Hybrid artificial intelligence (AI) models are developed for sediment lead (Pb) prediction in two Bays (i.e., Bramble (BB) and Deception (DB)) stations, Australia. A feature selection (FS) algorithm called extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) is proposed to abstract the correlated input parameters for the Pb prediction and validated against principal component of analysis (PCA), recursive feature elimination (RFE), and the genetic algorithm (GA). XGBoost model is applied using a grid search strategy (Grid-XGBoost) for predicting Pb and validated against the commonly used AI models, artificial neural network (ANN) and support vector machine (SVM). The input parameter selection approaches redimensioned the 21 parameters into 9-5 parameters without losing their learned information over the models' training phase. At the BB station, the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) values (0.06, 0.32, 0.34, and 0.33) were achieved for the XGBoost-SVM, XGBoost-ANN, XGBoost-Grid-XGBoost, and Grid-XGBoost models, respectively. At the DB station, the lowest MAPE values, 0.25 and 0.24, were attained for the XGBoost-Grid-XGBoost and Grid-XGBoost models, respectively. Overall, the proposed hybrid AI models provided a reliable and robust computer aid technology for sediment Pb prediction that contribute to the best knowledge of environmental pollution monitoring and assessment.
This study develops an oil spill environmental vulnerability model for predicting and mapping the oil slick trajectory pattern in Kota Tinggi, Malaysia. The impact of seasonal variations on the vulnerability of the coastal resources to oil spill was modelled by estimating the quantity of coastal resources affected across three climatic seasons (northeast monsoon, southwest monsoon and pre-monsoon). Twelve 100 m3 (10,000 splots) medium oil spill scenarios were simulated using General National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Operational Oil Modeling Environment (GNOME) model. The output was integrated with coastal resources, comprising biological, socio-economic and physical shoreline features. Results revealed that the speed of an oil slick (40.8 m per minute) is higher during the pre-monsoon period in a southwestern direction and lower during the northeast monsoon (36.9 m per minute). Evaporation, floating and spreading are the major weathering processes identified in this study, with approximately 70% of the slick reaching the shoreline or remaining in the water column during the first 24 h (h) of the spill. Oil spill impacts were most severe during the southwest monsoon, and physical shoreline resources are the most vulnerable to oil spill in the study area. The study concluded that variation in climatic seasons significantly influence the vulnerability of coastal resources to marine oil spill.
In order to meet the growing demand for adsorbents to treat wastewater effectively, there has been increased interest in using sustainable biomass feedstocks. In this present study, the dermal tissue of oil palm frond was pyrolyzed with superheated steam at 500 °C to produce nanoporous biochar as bioadsorbent. The effect of operating conditions was investigated to understand the adsorption mechanism and to enhance the adsorption of phenol and tannic acid. The biochar had a microporous structure with a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area of 422 m2/g containing low polar groups. The adsorption capacity of 62.89 mg/g for phenol and 67.41 mg/g for tannic acid were obtained using 3 g/L biochar dosage after 8 h of treatment at solution pH of 6.5 and temperature of 45 °C. The Freundlich model had the best fit to the isotherm data of phenol (R2 of 0.9863), while the Langmuir model best elucidated the isotherm data of tannic acid (R2 of 0.9632). These indicated that the biochar-phenol interface was associated with a heterogeneous multilayer sorption mechanism, while the biochar-tannic acid interface had a nonspecific monolayer sorption mechanism. The residual concentration of 26.3 mg/L phenol and 23.1 mg/L tannic acid was achieved when treated from 260 mg/L three times consecutively with 1 g/L biochar dosage, compared to a reduction to 72.3 mg/L phenol and 69.9 mg/L tannic acid using 3 g/L biochar dosage in a single treatment. The biochar exhibited effective adsorption of phenol and tannic acid, making it possible to treat effluents that contain varieties of phenolic compounds.
