Searches are presented for direct production of top or bottom squark pairs in protonproton collisions at the CERN LHC. Two searches, based on complementary techniques, are performed in alljet final states that are characterized by a significant imbalance in transverse momentum. An additional search requires the presence of a charged lepton isolated from other activity in the event. The data were collected in 2015 at a centreofmass energy of 13[Formula: see text] with the CMS detector and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 2.3[Formula: see text]. No statistically significant excess of events is found beyond the expected contribution from standard model processes. Exclusion limits are set in the context of simplified models of top or bottom squark pair production. Models with top and bottom squark masses up to 830 and 890[Formula: see text], respectively, are probed for light neutralinos. For models with top squark masses of 675[Formula: see text], neutralino masses up to 260[Formula: see text] are excluded at 95% confidence level.
Normalized doubledifferential cross sections for top quark pair ([Formula: see text]) production are measured in pp collisions at a centreofmass energy of 8[Formula: see text] with the CMS experiment at the LHC. The analyzed data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 19.7[Formula: see text]. The measurement is performed in the dilepton [Formula: see text] final state. The [Formula: see text] cross section is determined as a function of various pairs of observables characterizing the kinematics of the top quark and [Formula: see text] system. The data are compared to calculations using perturbative quantum chromodynamics at nexttoleading and approximate nexttonexttoleading orders. They are also compared to predictions of Monte Carlo event generators that complement fixedorder computations with parton showers, hadronization, and multipleparton interactions. Overall agreement is observed with the predictions, which is improved when the latest global sets of proton parton distribution functions are used. The inclusion of the measured [Formula: see text] cross sections in a fit of parametrized parton distribution functions is shown to have significant impact on the gluon distribution.
A measurement of the top quark mass is reported in events containing a single top quark produced via the electroweak t channel. The analysis is performed using data from protonproton collisions collected with the CMS detector at the LHC at a centreofmass energy of 8 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb[Formula: see text]. Top quark candidates are reconstructed from their decay to a [Formula: see text] boson and a b quark, with the [Formula: see text] boson decaying leptonically to a muon and a neutrino. The final state signature and kinematic properties of single top quark events in the t channel are used to enhance the purity of the sample, suppressing the contribution from top quark pair production. A fit to the invariant mass distribution of reconstructed top quark candidates yields a value of the top quark mass of [Formula: see text]. This result is in agreement with the current world average, and represents the first measurement of the top quark mass in event topologies not dominated by top quark pair production, therefore contributing to future averages with partially uncorrelated systematic uncertainties and a largely uncorrelated statistical uncertainty.
A search for new phenomena is performed in final states containing one or more jets and an imbalance in transverse momentum in pp collisions at a centreofmass energy of 13[Formula: see text]. The analysed data sample, recorded with the CMS detector at the CERN LHC, corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 2.3[Formula: see text]. Several kinematic variables are employed to suppress the dominant background, multijet production, as well as to discriminate between other standard model and new physics processes. The search provides sensitivity to a broad range of newphysics models that yield a stable weakly interacting massive particle. The number of observed candidate events is found to agree with the expected contributions from standard model processes, and the result is interpreted in the mass parameter space of fourteen simplified supersymmetric models that assume the pair production of gluinos or squarks and a range of decay modes. For models that assume gluino pair production, masses up to 1575 and 975[Formula: see text] are excluded for gluinos and neutralinos, respectively. For models involving the pair production of top squarks and compressed mass spectra, top squark masses up to 400[Formula: see text] are excluded.
The production cross section of a W boson in association with two b jets is measured using a sample of protonproton collisions at [Formula: see text] collected by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 19.8[Formula: see text]. The W bosons are reconstructed via their leptonic decays, [Formula: see text], where [Formula: see text] or [Formula: see text]. The fiducial region studied contains exactly one lepton with transverse momentum [Formula: see text] and pseudorapidity [Formula: see text], with exactly two b jets with [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] and no other jets with [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. The cross section is measured to be [Formula: see text]+[Formula: see text], in agreement with standard model predictions.
