Displaying publications 41 - 60 of 109 in total

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  1. Rahumatullah A, Yunus MH, Tye GJ, Noordin R
    Am J Trop Med Hyg, 2020 03;102(3):578-581.
    PMID: 31933469 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.19-0777
    This study investigated the applications of recombinant monoclonal antibodies (rmAbs) produced against two recombinant filarial proteins of diagnostic value. Ab5B and Ab3A were produced against recombinant BmSXP, and Ab4 and Ab4-fragment crystallizable (Fc) against recombinant BmR1. Ab5B and Ab4-Fc were found to be useful as quality control (QC) reagents for two commercial rapid test kits, such as Brugia RapidTM and BLF Rapid® (Reszon Diagnostics International Sdn. Bhd., 47600 Subang Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia), respectively. The two rmAbs reacted positively with the corresponding recombinant proteins lined on the nitrocellulose strips of the cassette tests, thus may replace or reduce the need for patient serum samples as positive controls for QC of the commercial kits. They were also successfully conjugated to gold nanoparticles and reacted positively with the test lines containing the corresponding recombinant proteins when directly applied to the cassette tests. The gold-conjugated reagents can be used to confirm the antigenicity of test lines after the storage of the rapid tests for a prolonged period or under unfavorable conditions. Furthermore, Ab5B and Ab3A were shown to be able to capture the target recombinant proteins through immunoaffinity purification, enabling their use for applications that need very highly purified proteins. In conclusion, this study demonstrated several potential uses of rmAb proteins produced against recombinant filarial proteins.
  2. Yahaya ML, Zakaria ND, Noordin R, Abdul Razak K
    PMID: 32935878 DOI: 10.1002/bab.2029
    Salmonella and Shigella genera are common pathogens that contaminate foods and beverages. Lateral flow assays (LFA) are commonly used to detect these pathogens. However, most of the developed LFAs are for single detection. Simultaneous detection of pathogens is required to reduce cost and time. In this work, 40 nm gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were synthesized using the seeding growth method as labeling agent. The AuNPs were characterized and conjugated with mouse anti-Gram negative endotoxin antibody. The nitrocellulose membrane HF135 was immobilized with anti-mouse IgG antibody as a control line and two separate test lines with either anti-Shigella or anti-Salmonella antibody, respectively. Color intensity of test lines was observed for positive samples. A milk sample was used as proof of concept to mimic actual contamination. The limit of detection of the LFA was 3.0 × 106 CFU/mL for multiplex detection of Shigella flexneri and Salmonella Typhi and for both single detections. The result was comparable with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis. The produced LFA could differentiate between Shigella flexneri, Shigella boydii, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Salmonella Typhi. The developed LFA was able to identify Shigella flexneri and Salmonella Typhi with good sensitivity in milk samples, thus, beneficial to ensure the safety of food before entering the market.
  3. Rahumatullah A, Ahmad A, Noordin R, Lim TS
    Mol Immunol, 2015 Oct;67(2 Pt B):512-23.
    PMID: 26277276 DOI: 10.1016/j.molimm.2015.07.040
    Phage display technology is an important tool for antibody generation or selection. This study describes the development of a scFv library and the subsequent analysis of identified monoclonal antibodies against BmSXP, a recombinant antigen for lymphatic filariasis. The immune library was generated from blood of lymphatic filariasis infected individuals. A TA based intermediary cloning approach was used to increase cloning efficiency for the library construction process. A diverse immune scFv library of 10(8) was generated. Six unique monoclonal antibodies were identified from the 50 isolated clones against BmSXP. Analysis of the clones showed a bias for the IgHV3 and Vκ1 (45.5%) and IgHV2 and Vκ3 (27.3%) gene family. The most favored J segment for light chain is IgKJ1 (45.5%). The most favored D and J segment for heavy chain are IgHD6-13 (75%) and IgHJ3 (47.7%). The information may suggest a predisposition of certain V genes in antibody responses against lymphatic filariasis.
  4. Noordin R, Yunus MH, Tan Farrizam SN, Arifin N
    Adv Parasitol, 2020;109:131-152.