Microalgae have become imperative for biological wastewater treatment. Its capability in biological purification of wastewaters from different origins while utilizing wastewater as the substrate for growth has manifest great potentials as a sustainable and economical wastewater treatment method. The wastewater grown microalgae have also been remarked in research to be a significant source of value-added bioproducts and biomaterial. This paper highlights the multifaceted roles of microalgae in wastewater treatment from the extent of microalgal bioremediation function to environmental amelioration with the involvement of microalgal biomass productivity and carbon dioxide fixation. Besides, the uptake mechanism of microalgae in wastewater treatment was discussed in detail with illustrations for a comprehensive understanding of the removal process of undesirable substances. The performance of different microalgae species in the uptake of various substances was studied and summarized in this review. The correlation of microalgal treatment efficacy with various algal strain types and the bioreactors harnessed for cultivation systems was also discussed. Studies on the alternatives to conventional wastewater treatment processes and the integration of microalgae with accordant wastewater treatment methods are presented. Current research on the biological and technical approaches for the modification of algae-based wastewater system and the maximization of biomass production is also reviewed and discussed. The last portion of the review is dedicated to the assertion of challenges and future perspectives on the development of microalgae-based wastewater treatment technology. This review serves as a useful and informative reference for readers regarding the multifaceted roles of microalgae in the application of wastewater biotreatment with detailed discussion on the uptake mechanism.
The sustainability performance of the desalination processes has received increasing attention in recent years. In this study, the current progress and future perspective of a life cycle assessment (LCA) of desalination technology in 62 previous studies have been reviewed for the period 2004-2019. It was found that the number of LCA studies related to seawater reverse osmosis has gained popularity compared to other types of desalination technologies. The review emphasized the application of LCA to desalination by means of research objective, scope of study, life stages, and impact assessment. Although previous LCA studies were conducted to assess the environmental performance of the desalination technology, little attention was given to evaluating the impact of other sustainability aspects (i.e., economic and social). The latter part of this study discusses the challenges, feasibility, and recommendations for future LCA studies on desalination technology. The integration of the LCA approach with other approaches allows a comprehensive assessment of the sustainability performance of desalination technology. Thus, the combined approaches should be explored in future studies to gain insight into the sensitivity and uncertainty of the data to make an assessment that can be useful in policy-making.
The occurrence, level, and distribution of multiclass emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) in fish and mollusks from the Klang River estuary were examined. The targeted EOCs for this assessment were phenolic endocrine disrupting compounds (bisphenol A, 4-OP, and 4-NP), organophosphorous pesticides (quinalphos, chlorpyrifos, and diazinon), estrogenic hormones (E2, E1, and EE2), and pharmaceutically active chemicals (primidone, sulfamethoxazole, dexamethasone, diclofenac, amoxicillin, progesterone, and testosterone). Results from this study showed that the prevalent contamination of the Klang River estuary by EOCs with diclofenac, bisphenol A, progesterone, and amoxicillin were predominantly detected in fish and mollusks. Among the EOCs, diclofenac and progesterone had the highest concentrations in fish and mollusk samples, respectively. The concentrations of diclofenac and progesterone in fish and mollusk samples range from 1.42 ng/g to 10.76 ng/g and from 0.73 ng/g to 9.57 ng/g, respectively. Bisphenol A should also be highlighted because of its significant presence in both fish and mollusks. The concentration of bisphenol A in both matrices range from 0.92 ng/g to 5.79 ng/g. The calculated hazard quotient (HQ) for diclofenac, bisphenol A, and progesterone without consideration to their degradation byproduct were less than one, thus suggesting that the consumption of fish and mollusks from the Klang River estuary will unlikely pose any health risk to consumers on the basis of the current assessment. Nonetheless, this preliminary result is an important finding for pollution studies in Malaysian tropical coastal ecosystems, particularly for organic micropollutant EOCs, and can serve as a baseline database for future reference.
In this study, a sustainable NH2-MIL-101(Al) is synthesized and subjected to characterization for cryogenic CO2 adsorption, isotherms, and thermodynamic study. The morphology revealed a highly porous surface. The XRD showed that NH2-MIL-101(Al) was crystalline. The NH2-MIL-101(Al) decomposes at a temperature (>500 °C) indicating excellent thermal stability. The BET investigation revealed the specific surface area of 2530 m2/g and the pore volume of 1.32 cm3/g. The CO2 adsorption capacity was found to be 9.55 wt% to 2.31 wt% within the investigated temperature range. The isotherms revealed the availability of adsorption sites with favorable adsorption at lower temperatures indicating the thermodynamically controlled process. The thermodynamics showed that the process is non-spontaneous, endothermic, with fewer disorders, chemisorption. Finally, the breakthrough time of NH2-MIL-101(Al) is 31.25% more than spherical glass beads. The CO2 captured by the particles was 2.29 kg m-3. The CO2 capture using glass packing was 121% less than NH2-MIL-101(Al) under similar conditions of temperature and pressure.
