OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the background of recent studies on wheelchair control based on BCI for disability and map the literature survey into a coherent taxonomy. The study intends to identify the most important aspects in this emerging field as an impetus for using BCI for disability in electric-powered wheelchair (EPW) control, which remains a challenge. The study also attempts to provide recommendations for solving other existing limitations and challenges.
METHODS: We systematically searched all articles about EPW control based on BCI for disability in three popular databases: ScienceDirect, IEEE and Web of Science. These databases contain numerous articles that considerably influenced this field and cover most of the relevant theoretical and technical issues.
RESULTS: We selected 100 articles on the basis of our inclusion and exclusion criteria. A large set of articles (55) discussed on developing real-time wheelchair control systems based on BCI for disability signals. Another set of articles (25) focused on analysing BCI for disability signals for wheelchair control. The third set of articles (14) considered the simulation of wheelchair control based on BCI for disability signals. Four articles designed a framework for wheelchair control based on BCI for disability signals. Finally, one article reviewed concerns regarding wheelchair control based on BCI for disability signals.
DISCUSSION: Since 2007, researchers have pursued the possibility of using BCI for disability in EPW control through different approaches. Regardless of type, articles have focused on addressing limitations that impede the full efficiency of BCI for disability and recommended solutions for these limitations.
CONCLUSIONS: Studies on wheelchair control based on BCI for disability considerably influence society due to the large number of people with disability. Therefore, we aim to provide researchers and developers with a clear understanding of this platform and highlight the challenges and gaps in the current and future studies.
METHODS: The morphological features of the disc that is characteristic of glaucoma are clearly seen in the fundus images. However, manual inspection of the acquired fundus images may be prone to inter-observer variation. Therefore, a computer-aided detection (CAD) system is proposed to make an accurate, reliable and fast diagnosis of glaucoma based on the optic nerve features of fundus imaging. In this paper, we reviewed existing techniques to automatically diagnose glaucoma.
RESULTS: The use of CAD is very effective in the diagnosis of glaucoma and can assist the clinicians to alleviate their workload significantly. We have also discussed the advantages of employing state-of-art techniques, including deep learning (DL), when developing the automated system. The DL methods are effective in glaucoma diagnosis.
CONCLUSIONS: Novel DL algorithms with big data availability are required to develop a reliable CAD system. Such techniques can be employed to diagnose other eye diseases accurately.
METHODS: These models utilized experimental data of wavelengths and hemoglobin concentrations in building highly accurate Genetic Algorithm/Support Vector Regression model (GA-SVR).
RESULTS: The developed methodology showed high accuracy as indicated by the low root mean square error values of 4.65 × 10-4 and 4.62 × 10-4 for oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin, respectively. In addition, the models exhibited 99.85 and 99.84% correlation coefficients (r) for the oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin, thus, validating the strong agreement between the predicted and the experimental results CONCLUSIONS: Due to the accuracy and relative simplicity of the proposed models, we envisage that these models would serve as important references for future studies on optical properties of blood.
METHOD: In this study, we implement FWF as an energy minimization function to replace the standard gradient-descent method as minimization function in Chan-Vese segmentation technique. The proposed FWF is used to find the boundaries of an object by controlling the inside and outside values of the contour. In this study, the objective evaluation is used to distinguish the differences between the processed segmented images and ground truth using a set of statistical parameters; true positive, true negative, false positive, and false negative.
RESULTS: The FWF as a minimization of energy was successfully implemented on BRATS 2013 image dataset. The achieved overall average sensitivity score of the brain tumors segmentation was 94.8 ± 4.7%.
CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that the proposed FWF method minimized the energy function more than the gradient-decent method that was used in the original three-dimensional active contour without edge (3DACWE) method.
METHODS: The proposed method uses a 2D contourlet transform and a set of texture features that are efficiently extracted from the transformed image. Then, the combination of a kernel discriminant analysis (KDA)-based feature reduction technique and analysis of variance (ANOVA)-based feature ranking technique was used, and the images were then classified into various stages of liver fibrosis.
RESULTS: Our 2D contourlet transform and texture feature analysis approach achieved a 91.46% accuracy using only four features input to the probabilistic neural network classifier, to classify the five stages of liver fibrosis. It also achieved a 92.16% sensitivity and 88.92% specificity for the same model. The evaluation was done on a database of 762 ultrasound images belonging to five different stages of liver fibrosis.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that the proposed method can be useful to automatically detect and classify liver fibrosis, which would greatly assist clinicians in making an accurate diagnosis.
