Displaying publications 41 - 60 of 516 in total

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  1. Goh TB, Koh RY, Mordi MN, Mansor SM
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(14):5659-65.
    PMID: 25081682
    BACKGROUND: To investigate the antioxidant value and anticancer functions of mitragynine (MTG) and its silane-reduced analogues (SRM) in vitro.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: MTG and SRM was analyzed for their reducing power ability, ABTS radical inhibition and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazylfree radicals scavenging activities. Furthermore, the antiproliferation efficacy was evaluated using MTT assay on K 562 and HCT116 cancer cell lines versus NIH/3T3 and CCD18-Co normal cell lines respectively.

    RESULTS: SRM and MTG demonstrate moderate antioxidant value with ABTS assay (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC): 2.25±0.02 mmol trolox / mmol and 1.96±0.04 mmol trolox / mmol respectively) and DPPH (IC50=3.75±0.04 mg/mL and IC50=2.28±0.02 mg/mL respectively). Both MTG and SRM demonstrate equal potency (IC50=25.20±1.53 and IC50= 22.19±1.06 respectively) towards K 562 cell lines, comparable to control, betulinic acid (BA) (IC5024.40±1.26). Both compounds showed concentration-dependent cytototoxicity effects and exert profound antiproliferative efficacy at concentration > 100 μM towards HCT 116 and K 562 cancer cell lines, comparable to those of BA and 5-FU (5-Fluorouracil). Furthermore, both MTG and SRM exhibit high selectivity towards HCT 116 cell lines with selective indexes of 3.14 and 2.93 respectively compared to 5-FU (SI=0.60).

    CONCLUSIONS: These findings revealed that the medicinal and nutitional values of mitragynine obtained from ketum leaves that growth in tropical forest of Southeast Asia and its analogues does not limited to analgesic properties but could be promising antioxidant and anticancer or chemopreventive compounds.

  2. Juliana N, Shahar S, Chelliah KK, Ghazali AR, Osman F, Sahar MA
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(14):5759-65.
    PMID: 25081698
    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a potential supplement for mammogram screening. This study aimed to evaluate and feasibility of EIT as opposed to mammography and to determine pain perception with both imaging methods. Women undergoing screening mammography at the Radiology Department of National University of Malaysia Medical Centre were randomly selected for EIT imaging. All women were requested to give a pain score after each imaging session. Two independent raters were chosen to define the image findings of EIT. A total of 164 women in the age range from 40 to 65-year-old participated and were divided into two groups; normal and abnormal. EIT sensitivity and specificity for rater 1 were 69.4% and 63.3, whereas for rater 2 they were 55.3% and 57.0% respectively. The reliability for each rater ranged between good to very good (p<0.05). Quantitative values of EIT showed there were significant differences in all values between groups (ANCOVA, p<0.05). Interestingly, EIT scored a median pain score of 1.51±0.75 whereas mammography scored 4.15±0.87 (Mann Whitney U test, p<0.05). From these quantitative values, EIT has the potential as a health discriminating index. Its ability to replace image findings from mammography needs further investigation.
  3. Zulkifli A, Abidin NZ, Abidin EZ, Hashim Z, Rahman AA, Rasdi I, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(12):4815-21.
    PMID: 24998546
    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to examine the relationship between respiratory health of Malaysian adolescents with secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure and smoke-free legislation (SFL) implementation.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 898 students from 21 schools across comprehensive- and partial-SFL states were recruited. SHS exposures and respiratory symptoms were assessed via questionnaire. Prenatal and postnatal SHS exposure information was obtained from parental-completed questionnaire.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of respiratory symptoms was: 11.9% ever wheeze, 5.6% current wheeze, 22.3% exercise-induced wheeze, 12.4% nocturnal cough, and 13.1% self-reported asthma. SHS exposure was most frequently reported in restaurants. Hierarchical logistic regression indicates living in a comprehensive-SFL state was not associated with a lower risk of reporting asthma symptoms. SHS exposure in public transport was linked to increased risk for wheeze (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) 16.6; 95%confidence interval (CI), 2.69-101.7) and current wheezing (AOR 24.6; 95%CI, 3.53-171.8).

    CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents continue to be exposed to SHS in a range of public venues in both comprehensive- and partial-SFL states. Respiratory symptoms are common among those reporting SHS exposure on public transportation. Non-compliance with SFL appears to be frequent in many venues across Malaysia and enforcement should be given priority in order to reduce exposure.

  4. Yaakup H, Eng TC, Shah SA
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(12):4885-91.
    PMID: 24998558
    BACKGROUND: Successful implementation of pain management procedures and guidelines in an institution depends very much on the acceptance of many levels of healthcare providers.

    AIM: The main purpose of this study was to determine the level of knowledge and attitudes regarding pain among nurses working in tertiary care in a local setting and the factors that may be associated with this.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional research study used a modified version of the Nurses' Knowledge and Attitudes Survey (NKAS) regarding pain. Basic demographic data were obtained for further correlation with the level of pain knowledge.

    RESULTS: A total of 566 nurses, 34 male and 532 female, volunteered to participate in this study. The response rate (RR) was 76%, with an overall mean percentage score of 42.7±10.9 (range: 5-92.5). The majority of participants were younger nurses below 40 years of age and more than 70% had worked for less than 10 years (6.6±4.45). Up to 92% had never had any formal education in pain management in general. The total mean score of correct answers was 58.6±9.58, with oncology nursing staff scoring a higher percentage when compared with nurses from other general and critical care wards (63.52±9.27, p<0.045). Only 2.5% out of all participants obtained a score of 80% or greater. The majority of the oncology nurses achieved the expected competency level (p<0.03).

    CONCLUSIONS: The present findings give further support for the universal concern about poor knowledge and attitudes among nurses related to the optimal management of pain. The results indicated that neither number of years working nor age influenced the level of knowledge or attitudes of the practising nurses. Oncology nursing staff consistently scored better than the rest of the cohort. This reflects that clinical experience helps to improve attitudes and knowledge concerning better pain management.

  5. Ahmadian M, Samah AA, Saidu MB
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(12):5097-105.
    PMID: 24998591
    Knowledge of health and community psychology in health professionals influences psychosocial and community determinants of health and promoting participation in disease prevention at the community level. This paper appraises the potential of knowledge on psychology in health care professionals and its contribution to community empowerment through individual behavior change and health practice. The authors proposed a schematic model for the use of psychological knowledge in health professionals to promote participation in health interventions/disease prevention programs in developing countries. By implication, the paper provides a vision on policies towards supporting breast cancer secondary prevention efforts for community health development in Asian countries.
  6. Saravanan C, Heidhy I
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(18):7629-34.
    PMID: 25292039
    BACKGROUND: Cigarette smokers have their own motivation and justification to smoke. For example, smoking reduces their stress or enhances their pleasure. This study aimed to identify the (a) prevalence of cigarette smokers among undergraduates in Malaysia, (b) gender differences in nicotine dependence among current smokers, (c) differences in psychological problems (depression, anxiety and stress) based on the status of smoking cigarettes (current, former and non-smokers) and (d) extent to which precipitating factors (tension reduction, addiction, automatism, handling, social interaction, pleasure, and stimulation) predict the smoking behavior among current smokers.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study 780 undergraduate students participated from a private university in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor state in Malaysia. The Depression, Stress and Anxiety Scale, Modified Reason for Smoking Scale and Fagerstrom Nicotine Dependence Test were used to measure psychological problems, predictors of smoking behavior and nicotine dependency among current smokers.

    RESULTS: The results showed that 14.7%(n=106) of the students were smokers. Current smokers exhibited more psychological problems (depression, anxiety and stress) compared to former and non-smokers. Addiction, tension reduction, pleasure and automatism were predictors of smoking behavior among the current smoking students. Step wise regression analysis showed that smoking behavior was highly predicted by nicotine dependency or addiction. Smoking students were motivated to smoke cigarettes as they believed that it reduced their tension and enhance pleasure.