    PMID: 32381194 DOI: 10.1016/bs.apar.2020.01.003
    Toxocariasis is a human infection primarily caused by larvae of Toxocara canis from dogs, and also by T. cati from cats. Children have a more significant risk of acquiring the infection due to their closer contact with pets, and greater chances of ingesting soil. Diagnosis of toxocariasis is based on clinical, epidemiological, and serological data. Indirect IgG ELISA is a widely used serodiagnostic method for toxocariasis, with native T. canis TES most commonly used as the antigen. Western blots, using the same antigen, can be used to confirm positive ELISA findings to reduce false-positive results. Improvements in Toxocara serodiagnosis include the use of recombinant TES antigens, simpler and more rapid assay formats, and IgG4 subclass detection. Also, incorporation of recombinant T. cati TES protein increases the diagnostic sensitivity. Development of antigen detection tests using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies, nanobodies, or aptamers can complement the antibody detection assays, and enhance the effectiveness of the serodiagnosis.
  5. Yunus MH, Arifin N, Balachandra D, Anuar NS, Noordin R
    Am J Trop Med Hyg, 2019 08;101(2):432-435.
    PMID: 31218996 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.19-0053
    The conventional method of detecting Strongyloides stercoralis in fecal samples has poor diagnostic sensitivity. Detection of Strongyloides-specific antibodies increases the sensitivity; however, most tests are ELISAs that use parasite extract which may cross-react with the sera of other helminth infections. To improve the serological diagnosis of strongyloidiasis, this study aimed at developing a sensitive and specific lateral flow rapid dipstick test. Two recombinant proteins, recombinant NIE (rNIE) and recombinant Ss1a (rSs1a), were used in preparing the dipstick, with gold-conjugated antihuman IgG4 as detector reagent. In parallel, the corresponding ELISA was performed. Both assays demonstrated diagnostic sensitivity of 91.3% (21/23) when tested with serum samples of patients with Strongyloides infection, and 100% specificity with 82 sera of asymptomatic (healthy) and those with other parasitic infections. The ELISA and dipstick test results were positively correlated to each other (r = 0.6114, P = 0.0019). The developed lateral flow dipstick test may improve the serodiagnosis of strongyloidiasis and merit further validation studies.
  6. Khor BY, Lim TS, Noordin R, Choong YS
    J Mol Graph Model, 2017 09;76:543-550.
    PMID: 28811153 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmgm.2017.07.004
    De novo approach was applied to design single chain fragment variable (scFv) for BmR1, a recombinant antigen from Bm17DIII gene which is the primary antigen used for the detection of anti-BmR1 IgG4 antibodies in the diagnostic of lymphatic filariasis. Three epitopes of the BmR1 was previously predicted form an ab initio derived three-dimensional structure. A collection of energetically favourable conformations was generated via hot-spot-centric approach. This resulted in a set of three different scFv scaffolds used to compute the high shape complementary conformations via dock-and-design approach with the predicted epitopes of BmR1. A total of 4227 scFv designs were generated where 200 scFv designs produced binding energies of less than -20 R.E.U with shape complementarity higher than 0.5. We further selected the design with at least one hydrogen bond and one salt bridge with the epitope, thus resulted in a total of 10, 1 and 19 sFv designs for epitope 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The results thus showed that de novo design can be an alternative approach to yield high affinity in silico scFv designs as a starting point for antibody or specific binder discovery processes.
  7. Othman N, Zainudin NS, Mohamed Z, Yahya MM, Leow VM, Noordin R
    Trop Biomed, 2013 Jun;30(2):257-66.
    PMID: 23959491 MyJurnal
    The protein profile of serum samples from patients with amoebic liver abscess (ALA) was compared to those of normal individuals to determine their expression levels and to identify potential surrogate disease markers. Serum samples were resolved by two dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by image analysis. The up and down-regulated protein spots were excised from the gels and analysed by MS/MS. The concentration of three clusters of proteins i.e. haptoglobin (HP), α1-antitrypsin (AAT) and transferrin in serum samples of ALA patients and healthy controls were compared using competitive ELISA. In addition, serum concentrations of HP and transferrin in samples of patients with ALA and pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) were also compared. The results of the protein 2-DE expression analysis showed that HP cluster, AAT cluster, one spot each from unknown spots no. 1 and 2 were significantly up-regulated and transferrin cluster was significantly down-regulated in ALA patients' sera (p<0.05). The MS/MS analysis identified the unknown protein spot no.1 as human transcript and haptoglobin and spot no. 2 as albumin. Competitive ELISA which compared concentrations of selected proteins in sera of ALA and healthy controls verified the up-regulated expression (p<0.05) of HP and the down-regulated expression (p<0.01) of transferrin in the former, while there was no significant difference in AAT expression (p> 0.05). However, when ALA and PLA samples were compared, competitive ELISA showed significant increased concentration of HP (p<0.05) while transferrin levels were not different. In conclusion, this study showed that HP is a potential surrogate disease marker for ALA.
