Displaying publications 41 - 60 of 1412 in total

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  1. Yeoh AH, Tang SS, Abdul Manap N, Wan Mat WR, Said S, Che Hassan MR, et al.
    Turk J Med Sci, 2016 Apr 19;46(3):620-5.
    PMID: 27513234 DOI: 10.3906/sag-1502-56
    BACKGROUND/AIM: The effects of pericardium 6 (P6) electrical stimulation in patients at risk of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) following laparoscopic surgery were evaluated.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty patients for laparoscopic surgery with at least one of the determined risks (nonsmoker, female, previous PONV/motion sickness, or postoperative opioid use) were randomized into either an active or sham group. At the end of surgery, Reletex electrical acustimulation was placed at the P6 acupoint. The active group had grade 3 strength and the sham group had inactivated electrodes covered by silicone. It was worn for 24 h following surgery. PONV scores were recorded.

    RESULTS: The active group had significantly shorter durations of surgery and lower PONV incidence over 24 h (35.1% versus 64.9%, P = 0.024) and this was attributed to the lower incidence of nausea (31.4% versus 68.6%, P = 0.006). The overall incidence of vomiting was not significantly different between the groups, but it was higher in the sham group of patients with PONV risk score 3 (23.9%, P = 0.049).

    CONCLUSION: In patients at high risk for PONV, P6 acupoint electrical stimulation lowers the PONV incidence by reducing the nausea component. However, this reduction in nausea is not related to increasing PONV risk scores.

    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  2. Sinclair BJ, Marshall KE, Sewell MA, Levesque DL, Willett CS, Slotsbo S, et al.
    Ecol. Lett., 2016 11;19(11):1372-1385.
    PMID: 27667778 DOI: 10.1111/ele.12686
    Thermal performance curves (TPCs), which quantify how an ectotherm's body temperature (Tb ) affects its performance or fitness, are often used in an attempt to predict organismal responses to climate change. Here, we examine the key - but often biologically unreasonable - assumptions underlying this approach; for example, that physiology and thermal regimes are invariant over ontogeny, space and time, and also that TPCs are independent of previously experienced Tb. We show how a critical consideration of these assumptions can lead to biologically useful hypotheses and experimental designs. For example, rather than assuming that TPCs are fixed during ontogeny, one can measure TPCs for each major life stage and incorporate these into stage-specific ecological models to reveal the life stage most likely to be vulnerable to climate change. Our overall goal is to explicitly examine the assumptions underlying the integration of TPCs with Tb , to develop a framework within which empiricists can place their work within these limitations, and to facilitate the application of thermal physiology to understanding the biological implications of climate change.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  3. Nettely T, Rajaee AH, Denil NA, Idris MH, Nesarul MH, Amin SMN, et al.
    J Environ Biol, 2016 07;37(4 Spec No):715-24.
    PMID: 28779731
    Samples of threadfin breams Nemipterus japonicus were collected from a village in Kuala Nyalau and a fish landing centre at Bintulu from April 2013 to March 2014. A total of 360 individuals of N. japonicus (214 male and 146 female) were used in this reproductive study.? The total length (TL) of individuals were measured to the nearest 0.1 cm and body weight (BW) was recorded to the nearest 0.1 g. Month-wise distribution of the sexes was significantly higher for males in September and March, while in the month of May the number of females was significantly higher (X(2) = 6.53; P < 0.05). Males showed a preponderance in the size-class of 19.0-20.9 cm (X(2) = 80.24; P < 0.001), 21.0 -22.9 cm (X(2) = 56.39; P < 0.001) and 23.0 -24.9 cm (X(2) = 17; P < 0.001). The gonadosomatic index (GSI) values of N. japonicus ranged from 0.07 to 0.19 for males and 0.34 to 4.99 for females. Females had higher GSI than males throughout the study period. For males, a higher GSI (0.11-0.19) was observed during January to February, while it was found to be higher (2.73-4.99) for females during January to March, indicating the spawning season. The present study revealed that ovarian maturity based on histological analysis of N. japonicus was classified into seven stages namely, immature (I), immature (II), maturing (III), mature (IV), ripe (V), spawning (VI) and spent (VII). The fecundity of N. japonicus was estimated to be within a range of 19221 to 85923 with higher GSI (3.08-6.78) from the coastal waters of Bintulu, Sarawak.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  4. Alyessary AS, Yap AUJ, Othman SA, Ibrahim N, Rahman MT, Radzi Z
    Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop, 2018 Aug;154(2):260-269.
    PMID: 30075928 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2017.11.031
    INTRODUCTION: In this study, we evaluated the effect of bone-borne accelerated expansion protocols on sutural separation and sutural bone modeling using a microcomputed tomography system. We also determined the optimum instant sutural expansion possible without disruption of bone modeling.