    CONCLUSIONS: Hence, there is a need for health promotion and anti-tobacco prevention as cigarette smokers experience more psychological problems. Nicotine dependency or addition was one of the major causes for smoking behavior among the student population in Malaysia.
  7. Al-Kubaisy WA, Obaid KJ, Noor NA, Ibrahim NS, Al-Azawi AA
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(18):7725-30.
    PMID: 25292053
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third most common cause for cancer death in the world, now being especially linked to chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. This case-control study consisting of 65 HCC patients and 82 patients with other malignant tumours as controls was conducted to determine the association of HCV markers with HCC. Serum of each participant was obtained for detection of HCV Ab and RNA by DNA enzyme immunoassay (DEIA). Twenty six per cent (26.0%) of HCC patients had positive anti-HCV which was significantly greater than the control group (p=0.001). HCC patients significantly have a risk of exposure to HCV infection almost 3 times than the control group (OR=2.87, 95% C.I=1.1-7). Anti-HCV seropositive rate was significantly (p=0.03) higher among old age HCC patients and increases with age. Males with HCC significantly showed to have more than 9 times risk of exposure to HCV infection (OR=9.375, 95 % CI=1.299-67.647) than females. HCV-RNA seropositive rate was (70.8%) significantly higher among HCC patients compared to (22.2%) the control group (p=0.019). The most prevalent genotype (as a single or mixed pattern of infection) was HCV- 1b. This study detected a significantly higher HCV seropositive rate of antibodies and RNA in HCC patients.
  8. Kavitha N, Vijayarathna S, Jothy SL, Oon CE, Chen Y, Kanwar JR, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(18):7489-97.
    PMID: 25292018
    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs of 20-24 nucleotides that play important roles in carcinogenesis. Accordingly, miRNAs control numerous cancer-relevant biological events such as cell proliferation, cell cycle control, metabolism and apoptosis. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge and concepts concerning the biogenesis of miRNAs, miRNA roles in cancer and their potential as biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and prognosis including the regulation of key cancer-related pathways, such as cell cycle control and miRNA dysregulation. Moreover, microRNA molecules are already receiving the attention of world researchers as therapeutic targets and agents. Therefore, in-depth knowledge of microRNAs has the potential not only to identify their roles in cancer, but also to exploit them as potential biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and identify therapeutic targets for new drug discovery.
  9. Tan HK, Moad AI, Tan ML
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(16):6463-75.
    PMID: 25169472
    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase plays an important role in regulating cell growth and cell cycle progression in response to cellular signals. It is a key regulator of cell proliferation and many upstream activators and downstream effectors of mTOR are known to be deregulated in various types of cancers. Since the mTOR signalling pathway is commonly activated in human cancers, many researchers are actively developing inhibitors that target key components in the pathway and some of these drugs are already on the market. Numerous preclinical investigations have also suggested that some herbs and natural phytochemicals, such as curcumin, resveratrol, timosaponin III, gallic acid, diosgenin, pomegranate, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCC), genistein and 3,3'-diindolylmethane inhibit the mTOR pathway either directly or indirectly. Some of these natural compounds are also in the clinical trial stage. In this review, the potential anti-cancer and chemopreventive activities and the current status of clinical trials of these phytochemicals are discussed.
  10. Yankuzo HM, Emilia ST, Shaari R, Yaacob NS
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(16):6721-6.
    PMID: 25169515
    BACKGROUND: The aim of this preliminary study was to address variations of responses observed with different starting tumor sizes of 10 and 15 mm, and the effects of different doses of tamoxifen (TAM) on experimental rat mammary tumors.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-five inbred female Sprague Dawley rats aged 43 days were administered with three weekly doses of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (NMU) intraperitoneally (ip) at 50 mg/kg body weight. Animals were randomized (beginning from 10 mm tumor size) into four TAM-treated (50, 100, 200 and 500 μg/day) groups of six animals each, and another group (n=6) treated with TAM 100 μg/day at starting tumour size of 15 mm. The animals were treated by oral gavage daily for 8 weeks before sacrifice.