  8. Khalilpour A, Osman S, Yunus MH, Santhanam A, Vellasamy N, Noordin R
    BMC Res Notes, 2014;7:809.
    PMID: 25406411 DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-7-809
    Helicobacter pylori is a human pathogen and during the process of infection, antigens from the bacterium elicit strong host humoral immune responses. In our previous report, native H. pylori UreG protein showed good reactivity with sera from H. pylori patients. This study was aimed at producing the recombinant form of the protein (rUreG) and determining its seroreactivities.
  9. Zueter AM, Mohamed Z, Abdullah AD, Mohamad N, Arifin N, Othman N, et al.
    Singapore Med J, 2014 Jul;55(7):367-71.
    PMID: 25091885
    INTRODUCTION: Strongyloidiasis is one of the most commonly neglected but clinically important parasitic infections worldwide, especially among immunocompromised patients. Evidence of infection among immunocompromised patients in Malaysia is, however, lacking. In this study, microscopy, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were used to detect Strongyloides stercoralis (S. stercoralis) infection among cancer patients in a Malaysian hospital.

    METHODS: A total of 192 stool and serum samples were collected from cancer patients who were receiving chemotherapy with or without steroid treatment at a hospital in northeastern Malaysia. Stool samples were examined for S. stercoralis using parasitological methods and real-time PCR. Serology by ELISA was performed to detect parasite-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgG4 and immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies. For comparison, IgG4- and IgG-ELISAs were also performed on the sera of 150 healthy individuals from the same area.

    RESULTS: Of the 192 samples examined, 1 (0.5%) sample was positive for S. stercoralis by microscopy, 3 (1.6%) by real-time PCR, 8 (4.2%) by IgG-ELISA, 6 (3.1%) by IgG4-ELISA, and none was positive by IgE-ELISA. In comparison, healthy blood donors had significantly lower prevalence of parasite-specific IgG (2.67%, p < 0.05) and IgG4 (2.67%, p < 0.05) responses.

    CONCLUSION: This study showed that laboratory testing may be considered as a diagnostic investigation for S. stercoralis among immunocompromised cancer patients.
  10. Khor BY, Tye GJ, Lim TS, Noordin R, Choong YS
    Int J Mol Sci, 2014;15(6):11082-99.
    PMID: 24950179 DOI: 10.3390/ijms150611082
    Brugia malayi is a filarial nematode, which causes lymphatic filariasis in humans. In 1995, the disease has been identified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as one of the second leading causes of permanent and long-term disability and thus it is targeted for elimination by year 2020. Therefore, accurate filariasis diagnosis is important for management and elimination programs. A recombinant antigen (BmR1) from the Bm17DIII gene product was used for antibody-based filariasis diagnosis in "Brugia Rapid". However, the structure and dynamics of BmR1 protein is yet to be elucidated. Here we study the three dimensional structure and dynamics of BmR1 protein using comparative modeling, threading and ab initio protein structure prediction. The best predicted structure obtained via an ab initio method (Rosetta) was further refined and minimized. A total of 5 ns molecular dynamics simulation were performed to investigate the packing of the protein. Here we also identified three epitopes as potential antibody binding sites from the molecular dynamics average structure. The structure and epitopes obtained from this study can be used to design a binder specific against BmR1, thus aiding future development of antigen-based filariasis diagnostics to complement the current diagnostics.
  11. Khalilpour A, Sadjjadi SM, Moghadam ZK, Yunus MH, Zakaria ND, Osman S, et al.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg, 2014 Nov;91(5):994-9.