The COVID-19 pandemic has exerted great shocks and challenges to the environment, society and economy. Simultaneously, an intractable issue appeared: a considerable number of hazardous medical wastes have been generated from the hospitals, clinics, and other health care facilities, constituting a serious threat to public health and environmental sustainability without proper management. Traditional disposal methods like incineration, landfill and autoclaving are unable to reduce environmental burden due to the issues such as toxic gas release, large land occupation, and unsustainability. While the application of clean and safe pyrolysis technology on the medical wastes treatment to produce high-grade bioproducts has the potential to alleviate the situation. Besides, medical wastes are excellent and ideal raw materials, which possess high hydrogen, carbon content and heating value. Consequently, pyrolysis of medical wastes can deal with wastes and generate valuable products like bio-oil and biochar. Consequently, this paper presents a critical and comprehensive review of the pyrolysis of medical wastes. It demonstrates the feasibility of pyrolysis, which mainly includes pyrolysis characteristics, product properties, related problems, the prospects and future challenges of pyrolysis of medical wastes.
Attenuated backscatter profiles retrieved by the space borne active lidar CALIOP on-board CALIPSO satellite were used to measure the vertical distribution of smoke aerosols and to compare it against the ECMWF planetary boundary layer height (PBLH) over the smoke dominated region of Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), South Asia. Initially, the relative abundance of smoke aerosols was investigated considering multiple satellite retrieved aerosol optical properties. Only the upper IGP was selectively considered for CALIPSO retrieval based on prevalence of smoke aerosols. Smoke extinction was found to contribute 2-50% of the total aerosol extinction, with strong seasonal and altitudinal attributes. During winter (DJF), smoke aerosols contribute almost 50% of total aerosol extinction only near to the surface while in post-monsoon (ON) and monsoon (JJAS), relative contribution of smoke aerosols to total extinction was highest at about 8 km height. There was strong diurnal variation in smoke extinction, evident throughout the year, with frequent abundance of smoke particles at lower height (<4 km) during daytime compared to higher height during night (>4 km). Smoke injection height also varied considerably during rice (ON: 0.71 ± 0.65 km) and wheat (AM: 2.34 ± 1.34 km) residue burning period having a significant positive correlation with prevailing PBLH. Partitioning smoke AOD against PBLH into the free troposphere (FT) and boundary layer (BL) yield interesting results. BL contribute 36% (16%) of smoke AOD during daytime (nighttime) and the BL-FT distinction increased particularly at night. There was evidence that despite travelling efficiently to FT, major proportion of smoke AOD (50-80%) continue to remain close to the surface (<3 km) thereby, may have greater implications on regional climate, air quality, smoke transport and AOD-particulate modelling.
This study aimed to evaluate the impacts of morphological-controlled ZnO nanoarchitectures on aerobic microbial communities during real wastewater treatment in an aerobic-photocatalytic system. Results showed that the antibacterial properties of ZnO nanoarchitectures were significantly more overwhelming than their photocatalytic properties. The inhibition of microbial activities in activated sludge by ZnO nanoarchitectures entailed an adverse effect on wastewater treatment efficiency. Subsequently, the 16S sequencing analysis were conducted to examine the impacts of ZnO nanoarchitectures on aerobic microbial communities, and found the significantly lower microbial diversity and species richness in activated sludge treated with 1D-ZnO nanorods as compared to other ZnO nanoarchitectures. Additionally, 1D-ZnO nanorods reduced the highest proportion of Proteobacteria phylum in activated sludge due to its higher proportion of active polar surfaces that facilitates Zn2+ ions dissolution. Pearson correlation coefficients showed that the experimental data obtained from COD removal efficiency and bacterial log reduction were statistically significant (p-value
Malaysia is a tropical country that is highly dependent on surface water for its raw water supply. Unfortunately, surface water is vulnerable to pollution, especially in developed and dense urban catchments. Therefore, in this study, a methodology was developed for an extensive temporal water quality index (WQI) and classification analysis, simulations of various pollutant discharge scenarios using QUAL2K software, and maps with NH3-N as the core pollutant using an integrated QUAL2K-GIS. It was found that most of the water quality stations are categorized as Class III (slightly polluted to polluted). These stations are surrounded by residential areas, industries, workshops, restaurants and wet markets that contribute to the poor water quality levels. Additionally, low WQI values were reported in 2010 owing to development and agricultural activities. However, the WQI values improved during the wet season. High concentrations of NH3-N were found in the basin, especially during dry weather conditions. Three scenarios were simulated, i.e. 10%, 50% and 70% of pollution discharge into Skudai river using a calibrated and validated QUAL2K model. Model performance was evaluated using the relative percentage difference. An inclusive graph showing the current conditions and pollution reduction scenarios with respect to the distance of Skudai river and its tributaries is developed to determine the WQI classification. Comprehensive water quality maps based on NH3-N as the core pollutant are developed using integrated QUAL2K-GIS to illustrate the overall condition of the Skudai river. High NH3-N in the Skudai River affects water treatment plant operations. Pollution control of more than 90% is required to improve the water quality classification to Class II. The methodology and analysis developed in this study can assist various stakeholders and authorities in identifying problematic areas and determining the required percentage of pollution reduction to improve the Skudai River water quality.