    METHODS: Sixteen New Zealand white rabbits, 20 to 24 weeks old, were randomly divided into 4 experimental groups. Modified hyrax expanders were placed across their interfrontal sutures and secured with miniscrew implants located bilaterally in the frontal bone. The hyrax appliances were activated as follows: group 1 (control), 0.5-mm per day expansion for 12 days; group 2, 1-mm instant expansion followed by 0.5 mm per day for 10 days; group 3, 2.5-mm instant expansion followed by 0.5 mm per day for 7 days, and group 4, 4-mm instant expansion followed by 0.5 mm per day for 4 days. After 6 weeks of retention, sutural separation and sutural bone modeling were assessed by microcomputed tomography and quantified. Statistical analysis was performed using Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests and the Spearman rho correlation (P <0.05).

    RESULTS: Median amounts of sutural separation ranged from 2.84 to 4.41 mm for groups 1 and 4, respectively. Median bone volume fraction ranged from 59.96% to 69.15% for groups 4 and 3, respectively. A significant correlation (r = 0.970; P <0.01) was observed between the amounts of instant expansion and sutural separation.

    CONCLUSIONS: Pending histologic verifications, our findings suggest that the protocol involving 2.5 mm of instant expansion followed by 0.5 mm per day for 7 days is optimal for accelerated sutural expansion. When 4 mm of instant expansion was used, the sutural bone volume fraction was decreased.