OBJECTIVE: This paper proposes a novel technique for reorganisation of opinion order to interval levels (TROOIL) to prioritise the patients with MCDs in real-time remote health-monitoring system.
METHODS: The proposed TROOIL technique comprises six steps for prioritisation of patients with MCDs: (1) conversion of actual data into intervals; (2) rule generation; (3) rule ordering; (4) expert rule validation; (5) data reorganisation; and (6) criteria weighting and ranking alternatives within each rule. The secondary dataset of 500 patients from the most relevant study in a remote prioritisation area was adopted. The dataset contains three diseases, namely, chronic heart disease, high blood pressure (BP) and low BP.
RESULTS: The proposed TROOIL is an effective technique for prioritising patients with MCDs. In the objective validation, remarkable differences were recognised among the groups' scores, indicating identical ranking results. In the evaluation of issues within all scenarios, the proposed framework has an advantage of 22.95% over the benchmark framework.
DISCUSSION: Patients with the most severe MCD were treated first on the basis of their highest priority levels. The treatment for patients with less severe cases was delayed more than that for other patients.
CONCLUSIONS: The proposed TROOIL technique can deal with multiple DM problems in prioritisation of patients with MCDs.
METHODS: Gaussian effort model (GEM) is a derivative of the single-compartment model with basis function. GEM model uses a linear combination of basis functions to model the nonlinear pressure waveform of spontaneous breathing patients. The GEM model estimates respiratory mechanics such as Elastance and Resistance along with the magnitudes of basis functions, which accounts for patient inspiratory effort.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The GEM model was tested using both simulated data and a retrospective observational clinical trial patient data. GEM model fitting to the original airway pressure waveform is better than any existing models when reverse triggering asynchrony is present. The fitting error of GEM model was less than 10% for both simulated data and clinical trial patient data.
CONCLUSION: GEM can capture the respiratory mechanics in the presence of patient effect in volume control ventilation mode and also can be used to assess patient-ventilator interaction. This model determines basis functions magnitudes, which can be used to simulate any waveform of patient effort pressure for future studies. The estimation of parameter identification GEM model can further be improved by constraining the parameters within a physiologically plausible range during least-square nonlinear regression.
METHODS: CFAE from several atrial sites, recorded for a duration of 16 s, were acquired from 10 patients with persistent and 9 patients with paroxysmal AF. These signals were appraised using non-overlapping windows of 1-, 2- and 4-s durations. The resulting data sets were analyzed with Recurrence Plots (RP) and Recurrence Quantification Analysis (RQA). The data was also quantified via entropy measures.
RESULTS: RQA exhibited unique plots for persistent versus paroxysmal AF. Similar patterns were observed to be repeated throughout the RPs. Trends were consistent for signal segments of 1 and 2 s as well as 4 s in duration. This was suggestive that the underlying signal generation process is also repetitive, and that repetitiveness can be detected even in 1-s sequences. The results also showed that most entropy metrics exhibited higher measurement values (closer to equilibrium) for persistent AF data. It was also found that Determinism (DET), Trapping Time (TT), and Modified Multiscale Entropy (MMSE), extracted from signals that were acquired from locations at the posterior atrial free wall, are highly discriminative of persistent versus paroxysmal AF data.
CONCLUSIONS: Short data sequences are sufficient to provide information to discern persistent versus paroxysmal AF data with a significant difference, and can be useful to detect repeating patterns of atrial activation.
METHOD: For this purpose, we employ fractal theory and analyze the variations of fractal dimension of GSR and EEG signals when subjects are exposed to different olfactory stimuli in the form of pleasant odors.
RESULTS: Based on the obtained results, the complexity of GSR signal changes with the complexity of EEG signal in case of different stimuli, where by increasing the molecular complexity of olfactory stimuli, the complexity of EEG and GSR signals increases. The results of statistical analysis showed the significant effect of stimulation on variations of complexity of GSR signal. In addition, based on effect size analysis, fourth odor with greatest molecular complexity had the greatest effect on variations of complexity of EEG and GSR signals.
CONCLUSION: Therefore, it can be said that human skin reaction changes with the variations in the activity of human brain. The result of analysis in this research can be further used to make a model between the activities of human skin and brain that will enable us to predict skin reaction to different stimuli.
METHODS: A 3D model of the liver tissue was developed. Saline infusion was described using the dual porosity model, while RFA was described using the electrostatic and bioheat transfer equations. Three infusion locations were investigated, namely at the proximal end, the middle and the distal end of the electrode. Investigations were carried out numerically using the finite element method.
