Displaying publications 41 - 60 of 250 in total

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  1. Yang Y, Swierczak A, Ibahim M, Paiva P, Cann L, Stevenson AW, et al.
    Radiother Oncol, 2019 04;133:93-99.
    PMID: 30935588 DOI: 10.1016/j.radonc.2019.01.006
    BACKGROUND: Synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a new, evolving form of radiotherapy that has potential for clinical application. Several studies have shown in preclinical models that synchrotron MRT achieves equivalent tumor control to conventional radiotherapy (CRT) but with significantly reduced normal tissue damage.

    METHODS: To explore differences between these two modalities, we assessed the immune cell infiltrate into EMT6.5 mammary tumors after CRT and MRT.

    RESULTS: CRT induced marked increases in tumor-associated macrophages and neutrophils while there were no increases in these populations following MRT. In contrast, there were higher numbers of T cells in the MRT treated tumors. There were also increased levels of CCL2 by immunohistochemistry in tumors subjected to CRT, but not to MRT. Conversely, we found that MRT induced higher levels of pro-inflammatory genes in tumors than CRT.

    CONCLUSION: Our data are the first to demonstrate substantial differences in macrophage, neutrophil and T cell numbers in tumors following MRT versus CRT, providing support for the concept that MRT evokes a different immunomodulatory response in tumors compared to CRT.

  2. Yang Y, Liew RK, Tamothran AM, Foong SY, Yek PNY, Chia PW, et al.
    Environ Chem Lett, 2021 Jan 13.
    PMID: 33462541 DOI: 10.1007/s10311-020-01177-5
    Dwindling fossil fuels and improper waste management are major challenges in the context of increasing population and industrialization, calling for new waste-to-energy sources. For instance, refuse-derived fuels can be produced from transformation of municipal solid waste, which is forecasted to reach 2.6 billion metric tonnes in 2030. Gasification is a thermal-induced chemical reaction that produces gaseous fuel such as hydrogen and syngas. Here, we review refuse-derived fuel gasification with focus on practices in various countries, recent progress in gasification, gasification modelling and economic analysis. We found that some countries that replace coal by refuse-derived fuel reduce CO2 emission by 40%, and decrease the amount municipal solid waste being sent to landfill by more than 50%. The production cost of energy via refuse-derived fuel gasification is estimated at 0.05 USD/kWh. Co-gasification by using two feedstocks appears more beneficial over conventional gasification in terms of minimum tar formation and improved process efficiency.
  3. Yan L, Le QV, Sonne C, Yang Y, Yang H, Gu H, et al.
    J Hazard Mater, 2021 04 05;407:124771.
    PMID: 33388721 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.124771
    Soil and water contaminated with radionuclides threaten the environment and public health during leaks from nuclear power plants. Remediation of radionuclides at the contaminated sites uses mainly physical and chemical methods such as vitrification, chemical immobilization, electro-kinetic remediation and soil excavation, capping and washing being among the preferred methods. These traditional technologies are however costly and less suitable for dealing with large-area pollution. In contrast to this, cost-effective and environment-friendly alternatives such as phytoremediation using plants to remove radionuclides from polluted sites in situ represent promising alternatives for environmental cleanup. Understanding the physiology and molecular mechanisms of radionuclides accumulation in plants is essential to optimize and improve this new remediation technology. Here, we give an overview of radionuclide contamination in the environment and biochemical characteristics for uptake, transport, and compartmentation of radionuclides in plants that characterize phytoextraction and its efficiency. Phytoextraction is an eco-friendly and efficient method for environmental removal of radionuclides at contaminated sites such as mine tailings. Selecting the most proper plant for the specific purpose, however, is important to obtain the best result together with, for example, applying soil amendments such as citric acid. In addition, using genetic engineering and optimizing agronomic management practices including regulation of atmospheric CO2 concentration, reasonable measures of fertilization and rational water management are important as well. For future application, the technique needs commercialization in order to fully exploit the technique at mining activities and nuclear industries.
  4. Gu M, Savoldi F, Chan EYL, Tse CSK, Lau MTW, Wey MC, et al.
    Orthod Craniofac Res, 2021 Aug;24(3):360-369.
    PMID: 33217159 DOI: 10.1111/ocr.12442
    BACKGROUND: The present study compared the treatment changes in the upper airway, hyoid bone position and craniofacial morphology between two groups of children with skeletal class II malocclusion treated with the headgear activator (HGA) and Herbst appliance (Herbst).