    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  5. Lim KG
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2010 Dec;65(4):255.
    PMID: 21901939
    In the last four years, Malaysia has had three outbreaks of chikungunya virus infection. The first two occurred in Perak in 2006.The third began in Johor in early 2008. The genome of the viruses suggests that on each occasion a different virus was introduced into the population. The first outbreak in Bagan Panchor was due to an Asian genotype virus. The second in the Kinta district of Perak in late 2006 was due to a Central/East African genotype virus. Contact tracing was even able to discover the patient who was the source of the virus from the Indian subcontinent. The third outbreak in Johor was also of a Central/East African strain of virus, but introduced independently. The epidemiology of that outbreak is described in this issue of the MJM.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  6. Oommen RM
    Aust N Z J Surg, 1994 Jan;64(1):22-3.
    PMID: 8267532 DOI: 10.1111/j.1445-2197.1994.tb02128.x
    The Medical Department of Sabah, in collaboration with various governmental and non-governmental agencies and 'Surgeons International' conducted a state-wide campaign for the 'Early Detection of Cancer' over a period of 3 months from July 1992. The purpose of the campaign was to educate the population about the early signs and symptoms of common cancers, to remove the myth that cancer was incurable and to impress on the public the need to detect cancer early for a possible cure and a better prognosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  7. Lim VK, Cheong YM
    Malays J Pathol, 1992 Jun;14(1):41-3.
    PMID: 1469917
    A turnaround time study was conducted for bacteriological culture tests in seven Malaysian general hospitals. The turnaround times were determined using a specially designed form that was completed by the ward staff. Doctors at these hospitals were also polled to find out whether they were satisfied with the promptness of bacteriological test reporting in their hospitals. The turnaround times obtained from this survey were found to be satisfactory taking into account the constraints of laboratory methods employed. Nevertheless only about a third of doctors expressed satisfaction with the timeliness of the bacteriological test reporting. Doctors and microbiologists should get together and agree on acceptable standards of turnaround times that are practical and reasonable.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  8. Lim VK
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1991 Dec;46(4):298-300.
    PMID: 1840435
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  9. Shahabudin SH, Safiah N
    Med Teach, 1991;13(3):205-11.
    PMID: 1745110
    Three years ago the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia medical school changed its curriculum from the traditional discipline based curriculum to the integrated organ-system approach. Once change was effected a process of 'refreezing' had to be initiated whereby new responses had to be reintegrated into the ongoing personality or emotional relationships of important people so that the change process will endure and become stable. During this refreezing process the faculty encountered several problems which could thwart further development of the new curricula if left unresolved. The nature of the problems seemed to indicate that curricular change involves more than just efforts at bettering the what and ways of student learning and assessment. A lot of energy was also spent on keeping things going, keeping people motivated, making sure the work was done (at least as well as it has in the past), looking for better ways to do things, weighing new solutions and to be alert to new problems. In ensuring the continuance of change it was important to ensure, from the outset the institutionalization of policies, programmes, procedures and practices for continuing reward, routinization, structural integration into the system, continuing evaluation and providing for continuing maintenance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  10. Chiam CW, Chan YF, Sam IC
    Int J STD AIDS, 2010 Jun;21(6):450-1.
    PMID: 20606232 DOI: 10.1258/ijsa.2010.009569
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  11. Rivai IF, Koyama H, Suzuki S
    Bull Environ Contam Toxicol, 1990 Jun;44(6):910-6.
    PMID: 2354269
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  12. Boo NY
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1989 Mar;44(1):35-40.
    PMID: 2626112
    Over a seven month period in 1986, 164 (1.1%) of a total 15,131 neonates delivered in the Maternity Hospital, Kuala Lumpur were born to mothers with prolonged rupture of the fetal membranes. Septic work-ups were performed on 163 of these babies shortly after birth, 77 of them had no bacteriological, radiological or other clinical evidence of infection. The remaining 86 had additional history of illness. Nine of these 86 babies had proven infection: four with septicemia, one with meningitis and four others with congenital pneumonia. This study showed that neonates had risk of infection only when maternal history of prolonged rupture of the fetal membranes was associated with other clinical evidence of infection. However, even in this group of neonates at risk, 89.5% of them were not infected. Therefore, there is still a need to develop a simple, rapid, reliable and cheap laboratory method to help early identification of the infected from the non-infected neonates in order to prevent unnecessary antibiotic treatment and hospital stay.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  13. Lee CH, Ngeow YF
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1983 Mar;38(1):23-6.
    PMID: 6633329
    Genital discharge from patients unth. smear positive gonorrhoea was transported from the clinic to the laboratory in. Stuart's transport medium (Oxoid CM 111). Within. six hours of transit time the recovery rate of gonococci was 94%. When compared with "bedside" inoculation onto Modified Thayer Martin medium, there was no significant difference in recovery rates up to 6 hours of transportation in Stuart's transport medium, However, the rate of isolation of gonococci was significantly reduced after 20 to 30 hours of transportation. It is concluded that Stuart's transport medium is an acceptable transport medium for specimens containing gonococci when specimens reach the laboratory within 6 hours of collection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  14. Zuha RM, Kurahashi H, Chin HC, Osman K, Rashid RA, Hassan RA, et al.
