabilitation plan so deviant behavior will be curbed from the beginning. Overcoming workplace
deviant behavior will result in positive impact to the organization management and financial and will
lead to positive and conducive environment at the workplace.