    PMID: 25200268 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.14-0170
    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by infection with Echinococcus granulosus is of major concern for humans in many parts of the world. Antigen B was prepared from E. granulosus hydatid fluid, and Western blots confirmed eight batches showing a band corresponding to the 8-/12-kDa subunit with positive serum and no low-molecular mass band (< 15 kDa) with negative serum. The batches were pooled and used to prepare lateral flow immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) and IgG dipsticks. Diagnostic sensitivity was determined using serum samples from 21 hydatidosis patients, and diagnostic specificity was established using sera from 17 individuals infected with other parasites and 15 healthy people. IgG4 dipstick had a diagnostic sensitivity of 95% (20 of 21) and a specificity of 100% (32 of 32). The IgG dipstick had a sensitivity of 100% (21 of 21) and a specificity of 87.5% (28 of 32). Thus, both IgG and IgG4 dipsticks had high sensitivities, but IgG4 had greater specificity for the diagnosis of human CE.
  12. Saidin S, Yunus MH, Zakaria ND, Razak KA, Huat LB, Othman N, et al.
    BMC Infect Dis, 2014 Apr 04;14:182.
    PMID: 24708664 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-14-182
    BACKGROUND: Amoebic liver abscess (ALA) is the most common clinical manifestation of extraintestinal amoebiasis especially in developing countries, causing up to 100 000 fatal cases annually. Accurate and early diagnosis is important to prevent the disease complications, however its diagnosis still poses many challenges due to the limitations of the available detection tools. Pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK), an excretory-secretory protein of E. histolytica, has been reported as a potential diagnostic marker for ALA, hence it may be exploited in the development of a new test for ALA.

    METHODS: Recombinant PPDK (rPPDK) was expressed, purified and evaluated by Western blot. In parallel, recombinant galactose-and-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine inhibitable lectin (Gal/GalNAc lectin) was produced and tested similarly. The protein identity was confirmed by analysis using MALDI-TOF/TOF. A lateral flow dipstick (LFD) test using rPPDK was subsequently developed (rPPDK-LFD) and evaluated for serodiagnosis of ALA.

    RESULTS: rPPDK was expressed as soluble protein after 4 hours of induction with 1 mM isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) at 30°C. Purification using nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni-NTA) resin yielded 1.5 mg of rPPDK from 1 L of culture with estimated molecular mass of 98 kDa on SDS-PAGE. Western blots using sera from patients with ALA, healthy individuals and other diseases probed with anti-human IgG4-HRP showed the highest sensitivity (93.3%) and specificity (100%); as compared to blots using IgG and IgG1 as secondary antibodies. Moreover, rPPDK showed better specificity when compared to rGal/GalNAc lectin. In the development of the LFD test, the optimum amount of rPPDK was 0.625 μg per dipstick and the optimum working concentration of colloidal gold conjugated anti-human IgG4 was optical density (OD) 5 (1.7 μg of anti-human IgG4). Evaluation of rPPDK-LFD using ALA patients and controls serum samples showed 87% diagnostic sensitivity and 100% specificity.

    CONCLUSION: The developed rPPDK-LFD showed good potential for rapid diagnosis of ALA, and merit further multicentre validation using larger number of serum samples.

  13. Omar N, Loh Q, Tye GJ, Choong YS, Noordin R, Glökler J, et al.
    Sensors (Basel), 2013;14(1):346-55.
    PMID: 24379042 DOI: 10.3390/s140100346
    G-Quadruplex (G-4) structures are formed when G-rich DNA sequences fold into intra- or intermolecular four-stranded structures in the presence of metal ions. G-4-hemin complexes are often effective peroxidase-mimicking DNAzymes that are applied in many detection systems. This work reports the application of a G-rich daunomycin-specific aptamer for the development of an antibody-antigen detection assay. We investigated the ability of the daunomycin aptamer to efficiently catalyze the hemin-dependent peroxidase activity independent of daunomycin. A reporter probe consisting of biotinylated antigen and daunomycin aptamer coupled to streptavidin gold nanoparticles was successfully used to generate a colorimetric readout. In conclusion, the daunomycin aptamer can function as a robust alternative DNAzyme for the development of colorimetric assays.
  14. Supali T, Djuardi Y, Bradley M, Noordin R, Rückert P, Fischer PU
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2013;7(12):e2586.
    PMID: 24349595 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002586
    The lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia timori occurs only in eastern Indonesia where it causes high morbidity. The absence of an animal reservoir, the inefficient transmission by Anopheles mosquitoes and the high sensitivity to DEC/albendazole treatment make this species a prime candidate for elimination by mass drug administration (MDA).