    Trop Biomed, 2009 Aug;26(2):216-8.
    PMID: 19901908
    Myospila pudica pudica (Stein, 1915) (Diptera: Muscidae) was recorded for the first time in Malaysia during a forensic entomological study conducted at a forested area of Forensic Science Simulation Site, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor. This species can be differentiated from other species of its genus by having R1 setulose on dorsal surface and R4+5 more or less setulose dorsally and ventrally. The legs, including tarsi, are testaceous yellow and palpi blackish. Lateral and ventral surface of scutellum bare below the level of bristles and the third antennal segment is brownish yellow. Other features including the diverging of inner margin of lower squama from scutellum margin. This is also the first report on the occurence of M. pudica pudica (Stein, 1915) on animal carcass.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  15. Nurita AT, Abu Hassan A, Nur Aida H, Norasmah B
    Trop Biomed, 2008 Aug;25(2):126-33.
    PMID: 18948883
    The efficacy and residual efficacy of commercial baits, Quick Bayt (0.5% w/w imidacloprid) and Agita (10.0% w/w thiamethoxam) against synanthropic flies were evaluated under field conditions. Efficacy was evaluated based on knockdown percentage (KD %). The bait efficacy and residual efficacy evaluation were conducted for a period of 3 weeks and 6 weeks respectively. Baits were applied onto bait targets and placed on fly-count targets to facilitate the counting of flies. All baits were applied according to the manufacturer's recommended application rate. Three replicate treatments for each type of bait were placed at the study site each week. The number of flies feeding on baits and the knocked down flies were counted and collected. The efficacy of Agita and Quick Bayt did not differ significantly (t-test, P>0.05) over the 3-week period, even though Quick Bayt had a slightly higher KD% than Agita. In the residual efficacy evaluation, the (knockdown) KD% of Quick Bayt was consistent at around 36% for the first five weeks but dropped to 33.8 +/- 0.4% on the sixth week. The KD% for Agita on the first week was 33.6 +/- 12.2% and remained relatively consistent for the first 4 weeks at around 31%. KD% dropped to 16.7 +/- 3.3% on week 5 and to 15.7 +/- 1.2% on week 6. The difference in residual efficacy of the two baits was significant (t-test, p < 0.05).
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  16. Mumtaz T, Khan MR, Hassan MA
    Micron, 2010 Jul;41(5):430-8.
    PMID: 20207547 DOI: 10.1016/j.micron.2010.02.008
    An outdoor soil burial test was carried out to evaluate the degradation of commercially available LDPE carrier bags in natural soil for up to 2 years. Biodegradability of low density polyethylene films in soil was monitored using both optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). After 7-9 months of soil exposure, microbial colonization was evident on the film surface. Exposed LDPE samples exhibit progressive changes towards degradation after 17-22 months. SEM images reveal signs of degradation such as exfoliation and formation of cracks on film leading to disintegration. The possible degradation mode and consequences on the use and disposal of LDPE films is discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  17. Shah CH, Ismail IM, Mohsin SS
    PMID: 19062707
    This study provided data by a simple method of acquiring information related to ambulance response time (ART) and determined whether it met the international standards of ART. Additionally, this paper also compared the duration of ART at this hospital before and after the implementation of an Emergency Medical Dispatcher (EMD) program. The ART, which started when details like phone number of the caller, exact location of the incident and the nature of the main complaint were received and ended when the emergency team arrived at the scene of the incident. The parameters recorded include call processing time, time taken to prepare the team and time taken to travel to the scene. The results of the study revealed that the ART for the university hospital (HUSM) was at 913.2 +/- 276.5 seconds (mean +/- SD) and it was far below the international standard of ART as a benchmark of a good ambulance service. However, the study suggested that the EMD program that was recently implemented at the HUSM gave a significantly improvement to the ART score.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  18. Ferreira CWS, Atan IK, Martin A, Shek KL, Dietz HP
    Int Urogynecol J, 2017 Oct;28(10):1499-1505.
    PMID: 28285396 DOI: 10.1007/s00192-017-3297-4
    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Female pelvic organ prolapse is highly prevalent and childbirth has been shown to be an important risk factor. The study was carried out to observe if pelvic organ support deteriorates over time following a first birth.

    METHODS: This is a retrospective review using archived data sets of women seen in the context of two prospective perinatal imaging studies. All subjects had undergone a standardised interview, a clinical examination and 4D translabial ultrasound, 3 months and 2-5 years post-partum. Main outcome measures were pelvic organ descent and hiatal area at maximum Valsalva manoeuvre. Means at the two time points were compared using paired Student's t test. Predictors of change over time in continuous variables were explored using linear modelling methods.

    RESULTS: A total of 300 women had at least two postnatal follow-ups. They were first seen on average 0.39 (SD 0.2, range 0.2-2.1) years and again 3.1 (SD 1.5, range 1.4-8) years after the index delivery, with a mean interval of 2.71 (SD 1.5, range 0.7-7.7) years, providing a total of 813 (300 × 2.71) woman-years of observation. On univariate analysis, there was a significant decrease in mobility over time of the bladder neck, bladder, and rectal ampulla (P = < 0.004) and hiatal area (P = 0.012). The degree of improvement was less marked in women with levator avulsion.

    CONCLUSIONS: A significant reduction in pelvic organ descent and hiatal area was noted over a mean of 2.7 years after a first birth.

    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
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