The cross section of top quarkantiquark pair production in protonproton collisions at [Formula: see text] is measured by the CMS experiment at the LHC, using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.2[Formula: see text]. The measurement is performed by analyzing events in which the final state includes one electron, one muon, and two or more jets, at least one of which is identified as originating from hadronization of a b quark. The measured cross section is [Formula: see text], in agreement with the expectation from the standard model.
The nuclear modification factor [Formula: see text] and the azimuthal anisotropy coefficient [Formula: see text] of prompt and nonprompt (i.e. those from decays of b hadrons) [Formula: see text] mesons, measured from PbPb and pp collisions at [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] at the LHC, are reported. The results are presented in several event centrality intervals and several kinematic regions, for transverse momenta [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] and rapidity [Formula: see text], extending down to [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] in the [Formula: see text] range. The [Formula: see text] of prompt [Formula: see text] is found to be nonzero, but with no strong dependence on centrality, rapidity, or [Formula: see text] over the full kinematic range studied. The measured [Formula: see text] of nonprompt [Formula: see text] is consistent with zero. The [Formula: see text] of prompt [Formula: see text] exhibits a suppression that increases from peripheral to central collisions but does not vary strongly as a function of either y or [Formula: see text] in the fiducial range. The nonprompt [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] shows a suppression which becomes stronger as rapidity or [Formula: see text] increases. The [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] of open and hidden charm, and of open charm and beauty, are compared.
This paper reports the measurement of [Formula: see text] meson production in protonproton ([Formula: see text]) and protonlead ([Formula: see text]) collisions at a centerofmass energy per nucleon pair of [Formula: see text] by the CMS experiment at the LHC. The data samples used in the analysis correspond to integrated luminosities of 28[Formula: see text] and 35[Formula: see text] for [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] collisions, respectively. Prompt and nonprompt [Formula: see text] mesons, the latter produced in the decay of [Formula: see text] hadrons, are measured in their dimuon decay channels. Differential cross sections are measured in the transverse momentum range of [Formula: see text], and centerofmass rapidity ranges of [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) and [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]). The nuclear modification factor, [Formula: see text], is measured as a function of both [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. Small modifications to the [Formula: see text] cross sections are observed in [Formula: see text] relative to [Formula: see text] collisions. The ratio of [Formula: see text] production cross sections in [Formula: see text]going and Pbgoing directions, [Formula: see text], studied as functions of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], shows a significant decrease for increasing transverse energy deposited at large pseudorapidities. These results, which cover a wide kinematic range, provide new insight on the role of cold nuclear matter effects on prompt and nonprompt [Formula: see text] production.
The WZ production cross section is measured by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC in protonproton collision data samples corresponding to integrated luminosities of 4.9[Formula: see text] collected at [Formula: see text], and 19.6[Formula: see text] at [Formula: see text]. The measurements are performed using the fullyleptonic WZ decay modes with electrons and muons in the final state. The measured cross sections for [Formula: see text] are [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text]. Differential cross sections with respect to the [Formula: see text] boson [Formula: see text], the leading jet [Formula: see text], and the number of jets are obtained using the [Formula: see text] data. The results are consistent with standard model predictions and constraints on anomalous triple gauge couplings are obtained.
The first measurement of the jet mass [Formula: see text] of top quark jets produced in [Formula: see text] events from pp collisions at [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] is reported for the jet with the largest transverse momentum [Formula: see text] in highly boosted hadronic top quark decays. The data sample, collected with the CMS detector, corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 19.7[Formula: see text]. The measurement is performed in the lepton+jets channel in which the products of the semileptonic decay [Formula: see text] with [Formula: see text] where [Formula: see text] is an electron or muon, are used to select [Formula: see text] events with large Lorentz boosts. The products of the fully hadronic decay [Formula: see text] with [Formula: see text] are reconstructed using a single CambridgeAachen jet with distance parameter [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text]. The [Formula: see text] cross section as a function of [Formula: see text] is unfolded at the particle level and is used to test the modelling of highly boosted top quark production. The peak position of the [Formula: see text] distribution is sensitive to the top quark mass [Formula: see text], and the data are used to extract a value of [Formula: see text] to assess this sensitivity.