    RESULTS: Serum urea and creatinine, and overall physical tumor burden were significantly modulated in animals treated with variable doses of TAM compared to the untreated controls (n=5). Final body weight and tumor number were significantly different in the 10 mm-treated animals compared to those treated at 15 mm. There were no significant differences in histopathological features among all the groups.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest the importance of standardizing tumour size and drug doses before initiation of treatment, particularly in the direct comparison of basic end-tumour physical parameters.

  11. Akhtari-Zavare M, Ghanbari-Baghestan A, Latiff LA, Matinnia N, Hoseini M
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(16):6531-4.
    PMID: 25169482
    BACKGROUND: In Iran, breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in women and a major public health problem.

    METHODS: A cross sectional study was carried out to determine knowledge on breast cancer and breast self- examination (BSE) practices of 384 females living in the city of Hamadan, Iran. A purposive sampling method was adopted and data were collected via face-to-face interviews based on a validated questionnaire developed for this study.

    RESULTS: Among respondents 268 (69.8%) were married and 144 (37.5%) of the respondents reported having a family history of breast cancer. One hundred respondents (26.0%) claimed they practiced BSE. Level of breast cancer knowledge was significantly associated with BSE practice (p=0.000). There was no association with demographic details (p<0.05).

    CONCLUSION: The findings showed that Iranian women's knowledge regarding breast cancer and the practice of BSE is inadequate. Targeted education should be implemented to improve early detection of breast cancer.

  12. Siti-Azrin AH, Norsa'adah B, Naing NN
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(15):6455-9.
    PMID: 25124642
    BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is the fourth most common cancer in Malaysia. The objective of this study was to determine the five-year survival rate and median survival time of NPC patients in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM).

    METHODS: One hundred and thirty four NPC cases confirmed by histopathology in Hospital USM between 1st January 1998 and 31st December 2007 that fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria were retrospectively reviewed. Survival time of NPC patients were estimated by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Log-rank tests were performed to compare survival of cases among presenting symptoms, WHO type, TNM classification and treatment modalities.

    RESULTS: The overall five-year survival rate of NPC patients was 38.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 29.1, 46.9). The overall median survival time of NPC patients was 31.30 months (95%CI: 23.76, 38.84). The significant factors that altered the survival rate and time were age (p=0.041), cranial nerve involvement (p=0.012), stage (p=0.002), metastases (p=0.008) and treatment (p<0.001).

    CONCLUSION: The median survival of NPC patients is significantly longer for age≤50 years, no cranial nerve involvement, and early stage and is dependent on treatment modalities.

  13. Magaji BA, Moy FM, Roslani AC, Law CW
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(15):6059-64.
    PMID: 25124558
    BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is the second most frequent cancer in Malaysia. Nevertheless, there is little information on treatment and outcomes nationally. We aimed to determine the demographic, clinical and treatment characteristics of colorectal cancer patients treated at the University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC) as part of a larger project on survival and quality of life outcomes.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical records of 1,212 patients undergoing treatment in UMMC between January 2001 and December 2010 were reviewed. A retrospective-prospective cohort study design was used. Research tools included the National Cancer Patient Registration form. Statistical analysis included means, standard deviations (SD), proportions, chi square, t-test/ ANOVA. P-value significance was set at 0.05.

    RESULTS: The male: female ratio was 1.2:1. The mean age was 62.1 (SD12.4) years. Patients were predominantly Chinese (67%), then Malays (18%), Indians (13%) and others (2%). Malays were younger than Chinese and Indians (mean age 57 versus 62 versus 62 years, p<0.001). More females (56%) had colon cancers compared to males (44%) (p=0.022). Malays (57%) had more rectal cancer compared to Chinese (45%) and Indians (49%) (p=0.004). Dukes' stage data weres available in 67%, with Dukes' C and D accounting for 64%. Stage was not affected by age, gender, ethnicity or tumor site. Treatment modalities included surgery alone (40%), surgery and chemo/radiotherapy 32%, chemo and radiotherapy (8%) and others (20%).