    SETTING AND SAMPLE POPULATION: Orthodontic population from the Faculty of Dentistry of the University of Hong Kong.

    METHODS: Thirty-four skeletal class II patients treated with the HGA (17 patients, mean age 10.6 ± 1.5 years) and the Herbst (17 patients, mean age 11.0 ± 1.4 years) were matched for sex, age, overjet, skeletal class and mandibular divergence. The patients received lateral cephalometric radiographs (LCRs) at the beginning of treatment (T1 ), after treatment (T2 ) and at follow-up (T3 ). In the HGA group, patients underwent LCRs 7 months before the beginning of treatment (T0 ), which were used as growth reference for intra-group comparison. Paired Student's t tests were used for intra- and inter-group comparisons (α = .05).

    RESULTS: Treatment changes (T2 -T1 ) did not differ significantly between the groups. However, at follow-up (T3 -T1 ) the Herbst group showed a smaller increase than the HGA group in the vertical position of the hyoid bone relative to the Frankfort plane (P = .013) and mandibular plane (P = .013).

    CONCLUSIONS: There were no significant differences in the upper airway, hyoid bone position and craniofacial morphology between the groups at the end of treatment. However, the Herbst may provide better long-term control of the vertical position of the hyoid bone than the HGA in children with skeletal class II malocclusion.