RESULTS: Results indicated that greater thermal coagulation was found in the region of tissue occupied by the saline bolus. Infusion at the middle of the electrode led to the largest coagulation volume followed by infusion at the proximal and distal ends. It was also found that the ability to delay roll-off, as commonly associated with saline-infused RFA, was true only for the case when infusion is carried out at the middle. When infused at the proximal and distal ends, the occurrence of roll-off was advanced. This may be due to the rapid and more intense heating experienced by the tissue when infusion is carried out at the electrode ends where Joule heating is dominant.
CONCLUSION: Altering the location of saline infusion can influence the shape of the coagulation zone following saline-infused RFA. The ability to 'shift' the coagulation zone to a desired location opens up great opportunities for the development of more precise saline-infused RFA treatment that targets specific regions within the tissue.
METHODS: This article provides a comprehensive review of automated sleep stage scoring systems, which were created since the year 2000. The systems were developed for Electrocardiogram (ECG), Electroencephalogram (EEG), Electrooculogram (EOG), and a combination of signals.
RESULTS: Our review shows that all of these signals contain information for sleep stage scoring.
CONCLUSIONS: The result is important, because it allows us to shift our research focus away from information extraction methods to systemic improvements, such as patient comfort, redundancy, safety and cost.
METHODS: A convolutional auto-encoder (CAE) based nonlinear compression structure is implemented to reduce the signal size of arrhythmic beats. Long-short term memory (LSTM) classifiers are employed to automatically recognize arrhythmias using ECG features, which are deeply coded with the CAE network.
RESULTS: Based upon the coded ECG signals, both storage requirement and classification time were considerably reduced. In experimental studies conducted with the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database, ECG signals were compressed by an average 0.70% percentage root mean square difference (PRD) rate, and an accuracy of over 99.0% was observed.
CONCLUSIONS: One of the significant contributions of this study is that the proposed approach can significantly reduce time duration when using LSTM networks for data analysis. Thus, a novel and effective approach was proposed for both ECG signal compression, and their high-performance automatic recognition, with very low computational cost.
METHODS: A 2D model in the axisymmetric coordinates was developed to simulate the electro-thermophysiological responses of the tissue during a single probe bipolar RFA. Two different probe configurations were considered, namely the configuration where the active electrode is longer than the ground and the configuration where the ground electrode is longer than the active. The mathematical model was first verified with an existing experimental study found in the literature.
RESULTS: Results from the simulations showed that heating is confined only to the region around the shorter electrode, regardless of whether the shorter electrode is the active or the ground. Consequently, thermal coagulation also occurs in the region surrounding the shorter electrode. This opened up the possibility for a better customized treatment through the development of RF probes with adjustable electrode lengths.
CONCLUSIONS: The electrode length was found to play a significant role on the outcome of single probe bipolar RFA. In particular, the length of the shorter electrode becomes the limiting factor that influences the mechanics of single probe bipolar RFA. Results from this study can be used to further develop and optimize bipolar RFA as an effective and reliable cancer treatment technique.
OBJECTIVE: This paper presents a rescue framework for the transfusion of the best CP to the most critical patients with COVID-19 on the basis of biological requirements by using machine learning and novel MCDM methods.
METHOD: The proposed framework is illustrated on the basis of two distinct and consecutive phases (i.e. testing and development). In testing, ABO compatibility is assessed after classifying donors into the four blood types, namely, A, B, AB and O, to indicate the suitability and safety of plasma for administration in order to refine the CP tested list repository. The development phase includes patient and donor sides. In the patient side, prioritisation is performed using a contracted patient decision matrix constructed between 'serological/protein biomarkers and the ratio of the partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood to fractional inspired oxygen criteria' and 'patient list based on novel MCDM method known as subjective and objective decision by opinion score method'. Then, the patients with the most urgent need are classified into the four blood types and matched with a tested CP list from the test phase in the donor side. Thereafter, the prioritisation of CP tested list is performed using the contracted CP decision matrix.
RESULT: An intelligence-integrated concept is proposed to identify the most appropriate CP for corresponding prioritised patients with COVID-19 to help doctors hasten treatments.
DISCUSSION: The proposed framework implies the benefits of providing effective care and prevention of the extremely rapidly spreading COVID-19 from affecting patients and the medical sector.
METHODS: In the present study, 2D axisymmetric models were developed to investigate how saline backflow influence saline-infused RFA and whether the aforementioned concerns are warranted. Saline-infused RFA was described using the dual porosity-Joule heating model. The hydrodynamics of backflow was described using Poiseuille law by assuming the flow to be similar to that in a thin annulus. Backflow lengths of 3, 4.5, 6 and 9 cm were considered.