Malaysia depends heavily on rivers as a source for water supply, irrigation, and sustaining the livelihood of local communities. The evolution of land use in urban areas due to rapid development and the continuous problem of illegal discharge have had a serious adverse impact on the health of the country's waterways. Klang River requires extensive rehabilitation and remediation before its water could be utilised for a variety of purposes. A reliable and rigorous remediation work plan is needed to identify the sources and locations of streams that are constantly polluted. This study attempts to investigate the feasibility of utilising a temporal and spatial risk quotient (RQ) based analysis to make an accurate assessment of the current condition of the tributaries in the Klang River catchment area. The study relies on existing data sets on Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), and Ammonia (NH3) to evaluate the water quality at thirty strategic locations. Analysis of ammonia pollution is not only based on the limit established for river health but was expanded to include the feasibility of using the water for water intake, recreational activities, and sustaining fish population. The temporal health of Klang River was evaluated using the Risk Matrix Approach (RMA) based on the frequency of RQ > 1 and associated colour-coded hazard impacts. By using the developed RMA, the hazard level for each parameter at each location was assessed and individually mapped using Geographic Information System (GIS). The developed risk hazard mapping has high potential as one of the essential tools in making decisions for a cost-effective river restoration and rehabilitation.
Jicama peroxidase (JP) was covalently immobilized onto functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) Buckypaper/Polyvinyl alcohol (BP/PVA) membrane and employed for degradation of methylene blue dye. The parameters of the isotherm and kinetic models are estimating using ant colony optimization (ACO), which do not meddle the non-linearity form of the respective models. The proposed inverse modelling through ACO optimization was implemented, and the parameters were evaluated to minimize the non-linear error functions. The adsorption of MB dye onto JP-immobilized BP/PVA membrane follows Freundlich isotherm model (R2 = 0.99) and the pseudo 1st order or 2nd kinetic model (R2 = 0.980 & 0.968 respectively). The model predictions from the parameters estimated by ACO resulted values close the experimental values, thus inferring that this approach captured the inherent characteristics of MB adsorption. Moreover, the thermodynamic studies indicated that the adsorption was favourable, spontaneous, and exothermic in nature. The comprehensive structural analyses have confirmed the successful binding of peroxidase onto BP/PVA membrane, as well as the effective MB dye removal using immobilized JP membrane. Compared to BP/PVA membrane, the reusability test revealed that JP-immobilized BP/PVA membrane has better dye removal performances as it can retain 64% of its dye removal efficiency even after eight consecutive cycles. Therefore, the experimental results along with modelling results demonstrated that JP-immobilized BP/PVA membrane is expected to bring notable impacts for the development of effective green and sustainable wastewater treatment technologies.
This study proposes an integrated cattle breeding and cultivation system that provides zero emission and sustainable livelihood for the community in rural areas. The proposed integrated farming system improves agricultural productivity and environmental and sanitation conditions, minimizes the amount of waste, and increases the family income up to 41.55%. Several waste types can be recycled and transformed into valuable products, such as energy for cooking, organic fertilizer for crops, and cattle feed for breeding. Wastewater effluent from the biogas tank can be treated by biochar and results show that it then meets the standards for irrigation purposes. Also, the waste flow from cattle breeding supplies enough nutrients to cultivate plants, and the plants grown supply are adequate food for the 30 cows living on the farm. This research shows that the use of an integrated farming system could achieve zero-emission goal. Thereby, it provides a sustainable livelihood for cattle breeding family farms. The proposed integrated cattle breeding and cultivation system improves agricultural productivity, environmental and increases the farmer income up to 41.55%.