  5. Ma Z, Zhang F, Ma H, Chen X, Yang J, Yang Y, et al.
    PLoS One, 2021;16(4):e0248329.
    PMID: 33857162 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0248329
    The elderly usually suffer from many diseases. Improving the quality of life of the elderly is an urgent social issue. In this present study, D-galactose treated aging mice models were used to reveal the effects of different animal sources and different doses of whey protein (WP) on the immune indexes organs and intestinal flora. A total of 9 groups were set up, including normal control (NC), negative control (NS), positive control (Vc), low-, medium- and high-doses of cow WP intervention groups (CL, CM and CH for short, correspondingly) and low-, medium- and high-doses of goat WP intervention groups (GL, GM and GH for short, correspondingly). The body weight gain, thymus/body weight ratio, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, spleen immunoglobulins G (IgG), spleen interleukin-2 (IL-2) and spleen interleukin-2 (IL-6) were measured. Then, the intestinal contents were collected, and 16s genes of intestinal bacteria were sequenced to reveal the changes in bacterial flora structure. WP intervention significantly increased the weight gain, thymus/body ratio and SOD activity, but decrease the content of MDA. WP intervention increased some immune indicators. All the WP treated aging mice showed similar values of physiological indexes to that of the Vc group, even better. The relative abundance of Lactobacillus and Stenotrophomonas was increased and decreased, respectively, by both cow and goat WP. Lactobacillus may be involved in regulating the functional repair of organisms. In contrast, Stenotrophomonas might play a negative role in the immune and antioxidant capacity of the body. Combining physiological indicators and intestinal flora structure, low-concentration WP for cow and goat might be optimal for aging models.
  6. Goh MS, Lam SD, Yang Y, Naqiuddin M, Addis SNK, Yong WTL, et al.
    J Hazard Mater, 2021 10 15;420:126624.
    PMID: 34329083 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126624
    In agriculture, the convenience and efficacy of chemical pesticides have become inevitable to manage cultivated crop production. Here, we review the worldwide use of pesticides based on their categories, mode of actions and toxicity. Excessive use of pesticides may lead to hazardous pesticide residues in crops, causing adverse effects on human health and the environment. A wide range of high-tech-analytical methods are available to analyse pesticide residues. However, they are mostly time-consuming and inconvenient for on-site detection, calling for the development of biosensors that detect cellular changes in crops. Such new detection methods that combine biological and physicochemical knowledge may overcome the shortage in current farming to develop sustainable systems that support environmental and human health. This review also comprehensively compiles domestic pesticide residues removal tips from vegetables and fruits. Synthetic pesticide alternatives such as biopesticide and nanopesticide are greener to the environment. However, its safety assessment for large-scale application needs careful evaluation. Lastly, we strongly call for reversions of pesticide application trends based on the changing climate, which is lacking in the current scenario.
  7. Azwar E, Chan DJC, Kasan NA, Rastegari H, Yang Y, Sonne C, et al.
    J Hazard Mater, 2022 02 15;424(Pt A):127329.
    PMID: 34601414 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.127329
    Aquatic weeds pose hazards to aquatic ecosystems and particularly the aquatic environment in shellfish aquaculture due to its excessive growth covering entire freshwater bodies, leading to environmental pollution particularly eutrophication intensification, water quality depletion and aquatic organism fatality. In this study, pyrolysis of six aquatic weed types (wild and cultured species of Salvinia sp., Lemna sp. and Spirodella sp.) were investigated to evaluate its potential to reduce and convert the weeds into value-added chemicals. The aquatic weeds demonstrated high fixed carbon (8.7-47.3 wt%), volatile matter content (39.0-76.9 wt%), H/C ratio (1.5-2.0) and higher heating value (6.6-18.8 MJ/kg), representing desirable physicochemical properties for conversion into biofuels. Kinetic analysis via Coats-Redfern integral method obtained different orders for chemical reaction mechanisms (n = 1, 1.5, 2, 3), activation energy (55.94-209.41 kJ/mol) and pre-exponential factor (4.08 × 104-4.20 × 1017 s-1) at different reaction zones (zone 1: 150-268 °C, zone 2: 268-409 °C, zone 3: 409-600 °C). The results provide useful information for design and optimization of the pyrolysis reactor and establishment of the process condition to dispose this environmentally harmful species.