    CONCLUSIONS: Significant ethnic differences in age and site distribution, if verified in population-based settings, would support implementation of preventive measures targeting those with the greatest need, at the right age.
  14. Han YW, Mohammad M, Liew SM
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(17):7287-90.
    PMID: 25227830
    BACKGROUND: Brief physician counselling has been shown to be effective in improving smokers' behaviour. If the counselling sessions can be given at the workplace, this would benefit a larger number of smokers. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a ten-minute physician counseling session at the workplace in improving smoking behaviour.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective randomised control trial was conducted on smokers in a factory. A total of 163 participants were recruited and randomised into control and intervention groups using a table of random numbers. The intervention group received a ten-minute brief physician counselling session to quit smoking. Stages of smoking behaviour were measured in both groups using a translated and validated questionnaire at baseline, one month and three months post intervention.

    RESULTS: There was a significant improvement in smoking behaviour at one-month post intervention (p=0.024, intention to treat analysis; OR=2.525; CI=1.109-5.747). This was not significant at three-month post intervention (p=0.946, intention to treat analysis; OR=1.026; 95% CI=0.486-2.168).

    CONCLUSIONS: A session of brief physician counselling was effective in improving smokers' behaviour at workplace, but the effect was not sustained.

  15. Che CC, Coomarasamy JD, Suppayah B
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(17):7175-80.
    PMID: 25227810
    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in Malaysia, about one in 19 women being at risk. This study aimed to investigate knowledge and practice of breast self-examination (BSE), as well as knowledge of risk factors for breast cancer amongst female adolescents in Malaysia. Subsequently, relationships between demographic characteristics and knowledge level of BSE, risk factors for breast cancer and BSE practice were assessed.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A descriptive, cross sectional survey was conducted using a sample of 500 Malaysian adolescents from the age of 15 to 19 years. A self-administered questionnaire was used to gather socio- demographic characteristics, knowledge of BSE, knowledge of risk factors for breast cancer and BSE practices.

    RESULTS: The findings of this study indicated that female adolescents in Malaysia demonstrated an inadequate knowledge level of BSE and risk factors for breast cancer. Only 27.8% of female adolescents performed BSE regularly. BSE practice, knowledge of BSE and knowledge of risk factors for breast cancer showed significant positive relationships.

    CONCLUSIONS: The study highlighted the importance of planning and implementing breast health education programs for female students in secondary schools in Malaysia. It will also provide the health care providers an avenue to stress on the importance of imparting breast health education to adolescents.

  16. Goh LP, Chong ET, Chua KH, Chuah JA, Lee PC
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(17):7377-81.
    PMID: 25227845
    CYP2E1 PstI polymorphism G-1259C (rs3813867) genotype distributions vary significantly among different populations and are associated with both diseases, like cancer, and adverse drug effects. To date, there have been limited genotype distributions and allele frequencies of this polymorphism reported in the three major indigenous ethnic groups (KadazanDusun, Bajau, and Rungus) in Sabah, also known as North Borneo. The aim of this study was to investigate the genotype distributions and allele frequencies of the CYP2E1 PstI polymorphism G-1259C in these three major indigenous peoples in Sabah. A total of 640 healthy individuals from the three dominant indigenous groups were recruited for this study. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) at G-1259C polymorphic site of CYP2E1 gene was performed using the Pst I restriction enzyme. Fragments were analyzed using agarose gel electrophoresis and confirmed by direct sequencing. Overall, the allele frequencies were 90.3% for c1 allele and 9.7% for c2 allele. The genotype frequencies for c1/c1, c1/c2 and c2/c2 were observed as 80.9%, 18.8%, and 0.3%, respectively. A highly statistical significant difference (p<0.001) was observed in the genotype distributions between indigenous groups in Sabah with all Asian and non-Asian populations. However, among these three indigenous groups, there was no statistical significant difference (p>0.001) in their genotype distributions. The three major indigenous ethnic groups in Sabah show unique genotype distributions when compared with other populations. This finding indicates the importance of establishing the genotype distributions of CYP2E1 PstI polymorphism in the indigenous populations.
  17. Hashim N, Jamalludin Z, Ung NM, Ho GF, Malik RA, Phua VC
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(13):5259-64.
    PMID: 25040985
    BACKGROUND: CT based brachytherapy allows 3-dimensional (3D) assessment of organs at risk (OAR) doses with dose volume histograms (DVHs). The purpose of this study was to compare computed tomography (CT) based volumetric calculations and International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) reference-point estimates of radiation doses to the bladder and rectum in patients with carcinoma of the cervix treated with high-dose-rate (HDR) intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT).