RESULTS: Results showed that there is no concern of thermally ablating the tissue in the backflow region. This is due to the Joule heating being inversely proportional to distance from the electrode to the fourth power. Results also indicated that larger backflow lengths led to larger growth of thermal damage along the backflow region and greater decrease in coagulation volume. Hence, backflow needs to be controlled to ensure an effective treatment of saline-infused RFA.
CONCLUSIONS: There is no risk of ablating tissues around the needle insertion track due to backflow. Instead, the risk of underablation as a result of the loss of saline due to backflow was found to be of greater concern.
METHOD: The CAE model was trained using 12,170,655 simulated SB flow and normal flow data (NB). The paired SB and NB flow data were simulated using a Gaussian Effort Model (GEM) with 5 basis functions. When the CAE model is given a SB flow input, it is capable of predicting a corresponding NB flow for the SB flow input. The magnitude of SB effort (SBEMag) is then quantified as the difference between the SB and NB flows. The CAE model was used to evaluate the SBEMag of 9 pressure control/ support datasets. Results were validated using a mean squared error (MSE) fitting between clinical and training SB flows.
RESULTS: The CAE model was able to produce NB flows from the clinical SB flows with the median SBEMag of the 9 datasets being 25.39% [IQR: 21.87-25.57%]. The absolute error in SBEMag using MSE validation yields a median of 4.77% [IQR: 3.77-8.56%] amongst the cohort. This shows the ability of the GEM to capture the intrinsic details present in SB flow waveforms. Analysis also shows both intra-patient and inter-patient variability in SBEMag.
CONCLUSION: A Convolutional Autoencoder model was developed with simulated SB and NB flow data and is capable of quantifying the magnitude of patient spontaneous breathing effort. This provides potential application for real-time monitoring of patient respiratory drive for better management of patient-ventilator interaction.
METHODS: Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach is used to simulate the airflow in a neonate, an infant and an adult in sedentary breathing conditions. The healthy CT scans are segmented using MIMICS 21.0 (Materialise, Ann arbor, MI). The patient-specific 3D airway models are analyzed for low Reynolds number flow using ANSYS FLUENT 2020 R2. The applicability of the Grid Convergence Index (GCI) for polyhedral mesh adopted in this work is also verified.
RESULTS: This study shows that the inferior meatus of neonates accounted for only 15% of the total airflow. This was in contrast to the infants and adults who experienced 49 and 31% of airflow at the inferior meatus region. Superior meatus experienced 25% of total flow which is more than normal for the neonate. The highest velocity of 1.8, 2.6 and 3.7 m/s was observed at the nasal valve region for neonates, infants and adults, respectively. The anterior portion of the nasal cavity experienced maximum wall shear stress with average values of 0.48, 0.25 and 0.58 Pa for the neonates, infants and adults.
CONCLUSIONS: The neonates have an underdeveloped nasal cavity which significantly affects their airway distribution. The absence of inferior meatus in the neonates has limited the flow through the inferior regions and resulted in uneven flow distribution.
METHODS: This study shows the design and development of the "VENT" protocol, which integrates the single compartment linear lung model with clinical recommendations from landmark studies, to aid clinical decision-making in selecting mechanical ventilation settings. Using retrospective breath data from a cohort of 24 patients, 3,566 and 2,447 clinically implemented VC and PC settings were extracted respectively. Using this data, a VENT protocol application case study and clinical comparison is performed, and the prediction accuracy of the VENT protocol is validated against actual measured outcomes of pressure and volume.
RESULTS: The study shows the VENT protocols' potential use in narrowing an overwhelming number of possible mechanical ventilation setting combinations by up to 99.9%. The comparison with retrospective clinical data showed that only 33% and 45% of clinician settings were approved by the VENT protocol. The unapproved settings were mainly due to exceeding clinical recommended settings. When utilising the single compartment model in the VENT protocol for forecasting peak pressures and tidal volumes, median [IQR] prediction error values of 0.75 [0.31 - 1.83] cmH2O and 0.55 [0.19 - 1.20] mL/kg were obtained.
CONCLUSIONS: Comparing the proposed protocol with retrospective clinically implemented settings shows the protocol can prevent harmful mechanical ventilation setting combinations for which clinicians would be otherwise unaware. The VENT protocol warrants a more detailed clinical study to validate its potential usefulness in a clinical setting.