  15. Khalilpour A, Santhanam A, Wei LC, Saadatnia G, Velusamy N, Osman S, et al.
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2013;14(3):1635-42.
    PMID: 23679248
    Helicobacter pylori antigen was prepared from an isolate from a patient with a duodenal ulcer. Serum samples were obtained from culture-positive H. pylori infected patients with duodenal ulcers, gastric ulcers and gastritis (n=30). As controls, three kinds of sera without detectable H. pylori IgG antibodies were used: 30 from healthy individuals without history of gastric disorders, 30 from patients who were seen in the endoscopy clinic but were H. pylori culture negative and 30 from people with other diseases. OFF-GEL electrophoresis, SDS-PAGE and Western blots of individual serum samples were used to identify protein bands with good sensitivity and specificity when probed with the above sera and HRP-conjugated anti-human IgG. Four H. pylori protein bands showed good (≥ 70%) sensitivity and high specificity (98-100%) towards anti-Helicobacter IgG antibody in culture- positive patients sera and control sera, respectively. The identities of the antigenic proteins were elucidated by mass spectrometry. The relative molecular weights and the identities of the proteins, based on MALDI TOF/ TOF, were as follows: CagI (25 kDa), urease G accessory protein (25 kDa), UreB (63 kDa) and proline/pyrroline- 5-carboxylate dehydrogenase (118 KDa). These identified proteins, singly and/or in combinations, may be useful for diagnosis of H. pylori infection in patients.
  16. Othman N, Mohamed Z, Yahya MM, Leow VM, Lim BH, Noordin R
    Exp Parasitol, 2013 Aug;134(4):504-10.
    PMID: 23680184 DOI: 10.1016/j.exppara.2013.05.001
    Entamoeba histolytica is a causative agent of amoebic liver abscess (ALA) and is endemic in many underdeveloped countries. We investigated antigenic E. histolytica proteins in liver abscess aspirates using proteomics approach. Pus samples were first tested by real-time PCR to confirm the presence of E. histolytica DNA and the corresponding serum samples tested for E. histolytica-specific IgG by a commercial ELISA. Proteins were extracted from three and one pool(s) of pus samples from ALA and PLA (pyogenic liver abscess) patients respectively, followed by analysis using isoelectric focussing, SDS-PAGE and Western blot. Unpurified pooled serum samples from infected hamsters and pooled human amoebic-specific IgG were used as primary antibodies. The antigenic protein band was excised from the gel, digested and analysed by MALDI-TOF/TOF and LC-MS/MS. The results using both primary antibodies showed an antigenic protein band of ∼14kDa. Based on the mass spectrum analysis, putative tyrosine kinase is the most probable identification of the antigenic band.
  17. Fong MY, Noordin R, Lau YL, Cheong FW, Yunus MH, Idris ZM
    Parasitology, 2013 Jan;140(1):39-45.
    PMID: 22917270 DOI: 10.1017/S0031182012001242
    Brugia malayi is one of the parasitic worms which causes lymphatic filariasis in humans. Its geographical distribution includes a large part of Asia. Despite its wide distribution, very little is known about the genetic variation and molecular epidemiology of this species. In this study, the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) nucleotide sequences of B. malayi from microfilaria-positive human blood samples in Northeast Borneo Island were determined, and compared with published ITS1 sequences of B. malayi isolated from cats and humans in Thailand. Multiple alignment analysis revealed that B. malayi ITS1 sequences from Northeast Borneo were more similar to each other than to those from Thailand. Phylogenetic trees inferred using Neighbour-Joining and Maximum Parsimony methods showed similar topology, with 2 distinct B. malayi clusters. The first cluster consisted of Northeast Borneo B. malayi isolates, whereas the second consisted of the Thailand isolates. The findings of this study suggest that B. malayi in Borneo Island has diverged significantly from those of mainland Asia, and this has implications for the diagnosis of B. malayi infection across the region using ITS1-based molecular techniques.
  18. Idris ZM, Yazdanbakhsh M, Adegnika AA, Lell B, Issifou S, Noordin R
    Genet Test Mol Biomarkers, 2012 Jun;16(6):488-92.