A measurement of the top quark pair production ([Formula: see text]) cross section in protonproton collisions at the centreofmass energy of 8[Formula: see text] is presented using data collected with the CMS detector at the LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.6[Formula: see text]. This analysis is performed in the [Formula: see text] decay channels with one isolated, high transverse momentum electron or muon and at least four jets, at least one of which is required to be identified as originating from hadronization of a b quark. The calibration of the jet energy scale and the efficiency of b jet identification are determined from data. The measured [Formula: see text] cross section is [Formula: see text]. This measurement is compared with an analysis of 7[Formula: see text] data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.0[Formula: see text], to determine the ratio of 8[Formula: see text] to 7[Formula: see text] cross sections, which is found to be [Formula: see text]. The measurements are in agreement with QCD predictions up to nexttonexttoleading order.
, decaying to final states containing a vector boson and a Higgs boson, is presented. The search considers hadronic decays of the vector boson, and Higgs boson decays to b quarks. The decay products are highly boosted, and each collimated pair of quarks is reconstructed as a single, massive jet. The analysis is performed using a data sample collected in 2016 by the CMS experiment at the LHC in protonproton collisions at a centerofmass energy of 13
TeV
, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35.9
fb
 1
. The data are consistent with the background expectation and are used to place limits on the parameters of a theoretical model with a heavy vector triplet. In the benchmark scenario with massdegenerate
W
'
and
Z
'
bosons decaying predominantly to pairs of standard model bosons, for the first time heavy resonances for masses as high as 3.3
TeV
are excluded at 95% confidence level, setting the most stringent constraints to date on such states decaying into a vector boson and a Higgs boson.
A data sample of events from protonproton collisions with two isolated samesign leptons, missing transverse momentum, and jets is studied in a search for signatures of new physics phenomena by the CMS Collaboration at the LHC. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 35.9
fb
 1
, and a centerofmass energy of 13
TeV
. The properties of the events are consistent with expectations from standard model processes, and no excess yield is observed. Exclusion limits at 95% confidence level are set on cross sections for the pair production of gluinos, squarks, and samesign top quarks, as well as topquark associated production of a heavy scalar or pseudoscalar boson decaying to top quarks, and on the standard model production of events with four top quarks. The observed lower mass limits are as high as 1500
GeV
for gluinos, 830
GeV
for bottom squarks. The excluded mass range for heavy (pseudo)scalar bosons is 350360 (350410)
GeV
. Additionally, modelindependent limits in several topological regions are provided, allowing for further interpretations of the results.
A measurement is presented of the tripledifferential dijet cross section at a centreofmass energy of 8
TeV
using 19.7
fb 1
of data collected with the CMS detector in protonproton collisions at the LHC. The cross section is measured as a function of the average transverse momentum, half the rapidity separation, and the boost of the two leading jets in the event. The cross section is corrected for detector effects and compared to calculations in perturbative quantum chromodynamics at nexttoleading order accuracy, complemented with electroweak and nonperturbative corrections. New constraints on parton distribution functions are obtained and the inferred value of the strong coupling constant is
Measurements of the associated production of a Z boson with at least one jet originating from a b quark in protonproton collisions at
s
= 8
TeV
are presented. Differential cross sections are measured with data collected by the CMS experiment corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.8
fb
 1
. Z bosons are reconstructed through their decays to electrons and muons. Cross sections are measured as a function of observables characterizing the kinematics of the b jet and the Z boson. Ratios of differential cross sections for the associated production with at least one b jet to the associated production with any jet are also presented. The production of a Z boson with at least two b jets is investigated, and differential cross sections are measured for the dijet system. Results are compared to theoretical predictions, testing two different flavour schemes for the choice of initialstate partons.
A search is presented for an excess of events with heavyflavor quark pairs (
t
t ¯
and
b
b ¯
) and a large imbalance in transverse momentum in data from protonproton collisions at a centerofmass energy of 13
TeV
. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 2.2
fb
 1
collected with the CMS detector at the CERN LHC. No deviations are observed with respect to standard model predictions. The results are used in the first interpretation of dark matter production in
t
t ¯
and
b
b ¯
final states in a simplified model. This analysis is also the first to perform a statistical combination of searches for dark matter produced with different heavyflavor final states. The combination provides exclusions that are stronger than those achieved with individual heavyflavor final states.
