Displaying publications 41 - 60 of 1521 in total

  1. Lee YW, Zairi J
    J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 2006 Mar;22(1):97-101.
    PMID: 16646329
    Susceptibility levels of a few laboratory-cultured and dengue-endemic area field-collected strains of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus to Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) at different storage ages were studied. The susceptibility of laboratory-cultured World Health Organization (WHO) Bora Bora reference, Vector Control Research Unit (VCRU), and Fumakilla Malaysia Berhad (FMB) strains of Ae. aegypti to Bti was examined. The sensitivity to Bti decreased with storage age. The median lethal concentration (LC50) for Bti increased by 2-3 times after 2 years compared to a fresh sample (3-6 months of storage). However, after the 2-year storage period, Bti still provided very good efficacy against all laboratory-cultured susceptible strains of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. The observed 95% lethal concentration values were about 20 times lower than the recommended concentration (6,000 international toxic units (ITU)/liter). Results obtained from the study against the dengue-endemic area field-collected strains of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus confirmed the effectiveness of the Bti after storage for 2 years (18-24 months). For Ae. aegypti, the Ujung Batu strain was the most susceptible to Bti, whereas the Sungai Nibong strain showed the most tolerance. Susceptibility of laboratory-cultured strains varied; the Air Itam strain of Ae. albopictus was the most susceptible to Bti, whereas the Kampung Serani strain was the most tolerant among the field strains. However, the laboratory strain of Ae. albopictus was more susceptible than all the field strains.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  2. Oommen RM
    Aust N Z J Surg, 1994 Jan;64(1):22-3.
    PMID: 8267532
    The Medical Department of Sabah, in collaboration with various governmental and non-governmental agencies and 'Surgeons International' conducted a state-wide campaign for the 'Early Detection of Cancer' over a period of 3 months from July 1992. The purpose of the campaign was to educate the population about the early signs and symptoms of common cancers, to remove the myth that cancer was incurable and to impress on the public the need to detect cancer early for a possible cure and a better prognosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  3. Lim VK, Cheong YM
    Malays J Pathol, 1992 Jun;14(1):41-3.
    PMID: 1469917
    A turnaround time study was conducted for bacteriological culture tests in seven Malaysian general hospitals. The turnaround times were determined using a specially designed form that was completed by the ward staff. Doctors at these hospitals were also polled to find out whether they were satisfied with the promptness of bacteriological test reporting in their hospitals. The turnaround times obtained from this survey were found to be satisfactory taking into account the constraints of laboratory methods employed. Nevertheless only about a third of doctors expressed satisfaction with the timeliness of the bacteriological test reporting. Doctors and microbiologists should get together and agree on acceptable standards of turnaround times that are practical and reasonable.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  4. Shahabudin SH, Safiah N
    Med Teach, 1991;13(3):205-11.
    PMID: 1745110
    Three years ago the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia medical school changed its curriculum from the traditional discipline based curriculum to the integrated organ-system approach. Once change was effected a process of 'refreezing' had to be initiated whereby new responses had to be reintegrated into the ongoing personality or emotional relationships of important people so that the change process will endure and become stable. During this refreezing process the faculty encountered several problems which could thwart further development of the new curricula if left unresolved. The nature of the problems seemed to indicate that curricular change involves more than just efforts at bettering the what and ways of student learning and assessment. A lot of energy was also spent on keeping things going, keeping people motivated, making sure the work was done (at least as well as it has in the past), looking for better ways to do things, weighing new solutions and to be alert to new problems. In ensuring the continuance of change it was important to ensure, from the outset the institutionalization of policies, programmes, procedures and practices for continuing reward, routinization, structural integration into the system, continuing evaluation and providing for continuing maintenance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  5. Rivai IF, Koyama H, Suzuki S
    Bull Environ Contam Toxicol, 1990 Jun;44(6):910-6.
    PMID: 2354269
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  6. Silva JF
    Trop Doct, 1979 Oct;9(4):221-7.
    PMID: 516150
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  7. Boo NY
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1989 Mar;44(1):35-40.
    PMID: 2626112
    Over a seven month period in 1986, 164 (1.1%) of a total 15,131 neonates delivered in the Maternity Hospital, Kuala Lumpur were born to mothers with prolonged rupture of the fetal membranes. Septic work-ups were performed on 163 of these babies shortly after birth, 77 of them had no bacteriological, radiological or other clinical evidence of infection. The remaining 86 had additional history of illness. Nine of these 86 babies had proven infection: four with septicemia, one with meningitis and four others with congenital pneumonia. This study showed that neonates had risk of infection only when maternal history of prolonged rupture of the fetal membranes was associated with other clinical evidence of infection. However, even in this group of neonates at risk, 89.5% of them were not infected. Therefore, there is still a need to develop a simple, rapid, reliable and cheap laboratory method to help early identification of the infected from the non-infected neonates in order to prevent unnecessary antibiotic treatment and hospital stay.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  8. Holland B
    Hum. Biol., 1987 Jun;59(3):477-87.
