Displaying publications 41 - 60 of 62 in total

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  1. Rezayi M, Farjami Z, Hosseini ZS, Ebrahimi N, Abouzari-Lotf E
    Curr Pharm Des, 2018;24(39):4675-4680.
    PMID: 30636591 DOI: 10.2174/1381612825666190111144525
    Small noncoding microRNAs (miRNAs) are known as noninvasive biomarkers for early detection in various cancers. In fact, miRNAs have key roles in carcinogenicity process such as proliferation, apoptosis and metastasis. After cardiovascular disease, cancer is the second cause of death in the world with an estimated 9.6 million deaths in 2018. So, early diagnosis of cancer is critical for successful treatment. To date, several selective and sensitive laboratory-based methods have been applied for the detection of circulating miRNA, but a simple, short assay time and low-cost method such as a biosensor method as an alternative approach to monitor cancer biomarker is required. In this review, we have highlighted recent advances in biosensors for circulating miRNA detection.
  2. Liu S, Dang M, Lei Y, Ahmad SS, Khalid M, Kamal MA, et al.
    Curr Pharm Des, 2020;26(37):4808-4814.
    PMID: 32264807 DOI: 10.2174/1381612826666200407161842
    BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most well-known reason for disability in persons aged greater than 65 years worldwide. AD influences the part of the brain that controls cognitive and non-cognitive functions.

    OBJECTIVE: The study focuses on the screening of natural compounds for the inhibition of AChE and BuChE using a computational methodology.

    METHODS: We performed a docking-based virtual screening utilizing the 3D structure of AChE and BuChE to search for potential inhibitors for AD. In this work, a screened inhibitor Ajmalicine similarity search was carried out against a natural products database (Super Natural II). Lipinski rule of five was carried out and docking studies were performed between ligands and enzyme using 'Autodock4.2'.

    RESULTS: Two phytochemical compounds SN00288228 and SN00226692 were predicted for the inhibition of AChE and BuChE, respectively. The docking results revealed Ajmalicine, a prominent natural alkaloid, showing promising inhibitory potential against AChE and BuChE with the binding energy of -9.02 and -8.89 kcal/mole, respectively. However, SN00288228- AChE, and SN00226692-BuChE were found to have binding energy -9.88 and -9.54 kcal/mole, respectively. These selected phytochemical compounds showed better interactions in comparison to Ajmalicine with the target molecule.

    CONCLUSION: The current study verifies that SN00288228 and SN00226692 are more capable inhibitors of human AChE and BuChE as compared to Ajmalicine with reference to ΔG values.

  3. Ng PQ, Ling LSC, Chellian J, Madheswaran T, Panneerselvam J, Kunnath AP, et al.
    Curr Pharm Des, 2020;26(36):4580-4590.
    PMID: 32520681 DOI: 10.2174/1381612826666200610111013
    Many plant-based bioactive compounds have been serving as the origin of drugs since long ago and many of them have been proven to have medicinal value against various chronic diseases, including, cancer, arthritis, hepatic diseases, type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. However, their clinical applications have been limited due to their poor water solubility, stability, low bioavailability and extensive transformation due to the first-pass metabolism. The applications of nanocarriers have been proven to be able to improve the delivery of bioactive phytoconstituents, resulting in the enhancement of various pharmacokinetic properties and thereby increasing the therapeutic value of phytoconstituents. These biocompatible nanocarriers also exert low toxicity to healthy cells. This review focuses on the uses and applications of different types of nanocarriers to enhance the delivery of phytoconstituents for the treatment of various chronic diseases, along with comparisons related to bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy of nano phytoconstituents with native phytoconstituents.
  4. Sridevi V, Naveen P, Karnam VS, Reddy PR, Arifullah M
    Curr Pharm Des, 2021;27(6):802-815.
    PMID: 32942973 DOI: 10.2174/1381612826999200917154747
    BACKGROUND: Phytoestrogens are non-endocrine, non-steroidal secondary derivatives of plants and consumed through a plant-based diet also named as "dietary estrogens". The major sources of phytoestrogens are soy and soy-based foods, flaxseed, chickpeas, green beans, dairy products, etc. The dietary inclusion of phytoestrogen based foods plays a crucial role in the maintenance of metabolic syndrome cluster, including obesity, diabetes, blood pressure, cancer, inflammation, cardiovascular diseases, postmenopausal ailments and their complications. In recent days, phytoestrogens are the preferred molecules for hormone replacement therapy. On the other hand, they act as endocrine disruptors via estrogen receptor-mediated pathways. These effects are not restricted to adult males or females and identified even in development.