  8. Wong GR, Ha KO, Himratul-Aznita WH, Yang YH, Wan Mustafa WM, Yuen KM, et al.
    Oral Dis, 2014 Nov;20(8):762-7.
    PMID: 24320099 DOI: 10.1111/odi.12218
    The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of HPV seropositivity among patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and healthy individuals and to correlate the association between HPV 16 seropositivity and risk of OSCC.
  9. Siow MY, Ng LP, Vincent-Chong VK, Jamaludin M, Abraham MT, Abdul Rahman ZA, et al.
    Oral Dis, 2014 May;20(4):345-51.
    PMID: 23651447 DOI: 10.1111/odi.12118
    To identify differentially expressed miRNA between oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and non-cancer (NC) and to associate these with clinico-pathological parameters.
  10. Hong W, Wang Y, Chang Z, Yang Y, Pu J, Sun T, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2015;5:15328.
    PMID: 26471125 DOI: 10.1038/srep15328
    It is an urgent need to develop new drugs for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), and the enzyme, dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is a recognised drug target. The crystal structures of methotrexate binding to mt- and h-DHFR separately indicate that the glycerol (GOL) binding site is likely to be critical for the function of mt-DHFR selective inhibitors. We have used in silico methods to screen NCI small molecule database and a group of related compounds were obtained that inhibit mt-DHFR activity and showed bactericidal effects against a test Mtb strain. The binding poses were then analysed and the influence of GOL binding site was studied by using molecular modelling. By comparing the chemical structures, 4 compounds that might be able to occupy the GOL binding site were identified. However, these compounds contain large hydrophobic side chains. As the GOL binding site is more hydrophilic, molecular modelling indicated that these compounds were failed to occupy the GOL site. The most potent inhibitor (compound 6) demonstrated limited selectivity for mt-DHFR, but did contain a novel central core (7H-pyrrolo[3,2-f]quinazoline-1,3-diamine), which may significantly expand the chemical space of novel mt-DHFR inhibitors. Collectively, these observations will inform future medicinal chemistry efforts to improve the selectivity of compounds against mt-DHFR.
  11. Lou H, Lu Y, Lu D, Fu R, Wang X, Feng Q, et al.
    Am J Hum Genet, 2015 Jul 02;97(1):54-66.
    PMID: 26073780 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2015.05.005
    Tibetan high-altitude adaptation (HAA) has been studied extensively, and many candidate genes have been reported. Subsequent efforts targeting HAA functional variants, however, have not been that successful (e.g., no functional variant has been suggested for the top candidate HAA gene, EPAS1). With WinXPCNVer, a method developed in this study, we detected in microarray data a Tibetan-enriched deletion (TED) carried by 90% of Tibetans; 50% were homozygous for the deletion, whereas only 3% carried the TED and 0% carried the homozygous deletion in 2,792 worldwide samples (p < 10(-15)). We employed long PCR and Sanger sequencing technologies to determine the exact copy number and breakpoints of the TED in 70 additional Tibetan and 182 diverse samples. The TED had identical boundaries (chr2: 46,694,276-46,697,683; hg19) and was 80 kb downstream of EPAS1. Notably, the TED was in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD; r(2) = 0.8) with EPAS1 variants associated with reduced blood concentrations of hemoglobin. It was also in complete LD with the 5-SNP motif, which was suspected to be introgressed from Denisovans, but the deletion itself was absent from the Denisovan sequence. Correspondingly, we detected that footprints of positive selection for the TED occurred 12,803 (95% confidence interval = 12,075-14,725) years ago. We further whole-genome deep sequenced (>60×) seven Tibetans and verified the TED but failed to identify any other copy-number variations with comparable patterns, giving this TED top priority for further study. We speculate that the specific patterns of the TED resulted from its own functionality in HAA of Tibetans or LD with a functional variant of EPAS1.
  12. Guan R, Van Le Q, Yang H, Zhang D, Gu H, Yang Y, et al.
    Chemosphere, 2021 May;271:129499.
    PMID: 33445014 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.129499