    PMID: 3610122
    The effects of breast-feeding on infant health and mortality, particularly in the developing nations, are a matter of controversy and importance. The Malaysian Family Life Survey (MFLS) of over 1200 women has recently been the source of a great deal of valuable information on the influence of breast-feeding and interacting social variables on the incidence of infant mortality. Accuracy of reporting of breast-feeding duration is a key issue in the validity of studies of breast-feeding and infant mortality. This paper presents an illustrative analysis of the quality of breast-feeding data from the Malaysian Family Life Survey, using logit model schedules. Lesthaeghe and Page derived a logit model schedule of breast-feeding, summarizing empirical experience. This family of model breast-feeding duration curves is similar to the logit model life tables developed by Brass, and was intended for similar applications. To verify the MFLS retrospective breast-feeding reports, the observed median duration and variability were calculated for ethnic group/cohort subsets, and expected duration distribution curves were generated from the model using these observed parameter values. The expected curve generated from the model fit the observed curve of breast-feeding discontinuation extremely closely. Thus it is unlikely that any significant distortion of the pattern of discontinuation of breast-feeding occurred in data collection. Extensions of this method of data quality checking to other duration distributions are suggested.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  9. Lim VK
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1991 Dec;46(4):298-300.
    PMID: 1840435
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  10. Lee CH, Ngeow YF
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1983 Mar;38(1):23-6.
    PMID: 6633329
    Genital discharge from patients unth. smear positive gonorrhoea was transported from the clinic to the laboratory in. Stuart's transport medium (Oxoid CM 111). Within. six hours of transit time the recovery rate of gonococci was 94%. When compared with "bedside" inoculation onto Modified Thayer Martin medium, there was no significant difference in recovery rates up to 6 hours of transportation in Stuart's transport medium, However, the rate of isolation of gonococci was significantly reduced after 20 to 30 hours of transportation. It is concluded that Stuart's transport medium is an acceptable transport medium for specimens containing gonococci when specimens reach the laboratory within 6 hours of collection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  11. Puraviappan A, Hing NK, Ping WW
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1975 Mar;30(3):202-5.
    PMID: 1160679
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  12. Kundin WD, Nadchatram M, Keong A
    J. Med. Entomol., 1972 Dec 20;9(6):558-9.
    PMID: 4654691
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  13. Sinclair BJ, Marshall KE, Sewell MA, Levesque DL, Willett CS, Slotsbo S, et al.
    Ecol. Lett., 2016 11;19(11):1372-1385.
    PMID: 27667778 DOI: 10.1111/ele.12686
    Thermal performance curves (TPCs), which quantify how an ectotherm's body temperature (Tb ) affects its performance or fitness, are often used in an attempt to predict organismal responses to climate change. Here, we examine the key - but often biologically unreasonable - assumptions underlying this approach; for example, that physiology and thermal regimes are invariant over ontogeny, space and time, and also that TPCs are independent of previously experienced Tb. We show how a critical consideration of these assumptions can lead to biologically useful hypotheses and experimental designs. For example, rather than assuming that TPCs are fixed during ontogeny, one can measure TPCs for each major life stage and incorporate these into stage-specific ecological models to reveal the life stage most likely to be vulnerable to climate change. Our overall goal is to explicitly examine the assumptions underlying the integration of TPCs with Tb , to develop a framework within which empiricists can place their work within these limitations, and to facilitate the application of thermal physiology to understanding the biological implications of climate change.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  14. Yeoh AH, Tang SS, Abdul Manap N, Wan Mat WR, Said S, Che Hassan MR, et al.
    Turk J Med Sci, 2016 Apr 19;46(3):620-5.
    PMID: 27513234 DOI: 10.3906/sag-1502-56
    BACKGROUND/AIM: The effects of pericardium 6 (P6) electrical stimulation in patients at risk of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) following laparoscopic surgery were evaluated.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty patients for laparoscopic surgery with at least one of the determined risks (nonsmoker, female, previous PONV/motion sickness, or postoperative opioid use) were randomized into either an active or sham group. At the end of surgery, Reletex electrical acustimulation was placed at the P6 acupoint. The active group had grade 3 strength and the sham group had inactivated electrodes covered by silicone. It was worn for 24 h following surgery. PONV scores were recorded.

    RESULTS: The active group had significantly shorter durations of surgery and lower PONV incidence over 24 h (35.1% versus 64.9%, P = 0.024) and this was attributed to the lower incidence of nausea (31.4% versus 68.6%, P = 0.006). The overall incidence of vomiting was not significantly different between the groups, but it was higher in the sham group of patients with PONV risk score 3 (23.9%, P = 0.049).

    CONCLUSION: In patients at high risk for PONV, P6 acupoint electrical stimulation lowers the PONV incidence by reducing the nausea component. However, this reduction in nausea is not related to increasing PONV risk scores.