    OBJECTIVE: Since phytoestrogenic occurrence is high at daily meals for most people worldwide, they focused to study for its beneficiary effects towards developing pharmaceutical drugs for treating various metabolic disorders by observing endocrine disruption.

    CONCLUSION: The present review emphasizes the pros and cons of phytoestrogens on human health, which may help to direct the pharmaceutical industry to produce various phytoestrongen based drugs against various metabolic disorders.

  5. Choudhury H, Pandey M, Wen LP, Cien LK, Xin H, Yee ANJ, et al.
    Curr Pharm Des, 2020;26(42):5365-5379.
    PMID: 32693762 DOI: 10.2174/1381612826666200721000958
    Breast cancer (BC) is the commonest cause of cancer deaths among Women. It is known to be caused due to mutations in certain receptors, viz. estrogens or progesterones. The most frequently used conventional treatment strategies against BC include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and partial or entire mastectomy, however, these strategies are often associated with multiple adverse effects, thus reducing patient compliance. Advancement of nanotechnology in the medical application has been made to enhance the therapeutic effectiveness with a significant reduction in the unintended side-effects associated with incorporated anticancer drugs against cancer. The surface engineering technology of the nanocarriers is more pronounced in delivering the therapeutics specifically to target cells. Consequently, folic acid, a small molecular ligand for the folate receptor overexpressed cells, has shown immense response in treating BC cells. Folic acid conjugated nanocarriers have shown remarkable efficiency in targeting overexpressed folate receptors on the surface of BC cells. Binding of these target-specific folate-conjugated nanocarriers substantially improves the internalization of chemotherapeutics in BC cells, without much exposing the other parts of the body. Simultaneously, these folate-- conjugated nanocarriers provide imaging for regular monitoring of targeted drug delivery systems and their responses to an anticancer therapy. Therefore, this review demonstrates the potential of folate-conjugated nanotherapeutics for the treatment and theranostic approaches against BC along with the significant challenges to anticancer therapy, and the prospective insights into the clinical importance and effectiveness of folate conjugate nanocarriers.
  6. Hardwick J, Taylor J, Mehta M, Satija S, Paudel KR, Hansbro PM, et al.
    Curr Pharm Des, 2021;27(1):2-14.
    PMID: 32723255 DOI: 10.2174/1381612826666200728151610
    Curcumin is a major curcuminoid present in turmeric. The compound is attributed to various therapeutic properties, which include anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-malarial, and neuroprotection. Due to its therapeutic potential, curcumin has been employed for centuries in treating different ailments. Curcumin has been investigated lately as a novel therapeutic agent in the treatment of cancer. However, the mechanisms by which curcumin exerts its cytotoxic effects on malignant cells are still not fully understood. One of the main limiting factors in the clinical use of curcumin is its poor bioavailability and rapid elimination. Advancements in drug delivery systems such as nanoparticle-based vesicular drug delivery platforms have improved several parameters, namely, drug bioavailability, solubility, stability, and controlled release properties. The use of curcumin-encapsulated niosomes to improve the physical and pharmacokinetic properties of curcumin is one such approach. This review provides an up-to-date summary of nanoparticle-based vesicular drug carriers and their therapeutic applications. Specifically, we focus on niosomes as novel drug delivery formulations and their potential in improving the delivery of challenging small molecules, including curcumin. Overall, the applications of such carriers will provide a new direction for novel pharmaceutical drug delivery, as well as for biotechnology, nutraceutical, and functional food industries.
  7. Mehta M, Dhanjal DS, Satija S, Wadhwa R, Paudel KR, Chellappan DK, et al.
    Curr Pharm Des, 2020;26(42):5380-5392.
    PMID: 33198611 DOI: 10.2174/1381612826999201116161143
    Cell Signaling pathways form an integral part of our existence that allows the cells to comprehend a stimulus and respond back. Such reactions to external cues from the environment are required and are essential to regulate the normal functioning of our body. Abnormalities in the system arise when there are errors developed in these signals, resulting in a complication or a disease. Presently, respiratory diseases contribute to being the third leading cause of morbidity worldwide. According to the current statistics, over 339 million people are asthmatic, 65 million are suffering from COPD, 2.3 million are lung cancer patients and 10 million are tuberculosis patients. This toll of statistics with chronic respiratory diseases leaves a heavy burden on society and the nation's annual health expenditure. Hence, a better understanding of the processes governing these cellular pathways will enable us to treat and manage these deadly respiratory diseases effectively. Moreover, it is important to comprehend the synergy and interplay of the cellular signaling pathways in respiratory diseases, which will enable us to explore and develop suitable strategies for targeted drug delivery. This review, in particular, focuses on the major respiratory diseases and further provides an in-depth discussion on the various cell signaling pathways that are involved in the pathophysiology of respiratory diseases. Moreover, the review also analyses the defining concepts about advanced nano-drug delivery systems involving various nanocarriers and propose newer prospects to minimize the current challenges faced by researchers and formulation scientists.
  8. Khalivulla SI, Mohammed A, Mallikarjuna K
    Curr Pharm Des, 2021;27(6):775-788.
    PMID: 33355047 DOI: 10.2174/1381612826666201222154159
    BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a chronic disease affecting a large population worldwide and stands as one of the major global health challenges to be tackled. According to World Health Organization, about 400 million are having diabetes worldwide and it is the seventh leading cause of deaths in 2016. Plant-based natural products have been in use from ancient times as ethnomedicine for the treatment of several diseases, including diabetes. As a result of that, there are several reports on plant-based natural products displaying antidiabetic activity. In the current review, such antidiabetic potential compounds reported from all plant sources along with their chemical structures are collected, presented and discussed. These kinds of reports are essential to pool the available information to one source, followed by statistical analysis and screening to check the efficacy of all known compounds in a comparative sense. This kind of analysis can give rise to a few potential compounds from hundreds, which can further be screened through in vitro and in vivo studies, and human trails leading to the drug development.