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between March 2011 and May 2012, 20 patients were treated with 55 fractions of brachytherapy using tandem and ovoids and underwent post-implant CT scans. The external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) dose was 48.6 Gy in 27 fractions. HDR brachytherapy was delivered to a dose of 21 Gy in three fractions. The ICRU bladder and rectum point doses along with 4 additional rectal points were recorded. The maximum dose (DMax) to rectum was the highest recorded dose at one of these five points. Using the HDR plus 2.6 brachytherapy treatment planning system, the bladder and rectum were retrospectively contoured on the 55 CT datasets. The DVHs for rectum and bladder were calculated and the minimum doses to the highest irradiated 2cc area of rectum and bladder were recorded (D2cc) for all individual fractions. The mean D2cc of rectum was compared to the means of ICRU rectal point and rectal DMax using the Student's t-test. The mean D2cc of bladder was compared with the mean ICRU bladder point using the same statistical test .The total dose, combining EBRT and HDR brachytherapy, were biologically normalized to the conventional 2 Gy/fraction using the linear-quadratic model. (α/β value of 10 Gy for target, 3 Gy for organs at risk).

    RESULTS: The total prescribed dose was 77.5 Gy α/β10. The mean dose to the rectum was 4.58 ± 1.22 Gy for D 2cc, 3.76 ± 0.65 Gy at D ICRU and 4.75 ± 1.01 Gy at DMax. The mean rectal D 2cc dose differed significantly from the mean dose calculated at the ICRU reference point (p<0.005); the mean difference was 0.82 Gy (0.48 -1.19 Gy). The mean EQD2 was 68.52 ± 7.24 Gy α/β3 for D 2cc, 61.71 ± 2.77 Gy α/β3 at D ICRU and 69.24 ± 6.02 Gy α/β3 at DMax. The mean ratio of D 2cc rectum to D ICRU rectum was 1.25 and the mean ratio of D 2cc rectum to DMax rectum was 0.98 for all individual fractions. The mean dose to the bladder was 6.00 ± 1.90 Gy for D 2cc and 5.10 ± 2.03 Gy at D ICRU. However, the mean D 2cc dose did not differ significantly from the mean dose calculated at the ICRU reference point (p=0.307); the mean difference was 0.90 Gy (0.49-1.25 Gy). The mean EQD2 was 81.85 ± 13.03 Gy α/β3 for D 2cc and 74.11 ± 19.39 Gy α/β3 at D ICRU. The mean ratio of D 2cc bladder to D ICRU bladder was 1.24. In the majority of applications, the maximum dose point was not the ICRU point. On average, the rectum received 77% and bladder received 92% of the prescribed dose.

    CONCLUSIONS: OARs doses assessed by DVH criteria were higher than ICRU point doses. Our data suggest that the estimated dose to the ICRU bladder point may be a reasonable surrogate for the D 2cc and rectal DMax for D 2cc. However, the dose to the ICRU rectal point does not appear to be a reasonable surrogate for the D 2cc.