The azimuthal anisotropy Fourier coefficients (v_{n}) in 8.16 TeV p+Pb data are extracted via longrange twoparticle correlations as a function of the event multiplicity and compared to corresponding results in pp and PbPb collisions. Using a fourparticle cumulant technique, v_{n} correlations are measured for the first time in pp and p+Pb collisions. The v_{2} and v_{4} coefficients are found to be positively correlated in all collision systems. For highmultiplicity p+Pb collisions, an anticorrelation of v_{2} and v_{3} is observed, with a similar correlation strength as in PbPb data at the same multiplicity. The new correlation results strengthen the case for a common origin of the collectivity seen in p+Pb and PbPb collisions in the measured multiplicity range.
The relative yields of ϒ mesons produced in pp and PbPb collisions at sqrt[s_{NN}]=5.02 TeV and reconstructed via the dimuon decay channel are measured using data collected by the CMS experiment. Double ratios are formed by comparing the yields of the excited states, ϒ(2S) and ϒ(3S), to the ground state, ϒ(1S), in both PbPb and pp collisions at the same centerofmass energy. The double ratios, [ϒ(nS)/ϒ(1S)]_{PbPb}/[ϒ(nS)/ϒ(1S)]_{pp}, are measured to be 0.308±0.055(stat)±0.019(syst) for the ϒ(2S) and less than 0.26 at 95% confidence level for the ϒ(3S). No significant ϒ(3S) signal is found in the PbPb data. The double ratios are studied as a function of collision centrality, as well as ϒ transverse momentum and rapidity. No significant dependencies are observed.
The prompt D^{0} meson azimuthal anisotropy coefficients, v_{2} and v_{3}, are measured at midrapidity (y<1.0) in PbPb collisions at a centerofmass energy sqrt[s_{NN}]=5.02 TeV per nucleon pair with data collected by the CMS experiment. The measurement is performed in the transverse momentum (p_{T}) range of 1 to 40 GeV/c, for central and midcentral collisions. The v_{2} coefficient is found to be positive throughout the p_{T} range studied. The first measurement of the prompt D^{0} meson v_{3} coefficient is performed, and values up to 0.07 are observed for p_{T} around 4 GeV/c. Compared to measurements of charged particles, a similar p_{T} dependence, but smaller magnitude for p_{T}<6 GeV/c, is found for prompt D^{0} meson v_{2} and v_{3} coefficients. The results are consistent with the presence of collective motion of charm quarks at low p_{T} and a path length dependence of charm quark energy loss at high p_{T}, thereby providing new constraints on the theoretical description of the interactions between charm quarks and the quarkgluon plasma.
A study of the associated production of a Z boson and a charm quark jet (
Z + c
), and a comparison to production with a b quark jet (
Z + b
), in
p p
collisions at a centreofmass energy of 8
TeV
are presented. The analysis uses a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7
fb
 1
, collected with the CMS detector at the CERN LHC. The Z boson candidates are identified through their decays into pairs of electrons or muons. Jets originating from heavy flavour quarks are identified using semileptonic decays of c or b flavoured hadrons and hadronic decays of charm hadrons. The measurements are performed in the kinematic region with two leptons with
p
T
ℓ
> 20
GeV
,

η ℓ

< 2.1
,
71 <
m
ℓ ℓ
< 111
GeV
, and heavy flavour jets with
p
T
jet
> 25
GeV
and

η jet

< 2.5
. The
Z + c
production cross section is measured to be
σ
( p p → Z + c + X )
B
( Z →
ℓ +
ℓ 
)
= 8.8 ± 0.5
(stat) ± 0.6
(syst)
pb
. The ratio of the
Z + c
and
Z + b
production cross sections is measured to be
σ ( p p → Z + c + X ) / σ ( p p → Z + b + X ) = 2.0 ± 0.2
(stat) ± 0.2
(syst)
. The
Z + c
production cross section and the cross section ratio are also measured as a function of the transverse momentum of the Z boson and of the heavy flavour jet. The measurements are compared with theoretical predictions.