    METHODS: Phytochemicals, along with their potential antidiabetic property, were classified according to their basic chemical skeleton. The chemical structures of all the compounds with antidiabetic activities were elucidated in the present review. In addition to this, the distribution and their other remarkable pharmacological activities of each species are also included.

    RESULTS: The scrutiny of literature led to the identification of 44 plants with antidiabetic compounds (70) and other pharmacological activities. For the sake of information, the distribution of each species in the world is given. Many plant derivatives may exert anti-diabetic properties by improving or mimicking insulin production or action. Different classes of compounds including sulfur compounds (1-4), alkaloids (5-11), phenolic compounds (12-17), tannins (18-23), phenylpropanoids (24-27), xanthanoids (28-31), amino acid (32), stilbenoid (33), benzofuran (34), coumarin (35), flavonoids (36-49) and terpenoids (50-70) were found to be potential active compounds for antidiabetic activity. Of the 70 listed compounds, majorly 17 compounds are obtained from triterpenoids, 13 from flavonoids and 7 from alkaloids. Among all the 44 plant species, the maximum number (7) of compounds were isolated from Lagerstroemia speciosa followed by Momordica charantia (6) and S. oblonga with 5 compounds.

    CONCLUSION: This is the first paper to summarize the established chemical structures of phytochemicals that have been successfully screened for antidiabetic potential and their mechanisms of inhibition. The reported compounds could be considered as potential lead molecules for the treatment of type-2 diabetes. Further, molecular and clinical trials are required to select and establish therapeutic drug candidates.

  9. Giemza-Stokłosa J, Islam MA, Kotyla PJ
    Curr Pharm Des, 2019;25(27):2909-2918.
    PMID: 31686632 DOI: 10.2174/1381612825666190709202804
    BACKGROUND: Ferritin is a molecule that plays many roles being the storage for iron, signalling molecule, and modulator of the immune response.

    METHODS: Different electronic databases were searched in a non-systematic way to find out the literature of interest.

    RESULTS: The level of ferritin rises in many inflammatory conditions including autoimmune disorders. However, in four inflammatory diseases (i.e., adult-onset Still's diseases, macrophage activation syndrome, catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome, and sepsis), high levels of ferritin are observed suggesting it as a remarkable biomarker and pathological involvement in these diseases. Acting as an acute phase reactant, ferritin is also involved in the cytokine-associated modulator of the immune response as well as a regulator of cytokine synthesis and release which are responsible for the inflammatory storm.