    Phytochemicals refer to active substances in plant-based diets. Phytochemicals found in for example fruits, vegetables, grains and seed oils are considered relatively safe for consumption due to mammal-plant co-evolution and adaptation. A number of human diseases are related to oxidative stress caused by for example chemical environmental contaminants in air, water and food; while also lifestyle including smoking and lack of exercise and dietary preferences are important factors for disease development in humans. Here we explore the dietary sources of antioxidant phytochemicals that have beneficial effects on oxidative stress, cardiovascular and neurological diseases as well as cancer. Plant-based diets usually contain phenolic acids, flavonoids and carotenoids, which have strong antioxidant properties, and therefore remove the excess of active oxygen in the body, and protect cells from damage, reducing the risk of cardiovascular and Alzheimer's disease. In most cases, obesity is related to diet and inactivity and plant-based diets change lipid composition and metabolism, which reduce obesity related hazards. Cruciferous and Allium vegetables are rich in organic sulphides that can act on the metabolism of carcinogens and therefore used as anti-cancer and suppressing agents while dietary fibres and plant sterols may improve intestinal health and prevent intestinal diseases. Thus, we recommend a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and grains as its content of phytochemicals may have the potential to prevent or improve a broad sweep of various diseases.
  13. Zhang R, Wang S, Huang X, Yang Y, Fan H, Yang F, et al.
    Anal Chim Acta, 2020 Jan 15;1094:142-150.
    PMID: 31761041 DOI: 10.1016/j.aca.2019.10.012
    α-synuclein is a predominantly expressing neuronal protein for understanding the neurodegenerative disorders. A diagnosing system with aggregated α-synuclein encoded by SNCA gene is necessary to make the precautionary treatment against Parkinson's disease (PD). Herein, gold-nanourchin conjugated anti-α-synuclein antibody was desired as the probe and seeded on single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCN) integrated interdigitated electrode (IDE). The surface morphology of SWCN-modified IDE and gold urchin-antibody conjugates were observed under FESEM, FETEM and AFM, the existing elements were confirmed. Voltammetry analysis revealed that the limit of fibril-formed α-synuclein detection was improved by 1000 folds (1 fM) with gold-nanourchin-antibody modified surface, compared to the surface with only antibody (1 pM). Validating the interaction of α-synuclein by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay was displayed the detection limit as 10 pM. IDE has a good reproducibility and a higher selectivity on α-synuclein as evidenced by the interactive analysis with the control proteins, PARK1 and DJ-1.
  14. Ji H, Yi Q, Chen L, Wong L, Liu Y, Xu G, et al.
    Clin. Chim. Acta, 2020 Feb;501:147-153.
    PMID: 31678272 DOI: 10.1016/j.cca.2019.10.036
    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of vision loss among older adults. The goal of this case-control study was to identify circulating miRNAs for the diagnosis of DR. The miRNeasy Serum/Plasma Kit was used to extract serum miRNAs. The μParaflo™ MicroRNA microarray was used to detect the expression levels of the miRNAs. The miRWalk algorithm was applied to predict the target genes of the miRNAs, which were further confirmed by the dual luciferase reporter gene system in HEK293T cells. A microarray was performed between 5 DR cases and 5 age-, sex-, body mass index-, and duration of diabetes-matched type 2 diabetic (T2DM) controls. The quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction technique was used to validate the differentially expressed circulating miRNAs in 45 DR cases and 45 well-matched controls. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to evaluate the performance of the circulating miRNAs as diagnostic biomarkers for DR. Our microarray analysis screened out miR-2116-5p and miR-3197 as significantly up-regulated in DR cases compared with the controls. Furthermore, two miRNAs were validated in the 45 DR cases and 45 controls. The ROC analysis suggested that both miR-3197 and miR-2116-5p distinguished DR cases from controls. An additional dual-luciferase reporter gene assay confirmed that notch homolog 2 (NOTCH2) was the target gene of miR-2116-5p. Both miR-3197 and miR-2116-5p were identified as promising diagnostic biomarkers for DR. Future research is still needed to explore the molecular mechanisms of miR-3197 and miR-2116-5p in the pathogenesis of DR.
  15. Fang Z, Dang M, Zhang W, Wang Y, Kord-Varkaneh H, Nazary-Vannani A, et al.
    Complement Ther Med, 2020 May;50:102395.
    PMID: 32444054 DOI: 10.1016/j.ctim.2020.102395
    BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Effects of walnut intake on anthropometric measurements have been inconsistent among clinical studies. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) to evaluate and quantify the effects of walnut intake on anthropometric characteristics.