  18. Osman HA, Hasan H, Suppian R, Bahar N, Hussin NS, Rahim AA, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(13):5245-7.
    PMID: 25040982
    BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the most important causes of dyspepsia and gastric cancer and diagnosis can be made by invasive or non-invasive methods. The Atlas Helicobacter pylori antigen test is a new rapid non-invasive method which is simple to conduct. The aim of this study was to determine its sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective study was conducted between July 2012 and December 2013. Stool samples of 59 dyspeptic patients who underwent upper endoscopy were evaluated for H. pylori stool antigen.

    RESULTS: From the 59 patients who participated in this study, there were 36 (61%) males and 23 (39%) females. H. pylori was diagnosed in 24 (40.7%) gastric biopsies, 22 (91.7 %) of these being positive for the Atlas H. pylori antigen test. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy were 91.7%, 100%, 100%, 94.6% and 96.6% respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: The Atlas H. pylori antigen test is a new non-invasive method which is simple to perform and avails reliable results in a few minutes. Thus it can be the best option for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection due to its high sensitivity and specificity.

  19. Rashid RM, Ramli S, John J, Dahlui M
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(13):5143-7.
    PMID: 25040965
    Cervical cancer screening in Malaysia is by opportunistic Pap smear which contributes to the low uptake rate. To overcome this, a pilot project called the SIPPS program (translated as information system of Pap smear program) had been introduced whereby women aged 20-65 years old are invited for Pap smear and receive recall to repeat the test. This study aimed at determining which recall method is most cost-effective in getting women to repeat Pap smear. A randomised control trial was conducted where one thousand women were recalled for repeat smear either by registered letter, phone messages, phone call or the usual postal letter. The total cost applied for cost-effectiveness analysis includes the cost of sending letter for first invitation, cost of the recall method and cost of two Pap smears. Cost-effective analysis (CEA) of Pap smear uptake by each recall method was then performed. The uptake of Pap smear by postal letter, registered letters, SMS and phone calls were 18.8%, 20.0%, 21.6% and 34.4%, respectively (p<0.05). The CER for the recall method was lowest by phone call compared to other interventions; RM 69.18 (SD RM 0.14) compared to RM 106.53 (SD RM 0.13), RM 134.02 (SD RM 0.15) and RM 136.38 (SD RM 0.11) for SMS, registered letter and letter, respectively. ICER showed that it is most cost saving if the usual method of recall by postal letter be changed to recall by phone call. The possibility of letter as a recall for repeat Pap smear to reach the women is higher compared to sending SMS or making phone call. However, getting women to do repeat Pap smear is better with phone call which allows direct communication. Despite the high cost of the phone call as a recall method for repeat Pap smear, it is the most cost-effective method compared to others.
  20. Chan HK, Ismail S
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(13):5305-9.
    PMID: 25040993
    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to assess the most common physical side effects experienced by local chemotherapy patients. Their perceptions of these side effects and informational needs from clinical pharmacists were also evaluated.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a single-center, cross-sectional study. A face-to-face interview guided by a structured questionnaire with cancer patients admitted to receive repeated cycles of chemotherapy was conducted. Information collected included chemotherapy-related side effects after last chemotherapy experience, the most worrisome side effects, the side effects overlooked by healthcare professionals and the preferred method, amount and source of receiving related information.

    RESULTS: Of 99 patients recruited, 90 participated in this survey (response rate: 90.9%). The majority were in the age range of 45-64 years (73.3%) and female (93.3%). Seventy-five (83.3%) and seventy-one (78.9%) experienced nausea and vomiting, respectively. Both symptoms were selected as two of the most worrisome side effects (16.7% vs. 33.3%). Other common and worrisome side effects were hair loss and loss of appetite. Symptoms caused by peripheral neuropathies were perceived as the major symptoms being overlooked (6.7%). Most patients demanded information about side effects (60.0%) and they would like to receive as much information as possible (86.7%). Oral conversation (83.3%) remained as the preferred method and the clinical pharmacist was preferred by 46.7% of patients as the educator in this aspect.

    CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of chemotherapy-related side effects among local patients is of concern. Findings of their perceptions and informational needs may serve as a valuable guide for clinical pharmacists to help in side effect management in Malaysia.

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