    CONCLUSION: This review article presents updated information on the role of ferritin in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases with an emphasis on hyperferritinaemic syndrome.

  10. Mahmod Al-Qattan MN, Mordi MN
    Curr Pharm Des, 2019;25(7):817-831.
    PMID: 30834826 DOI: 10.2174/1381612825666190304122624
    Modulating cellular processes through extracellular chemical stimuli is medicinally an attractive approach to control disease conditions. GPCRs are the most important group of transmembranal receptors that produce different patterns of activations using intracellular mediators (such as G-proteins and Beta-arrestins). Adenosine receptors (ARs) belong to GPCR class and are divided into A1AR, A2AAR, A2BAR and A3AR. ARs control different physiological activities thus considered valuable target to control neural, heart, inflammatory and other metabolic disorders. Targeting ARs using small molecules essentially works by binding orthosteric and/or allosteric sites of the receptors. Although targeting orthosteric site is considered typical to modulate receptor activity, allosteric sites provide better subtype selectivity, saturable modulation of activity and variable activation patterns. Each receptor exists in dynamical equilibrium between conformational ensembles. The equilibrium is affected by receptor interaction with other molecules. Changing the population of conformational ensembles of the receptor is the method by which orthosteric, allosteric and other cellular components control receptor signaling. Herein, the interactions of ARs with orthosteric, allosteric ligands as well as intracellular mediators are described. A quinary interaction model for the receptor is proposed and energy wells for major conformational ensembles are retrieved.
  11. Gorain B, Rajeswary DC, Pandey M, Kesharwani P, Kumbhar SA, Choudhury H
    Curr Pharm Des, 2020;26(19):2233-2246.
    PMID: 32167424 DOI: 10.2174/1381612826666200313125613
    Increasing incidence of demented patients around the globe with limited FDA approved conventional therapies requires pronounced research attention for the management of the demented conditions in the growing elderly population in the developing world. Dementia of Alzheimer's type is a neurodegenerative disorder, where conventional therapies are available for symptomatic treatment of the disease but possess several peripheral toxicities due to lack of brain targeting. Nanotechnology based formulations via intranasal (IN) routes of administration have shown to improve therapeutic efficacy of several therapeutics via circumventing blood-brain barrier and limited peripheral exposure. Instead of numerous research on polymeric and lipid-based nanocarriers in the improvement of therapeutic chemicals and peptides in preclinical research, a step towards clinical studies still requires wide-ranging data on safety and efficacy. This review has focused on current approaches of nanocarrierbased therapies on Alzheimer's disease (AD) via the IN route for polymeric and lipid-based nanocarriers for the improvement of therapeutic efficacy and safety. Moreover, the clinical application of IN nanocarrier-based delivery of therapeutics to the brain needs a long run; however, proper attention towards AD therapy via this platform could bring a new era for the AD patients.
  12. Md S, Karim S, Saker SR, Gie OA, Hooi LC, Yee PH, et al.
    Curr Pharm Des, 2020;26(19):2222-2232.
    PMID: 32175832 DOI: 10.2174/1381612826666200316154300
    Rotigotine is a non-ergoline, high lipophilic dopamine agonist. It is indicated as the first-line therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD) and Restless Leg Syndrome (RLS). However, the precise mechanism of rotigotine is yet to be known. Rotigotine has similar safety and tolerability to the other oral non-ergolinic dopamine antagonists in clinical trials, which include nausea, dizziness and somnolence. Neupro® was the first marketed transdermal patch formulation having rotigotine. The transdermal delivery system is advantageous as it enables continuous administration of the drug, thus providing steady-state plasma drug concentration for 24-hours. Intranasal administration of rotigotine allows the drug to bypass the blood-brain barrier enabling it to reach the central nervous system within minutes. Rotigotine can also be formulated as an extended-release microsphere for injection. Some challenges remain in other routes of rotigotine administration such as oral, parenteral and pulmonary, whereby resolving these challenges will be beneficial to patients as they are less invasive and comfortable in terms of administration. This review compiles recent work on rotigotine delivery, challenges and its future perspective.
  13. Ansari MT, Ramlan TA, Jamaluddin NN, Zamri N, Salfi R, Khan A, et al.
    Curr Pharm Des, 2020;26(34):4272-4276.
    PMID: 32693760 DOI: 10.2174/1381612826666200720235752