    METHODS: We carried out a systematic search of all available RCTs up to June 2019 in the following electronic databases: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar. Pooled weight mean difference (WMD) of the included studies was estimated using random-effects model.

    RESULTS: A total of 27 articles were included in this meta-analysis, with walnuts dosage ranging from 15 to 108 g/d for 2 wk to 2 y. Overall, interventions with walnut intake did not alter waist circumference (WC) (WMD: -0.193 cm, 95 % CI: -1.03, 0.64, p = 0.651), body weight (BW) (0.083 kg, 95 % CI: -0.032, 0.198, p = 0.159), body mass index (BMI) (WMD: -0.40 kg/m,295 % CI: -0.244, 0.164, p = 0.703), and fat mass (FM) (WMD: 0.28 %, 95 % CI: -0.49, 1.06, p = 0.476). Following dose-response evaluation, reduced BW (Coef.= -1.62, p = 0.001), BMI (Coef.= -1.24, p = 0.041) and WC (Coef.= -5.39, p = 0.038) were significantly observed through walnut intake up to 35 g/day. However, the number of studies can be limited as to the individual analysis of the measures through the dose-response fashion.

    CONCLUSIONS: Overall, results from this meta-analysis suggest that interventions with walnut intake does not alter BW, BMI, FM, and WC. To date, there is no discernible evidence to support walnut intake for improving anthropometric indicators of weight loss.