    PMID: 22288822 DOI: 10.1089/gtmb.2011.0209
    Urinary schistosomiasis is caused by the digenetic trematode Schistosoma haematobium, characterized by accumulation of eggs in the genitourinary tract. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) can play an important role in parasitic infection due to its major role as a negative regulator of T-cell activation and proliferation. This study was performed in patients with schistosomiasis and healthy controls to analyze the allele and genotype frequencies of four CTLA-4 gene polymorphisms. The CTLA-4 gene was amplified using Taqman real-time polymerase chain reaction, and allele and genotypes of 49 patients with schistosomiasis were analyzed using allelic discrimination analysis followed by subsequent direct sequencing. The results were compared with healthy control subjects. The frequencies of CTLA-4 rs733618 A allele at position -1722 (p=0.001), rs11571316 C allele at position -1577 (p<0.001), and rs231775 A allele at position +49 (p=0.002) in the patient group were significantly higher than the control group. The rs733618 AA genotype (p=0.001), rs11571316 CC genotype (p<0.001), and rs231775 AA genotype (p=0.007) were also significantly overrepresented. Meanwhile, rs733618 AG genotype (p=0.001), rs11571316 CT genotype (p=0.02), and rs231775 GG genotype (p=0.029) were significantly decreased in the patients with schistosomiasis, as compared with the controls. No significant difference was observed in both allele and genotype of rs16841252. The results of this study suggest that the rs733618, rs11571316, and rs231775 polymorphisms in the CTLA-4 gene may influence susceptibility to schistosomiasis infection in the Gabonese children.
  19. Wong WK, Tan ZN, Othman N, Lim BH, Mohamed Z, Olivos Garcia A, et al.
    Clin. Vaccine Immunol., 2011 Nov;18(11):1913-7.
    PMID: 21918120 DOI: 10.1128/CVI.05356-11
    Serodiagnosis of amoebiasis remains the preferred method for diagnosis of amoebic liver abscess (ALA). However, the commercially available kits are problematic in areas of endemicity due to the persistently high background antibody titers. Human serum samples (n = 38) from patients with ALA who live in areas of endemicity were collected from Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia during the period of 2008 to 2010. Western blots using excretory-secretory antigen (ESA) collected from axenically grown Entamoeba histolytica were probed with the above serum samples. Seven antigenic proteins of ESA with various reactivities were identified, i.e., 152 kDa, 131 kDa, 123 kDa, 110 kDa, 100 kDa, 82 kDa, and 76 kDa. However, only the 152-kDa and 110-kDa proteins showed sensitivities above 80% in the Western blot analysis. All the antigenic proteins showed undetectable cross-reactivity when probed with healthy human serum samples (n = 30) and serum samples from other infections (n = 33). From the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-two-stage time of flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) analysis, the proteins were identified as heavy subunits of E. histolytica lectin and E. histolytica pyruvate phosphate dikinase, respectively. Use of the E. histolytica lectin for diagnosis of ALA has been well reported by researchers and is being used in commercialized kits. However, this is the first report on the potential use of pyruvate phosphate dikinase for diagnosis of ALA; thus, this molecule merits further evaluation on its diagnostic value using a larger panel of serum samples.
  20. Idris ZM, Miswan N, Muhi J, Mohd TA, Kun JF, Noordin R
    Hum Immunol, 2011 Jul;72(7):607-12.
    PMID: 21513760 DOI: 10.1016/j.humimm.2011.03.017
    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a parasitic disease caused by threadlike worms of the Brugia and Wuchereria species that live in the human lymphatic system. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) may play a key role in the pathogenesis of LF, and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA4) expressed by Tregs is a potential candidate gene because it modulates T-cell activation. A case-control study was performed to establish a potential association of 5 CTLA4 gene promoter single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs733618, rs11571316, rs5742909, rs231775, and rs16840252) with the occurrence of LF in an East Malaysian population (320 LF-infected individuals and 150 healthy controls). Polymorphisms were evaluated using TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction followed by direct sequencing. LF carriers of the rs733618 AG genotypes (p = 0.02) and those with combined minor allele G carriers (AG + GG; p = 0.01) exhibited a significantly decreased risk for LF. Among the asymptomatic amicrofilaremic cases, positive associations were reported for all genotypes and variants of rs733618 with odds ratios (ORs) ranging from 0.27 to 0.45. In the asymptomatic microfilaremic cases, marker rs231775 exhibited a significant decreased risk, with ORs ranging from 0.50 to 0.57. The study has identified SNPs in the CTLA4 promoter gene that may be functionally linked with susceptibility to LF.
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