    Cancer and tumor have been major reasons for numerous deaths in this century across the world. Many strategies have been designed to treat, diagnose, or prevent cancer. The success of chemotherapy largely depends on drug targeting. The advent of nanotechnology has vastly improved drug delivery for targeting and diagnosis. Nevertheless, the accuracy of drug targeting with polymeric nanoparticles has always been questionable. The polymeric nanoparticles synthesized from varieties of lipid-based compounds or combined with vectors, such as liposomes, ethosomes, and transfersomes, may allow the drug to overcome the issue of resistance to drug absorption in biological membranes. The combined effects of lipid-based nanocarriers are known to improve the efficacy and accuracy of polymeric nanoparticles. The present review explores the application of lipid based nanocarriers in the treatment and diagnosis of cancer A special focus is given to the use of lipid-based nanocarriers in the treatment, diagnosis, and mitigation of cancer located in blood, brain, lung, and colon. The treatment of these cancers has always been questionable as the chances of relapse are very high. The review encompasses the use of lipid-based nanocarriers in targeting tissue-specific cancer cells.
  14. Chow YL, Teh LK, Chyi LH, Lim LF, Yee CC, Wei LK
    Curr Pharm Des, 2020;26(34):4261-4271.
    PMID: 32534558 DOI: 10.2174/1381612826666200614180958
    Stroke is the second leading cause of death and a major cause of disability worldwide. Both modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors can affect the occurrence of ischemic stroke at varying degrees. Among them, atherosclerosis has been well-recognized as one of the main culprits for the rising incidence of stroke-related mortality. Hence, the current review aimed to summarize the prominent role of lipid metabolism genes such as PCSK9, ApoB, ApoA5, ApoC3, ApoE, and ABCA1 in mediating ischemic stroke occurrence.
  15. Fai TK, Kumar PV
    Curr Pharm Des, 2021;27(21):2482-2504.
    PMID: 33504298 DOI: 10.2174/1381612827666210127121347
    This review article mainly focuses on the revolution of the synthesis of gold nanoplatform from the previous era to the present era. Initially, the gold nanoplatform was widely used by the electrical and electronic industries for their products due to its remarkable properties, such as large surface volume, redox activity, fluorescence quenching, and optical-electronic properties. In this era, due to the invention of localised surface plasmonic resonance, optoacoustic, photothermal and theragnostic characteristics of the gold nanoplatforms and their application in biosensors and various diagnostic methods, the pharmaceutical and biotechnological companies have started showing their interest in manufacturing gold nanoplatforms for their new product development. This colloidal dispersion is synthesized in various forms, such as a gold nanoparticle, gold nanoplatform, plasmonic gold nanoparticle, amphiphilic gold nanoparticle, and gold nanocrystal. This review article describes various methods for preparation of gold nanoplatforms with different size, shape, and physiobiological properties and their applications in different fields.
  16. Satija S, Sharma P, Kaur H, Dhanjal DS, Chopra RS, Khurana N, et al.
    Curr Pharm Des, 2021;27(43):4376-4387.
    PMID: 34459378 DOI: 10.2174/1381612827666210830100907
    With an estimated failure rate of about 90%, immunotherapies that are intended for the treatment of solid tumors have caused an anomalous rise in the mortality rate over the past decades. It is apparent that resistance towards such therapies primarily occurs due to elevated levels of HIF-1 (Hypoxia-induced factor) in tumor cells, which are caused by disrupted microcirculation and diffusion mechanisms. With the advent of nanotechnology, several innovative advances were brought to the fore; and, one such promising direction is the use of perfluorocarbon nanoparticles in the management of solid tumors. Perfluorocarbon nanoparticles enhance the response of hypoxia-based agents (HBAs) within the tumor cells and have been found to augment the entry of HBAs into the tumor micro-environment. The heightened penetration of HBAs causes chronic hypoxia, thus aiding in the process of cell quiescence. In addition, this technology has also been applied in photodynamic therapy, where oxygen self-enriched photosensitizers loaded perfluorocarbon nanoparticles are employed. The resulting processes initiate a cascade, depleting tumour oxygen and turning it into a reactive oxygen species eventually to destroy the tumour cell. This review elaborates on the multiple applications of nanotechnology based perfluorocarbon formulations that are being currently employed in the treatment of tumour hypoxia.
  17. Moti LAA, Hussain Z, Thu HE, Khan S, Sohail M, Sarfraz RM
    Curr Pharm Des, 2021;27(43):4356-4375.
    PMID: 34459374 DOI: 10.2174/1381612827666210830092539
    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer (BC) is one of the most aggressive and prevalent types of cancer, which is associated with a high rate of mortality and colossal potential of metastasis to other body organs. Conventionally, there are three commonly employed strategies for the treatment of BC including, surgery, radiations and chemotherapy; however, these modalities are associated with several deleterious effects and a high rate of relapse.