    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  15. Ng KP, Saw TL, Baki A, Kamarudin R
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2003 Aug;58(3):454-60.
    PMID: 14750391
    Determine HIV-1/2, Chembio HIV-1/2 STAT-PAK and PenTest are simple/rapid tests for the detection of antibodies to HIV-1 and HIV-2 in human whole blood, serum and plasma samples. The assay is one step and the result is read visually within 15 minutes. Using 92 known HIV-1 reactive sera and 108 known HIV-1 negative sera, the 3 HIV tests correctly identified all the known HIV-1 reactive and negative samples. The results indicated that Determine HIV-1/2, Chembio HIV-1/2 STAT-PAK and PenTest HIV are as sensitive and specific (100% concordance) as Microparticle Enzyme Immunoassay. The data indicated that these 3 HIV tests are effective testing systems for diagnosis of HIV infection in a situation when the conventional Enzyme Immunoassay is not suitable.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  16. Shamel MM, Sulaiman NM, Sulaiman MZ
    Artif Cells Blood Substit Immobil Biotechnol, 1999 Sep-Nov;27(5-6):447-53.
    PMID: 10595447
    A study was conducted to evaluate the cross flow tubular ultrafiltration behavior of aqueous solutions of pectin. The effectiveness of pulsatile flow as a cleaning-in-place (CIP) technique to improve permeate flux was undertaken on the above mentioned solution. This investigation is part of a study to apply membrane filtration in the clarification of tropical fruit juice. The main variables, which were investigated, include the concentration of pectin, pulse frequency and amplitude. It was found that the amount of pectin in the solution significantly affects its ultrafiltration behavior. From the observed profiles, it is evident that the formation of gel layer on the membrane surface is responsible for the leveling of flux at high pressures. The presence of pectin was found to affect the properties of the solution such as viscosity, pH and the size of pectin colloid. Improvements in the permeate flux for pectin solution were obtained by employing pulsatile flow cleaning-in-place technique. Both pulse frequency and amplitude are important parameters that can improve the improvement of in-situ cleaning method. Similar to several findings reported in the literature, pulsatile flow showed significant effectiveness of about 60% higher flux when the ultrafiltration process is operated under laminar condition.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  17. Mohd Radi MF, Hashim JH, Jaafar MH, Hod R, Ahmad N, Mohammed Nawi A, et al.
    Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 2018 05;98(5):1281-1295.
    PMID: 29532771 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.16-0922
    Severe floods increase the risk of leptospirosis outbreaks in endemic areas. This study determines the spatial-temporal distribution of leptospirosis in relation to environmental factors after a major flooding event in Kelantan, Malaysia. We conducted an observational ecological study involving incident leptospirosis cases, from the 3 months before, during, and three months after flood, in reference to the severe 2014 Kelantan flooding event. Geographical information system was used to determine the spatial distribution while climatic factors that influenced the cases were also analyzed. A total of 1,229 leptospirosis cases were notified within the three study periods where incidence doubled in the postflood period. Twelve of 66 subdistricts recorded incidence rates of over 100 per 100,000 population in the postflood period, in comparison with only four subdistricts in the preflooding period. Average nearest neighborhood analysis indicated that the cases were more clustered in the postflood period as compared with the preflood period, with observed mean distance of 1,139 meters and 1,666 meters, respectively (both at P < 0.01). Global Moran's I was higher in the postflood period (0.19; P < 0.01) as compared with the preflood period (0.06; P < 0.01). Geographic weighted regression showed that living close to water bodies increased the risk of contracting the disease. Postflooding hotspots were concentrated in areas where garbage cleanup occurred and the incidence was significantly associated with temperature, humidity, rainfall, and river levels. Postflooding leptospirosis outbreak was associated with several factors. Understanding the spatial distribution and associated factors of leptospirosis can help improve future disease outbreak management after the floods.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  18. Venugopalan B, Rajendra P
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2001 Mar;56(1):39-43.
    PMID: 11503294
    A retrospective epidemiological study was done on 41 deaths among patients treated for TB in the Klang Chest Clinic for the year 1999. The findings revealed a male preponderance of TB deaths with Indians having the highest case fatality rate (8.6%). The majority of deaths occurred within the 25-44 year age group. Of those cases diagnosed as Pulmonary TB, 69% were diagnosed as far-advanced, at presentation, based on chest x-rays reported. Eighty three percent of these patients were still on treatment when they died. HIV was the most common co-existing disease condition and was implicated in 14.6% of the deaths. The recommendations include implementation of clinical guidelines on TB screening for HIV patients, a study to evaluate the effectiveness of the current TB surveillance programme and for chest x-rays of all sputum smear negative patients to be reported by the radiologist to reduce the risk of misdiagnosis.
    Study site: Chest clinic, Kelang, Selangor, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
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