  16. Jiang H, Bai L, Ji L, Bai Z, Su J, Qin T, et al.
    J Virol, 2020 07 16;94(15).
    PMID: 32461319 DOI: 10.1128/JVI.00294-20
    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection alters microRNA (miRNA) expression in the central nervous system (CNS). However, the mechanism contributing to miRNA regulation in the CNS is not known. We discovered global degradation of mature miRNA in mouse brains and neuroblastoma (NA) cells after JEV infection. Integrative analysis of miRNAs and mRNAs suggested that several significantly downregulated miRNAs and their targeted mRNAs were clustered into an inflammation pathway. Transfection with miRNA 466d-3p (miR-466d-3p) decreased interleukin-1β (IL-1β) expression and inhibited JEV replication in NA cells. However, miR-466d-3p expression increased after JEV infection in the presence of cycloheximide, indicating that viral protein expression reduced miR-466d-3p expression. We generated all the JEV coding proteins and demonstrated NS3 helicase protein to be a potent miRNA suppressor. The NS3 proteins of Zika virus, West Nile virus, and dengue virus serotype 1 (DENV-1) and DENV-2 also decreased miR-466d-3p expression. Results from helicase-blocking assays and in vitro unwinding assays demonstrated that NS3 could unwind pre-miR-466d and induce miRNA dysfunction. Computational models and an RNA immunoprecipitation assay revealed arginine-rich domains of NS3 to be crucial for pre-miRNA binding and degradation of host miRNAs. Importantly, site-directed mutagenesis of conserved residues in NS3 revealed that R226G and R202W reduced the binding affinity and degradation of pre-miR-466d. These results expand the function of flavivirus helicases beyond unwinding duplex RNA to degrade pre-miRNAs. Hence, we revealed a new mechanism for NS3 in regulating miRNA pathways and promoting neuroinflammation.IMPORTANCE Host miRNAs have been reported to regulate JEV-induced inflammation in the CNS. We found that JEV infection could reduce expression of host miRNA. The helicase region of the NS3 protein bound specifically to miRNA precursors and could lead to incorrect unwinding of miRNA precursors, thereby reducing the expression of mature miRNAs. This observation led to two major findings. First, our results suggested that JEV NS3 protein induced miR-466d-3p degradation, which promoted IL-1β expression and JEV replication. Second, arginine molecules on NS3 were the main miRNA-binding sites, because we demonstrated that miRNA degradation was abolished if arginines at R226 and R202 were mutated. Our study provides new insights into the molecular mechanism of JEV and reveals several amino acid sites that could be mutated for a JEV vaccine.
  17. Shah T, Haimi I, Yang Y, Gaston S, Taoutel R, Mehta S, et al.
    Am J Cardiol, 2021 05 15;147:23-32.
    PMID: 33640366 DOI: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2021.02.015
    Gender disparities in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) outcomes continue to be reported worldwide; however, the magnitude of this gap remains unknown. To evaluate gender-based discrepancies in clinical outcomes and identify the primary driving factors a global meta-analysis was performed. Studies were selected if they included all comers with STEMI, reported gender specific patient characteristics, treatments, and outcomes, according to the registered PROSPERO protocol: CRD42020161469. A total of 56 studies (705,098 patients, 31% females) were included. Females were older, had more comorbidities and received less antiplatelet therapy and primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Females experienced significantly longer delays to first medical contact (mean difference 42.5 min) and door-to-balloon time (mean difference 4.9 min). In-hospital, females had increased rates of mortality (odds ratio [OR] 1.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.84 to 1.99, p <0.00001), repeat myocardial infarction (MI) (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.56, p=0.05), stroke (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.27 to 2.20, p <0.001), and major bleeding (OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.56 to 2.12, p <0.00001) compared with males. Older age at presentation was the primary driver of excess mortality in females, although other factors including lower rates of primary PCI and aspirin usage, and longer door-to-balloon times contributed. In contrast, excess rates of repeat MI and stroke in females appeared to be driven, at least in part, by lower use of primary PCI and P2Y12 inhibitors, respectively. In conclusion, despite improvements in STEMI care, women continue to have in-hospital rates of mortality, repeat MI, stroke, and major bleeding up to 2-fold higher than men. Gender disparities in in-hospital outcomes can largely be explained by age differences at presentation but comorbidities, delays to care and suboptimal treatment experienced by women may contribute to the gender gap.
  18. Yang Y, Wei X, Zhang N, Zheng J, Chen X, Wen Q, et al.
    Nat Commun, 2021 08 12;12(1):4876.
    PMID: 34385436 DOI: 10.1038/s41467-021-25075-8
    While the printed circuit board (PCB) has been widely considered as the building block of integrated electronics, the world is switching to pursue new ways of merging integrated electronic circuits with textiles to create flexible and wearable devices. Herein, as an alternative for PCB, we described a non-printed integrated-circuit textile (NIT) for biomedical and theranostic application via a weaving method. All the devices are built as fibers or interlaced nodes and woven into a deformable textile integrated circuit. Built on an electrochemical gating principle, the fiber-woven-type transistors exhibit superior bending or stretching robustness, and were woven as a textile logical computing module to distinguish different emergencies. A fiber-type sweat sensor was woven with strain and light sensors fibers for simultaneously monitoring body health and the environment. With a photo-rechargeable energy textile based on a detailed power consumption analysis, the woven circuit textile is completely self-powered and capable of both wireless biomedical monitoring and early warning. The NIT could be used as a 24/7 private AI "nurse" for routine healthcare, diabetes monitoring, or emergencies such as hypoglycemia, metabolic alkalosis, and even COVID-19 patient care, a potential future on-body AI hardware and possibly a forerunner to fabric-like computers.
  19. Peng W, Ma NL, Zhang D, Zhou Q, Yue X, Khoo SC, et al.
    Environ Res, 2020 12;191:110046.
    PMID: 32841638 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2020.110046
    Locusts differ from ordinary grasshoppers in their ability to swarm over long distances and are among the oldest migratory pests. The ecology and biology of locusts make them among the most devastating pests worldwide and hence the calls for actions to prevent the next outbreaks. The most destructive of all locust species is the desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria). Here, we review the current locust epidemic 2020 outbreak and its causes and prevention including the green technologies that may provide a reference for future directions of locust control and food security. Massive locust outbreaks threaten the terrestrial environments and crop production in around 100 countries of which Ethiopia, Somalia and Kenya are the most affected. Six large locust outbreaks are reported for the period from 1912 to 1989 all being closely related to long-term droughts and warm winters coupled with occurrence of high precipitation in spring and summer. The outbreaks in East Africa, India and Pakistan are the most pronounced with locusts migrating more than 150 km/day during which the locusts consume food equivalent to their own body weight on a daily basis. The plague heavily affects the agricultural sectors, which is the foundation of national economies and social stability. Global warming is likely the main cause of locust plague outbreak in recent decades driving egg spawning of up to 2-400,000 eggs per square meter. Biological control techniques such as microorganisms, insects and birds help to reduce the outbreaks while reducing ecosystem and agricultural impacts. In addition, green technologies such as light and sound stimulation seem to work, however, these are challenging and need further technological development incorporating remote sensing and modelling before they are applicable on large-scales. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, the 2020 locust outbreak is the worst in 70 years probably triggered by climate change, hurricanes and heavy rain and has affected a total of 70,000 ha in Somalia and Ethiopia. There is a need for shifting towards soybean, rape, and watermelon which seems to help to prevent locust outbreaks and obtain food security. Furthermore, locusts have a very high protein content and is an excellent protein source for meat production and as an alternative human protein source, which should be used to mitigate food security. In addition, forestation of arable land improves local climate conditions towards less precipitation and lower temperatures while simultaneously attracting a larger number of birds thereby increasing the locust predation rates.
  20. Cheng J, Wang Y, Hou J, Luo D, Xie Q, Ning Q, et al.
    J Clin Virol, 2014 Dec;61(4):509-16.
    PMID: 25200354 DOI: 10.1016/j.jcv.2014.08.008
    In mainland China, peginterferon (PEG-IFN) alfa-2b 1.0μg/kg/wk for 24 weeks is the approved treatment for HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B.
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