    OBJECTIVE: This review was aimed to critically discuss and conceptualize existing evidences related to the pharmaceutical significance and therapeutic feasibility of multi-functionalization of nanomedicines for early diagnosis and efficient treatment of BC.

    RESULTS: Though the implication of nanotechnology-based modalities has revolutionised the outcomes of diagnosis and treatment of BC; however, the clinical translation of these nanomedicines is facing grandeur challenges. These challenges include recognition by the reticuloendothelial system (RES), short plasma half-life, non-specific accumulation in the non-cancerous cells, and expulsion of the drug(s) by the efflux pump. To circumvent these challenges, various adaptations such as PEGylation, conjugation of targeting ligand(s), and siteresponsive behaviour (i.e., pH-responsiveness, biochemical, or thermal-responsiveness) have been adapted. Similarly, multi-functionalization of nanomedicines has emerged as an exceptional strategy to improve the pharmacokinetic profile, specific targetability to the tumor microenvironment (active targeting) and efficient internalization, and to alleviate the expulsion of internalized drug contents by silencing-off efflux pump.

    CONCLUSION: Critical analysis of the available evidences revealed that multi-functionalization of nanomedicines is a plausible and sustainable adaptation for early diagnosis and treatment of BC with better therapeutic outcomes.

  18. Gorain B, Al-Dhubiab BE, Nair A, Kesharwani P, Pandey M, Choudhury H
    Curr Pharm Des, 2021;27(43):4404-4415.
    PMID: 34459377 DOI: 10.2174/1381612827666210830095941
    The advancement of delivery tools for therapeutic agents has brought several novel formulations with increased drug loading, sustained release, targeted delivery, and prolonged efficacy. Amongst the several novel delivery approaches, multivesicular liposome has gained potential interest because this delivery system possesses the above advantages. In addition, this multivesicular liposomal delivery prevents degradation of the entrapped drug within the physiological environment while administered. The special structure of the vesicles allowed successful entrapment of hydrophobic and hydrophilic therapeutic agents, including proteins and peptides. Furthermore, this novel formulation could maintain the desired drug concentration in the plasma for a prolonged period, which helps to reduce the dosing frequencies, improve bioavailability, and safety. This tool could also provide stability of the formulation, and finally gaining patient compliance. Several multivesicular liposomes received approval for clinical research, while others are at different stages of laboratory research. In this review, we have focused on the preparation of multivesicular liposomes along with their application in different ailments for the improvement of the performance of the entrapped drug. Moreover, the challenges of delivering multivesicular vesicles have also been emphasized. Overall, it could be inferred that multivesicular liposomal delivery is a platform of advanced drug delivery with improved efficacy and safety.
  19. Soliman AM, Teoh SL, Das S
    Curr Pharm Des, 2022 Jan 28.
    PMID: 35088658 DOI: 10.2174/1381612828666220128103725
    Gelatin is obtained via partial denaturation of collagen and is extensively used in various industries. The majority of gelatin utilized globally is derived from a mammalian source. Several health and religious concerns associated with porcine/bovine gelatin were reported. Therefore, gelatin from a marine source is widely being investigated for its efficiency and utilization in a variety of applications as a potential substitute for porcine/bovine gelatin. Although fish gelatin is less durable and possesses lower melting and gelling temperatures compared to mammal-derived gelatin, various modifications are being reported to promote its rheological and functional properties to be efficiently employed. The present review describes in detail the current innovative applications of fish gelatin involving the food industry, drug delivery and possible therapeutic applications. Gelatin bioactive molecules may be utilized as carriers for drug delivery. Due to its versatility, gelatin can be used in different carrier systems, such as microparticles, nanoparticles, fibers and hydrogels. The present review also provides a perspective on the other potential pharmaceutical applications of fish gelatin, such as tissue regeneration, antioxidant supplementation, antihypertensive and anticancer treatments.
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