Greenhouse gases (GHGs) carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O), contribute significantly to global warming, and they have increased substantially over the years. Reforestation is considered as an important forestry application for carbon sequestration and GHGs emission reduction, however, it remains unknown whether reforestation may instead produce too much CO2 and N2O contibuting to GHGs pollution. This study was performed to characterize and examine the CO2 and N2O emissions and their controlling factors in different species and types of pure and mixture forest used for reforestation. Five soil layers from pure forest Platycladus orientalis (PO), Robinia pseudoacacia (RP), and their mixed forest P-R in the Taihang mountains of central China were sampled and incubated aerobically for 11 days. The P-R soil showed lower CO2 and N2O production potentials than those of the PO soils (P
Due to the increase of the human population and the rapid industrial growth in the past few decades, air quality monitoring is essential to assess the pollutant levels of an area. However, monitoring air quality in a high-density area like Sunway City, Selangor, Malaysia is challenging due to the limitation of the local monitoring network. To establish a comprehensive data for air pollution in Sunway City, a mobile monitoring campaign was employed around the city area with a duration of approximately 6 months, from September 2018 to March 2019. Measurements of air pollutants such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were performed by using mobile air pollution sensors facilitated with a GPS device. In order to acquire a more in-depth understanding on traffic-related air pollution, the measurement period was divided into two different time blocks, which were morning hours (8 a.m.-12 p.m.) and afternoon hours (3 p.m.-7 p.m.). The data set was analysed by splitting Sunway City into different zones and routes to differentiate the conditions of each region. Meteorological variables such as ambient temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed were studied in line with the pollutant concentrations. The air quality in Sunway City was then compared with various air quality standards such as Malaysian Air Quality Standards and World Health Organisation (WHO) guidelines to understand the risk of exposure to air pollution by the residence in Sunway City.
In this study, a novel rotating anode-based reactor (RAR) was designed to investigate its effectiveness in removing dissolved salts (i.e., Br-, Cl-, TDS, and SO42-) from saline water samples. Two configurations of an impeller's rotating anode with various operation factors, such as operating time (min), rotating speed (rpm), current density (mA/cm2), temperature (°C), pH, and inter-electrode space (cm), were used in the desalination process. The total cost consumed was calculated on the basis of the energy consumption and aluminum (Al) used in the desalination. In this respect, operating costs were calculated using optimal operating conditions. Salinity was removed electrochemically from saline water through electrocoagulation (EC). Results showed that the optimal adjustments for treating saline water were carried out at the following conditions: 150 and 75 rpm rotating speeds for the impeller's rod anode and plate anode designs, respectively; 2 mA/cm2 current density (I), 1 cm2 inter-electrode space, 25 °C temperature, 10 min operation time, and pH 8. The results indicated that EC technology with impeller plates of rotating anode can be considered a very cost-effective technique for treating saline water.
Understanding the migration and conversion of nitrogen in wood-based panels (WBPs) during pyrolysis is fundamentally important for potentially transforming the N-containing species into valuable material-based products. This review firstly summarizes the commonly used methods for examining N evolution during the WBPs pyrolysis before probing into the association between the wood and adhesives.The potential effects of wood-adhesive interaction on the pyrolysis process are subsequently analyzed. Furthermore, the controversial statements from literature on the influence of adhesives on wood pyrolysis behavior are discussed, which is followed by the detailed investigation into the distribution and evolution of N-containing species in gas, liquid and char, respectively, during WBPs pyrolysis in recent studies. The differences in N species due to the heating sources (i.e. electrical heating vs microwave heating) are particularly compared. Finally, based on the characteristics of staged pyrolysis, co-pyrolysis and catalytic pyrolysis, the converting pathways for WBPs are proposed with an emphasis on the production of value-added chemicals and carbon materials, simultaneously mitigating NOx emission.
Global increase in demand for food supply has resulted in surplus generation of wastes. What was once considered wastes, has now become a resource. Studies were carried out on the conversion of biowastes into wealth using methods such as extraction, incineration and microbial intervention. Agro-industry biowastes are promising sources of carbon for microbial fermentation to be transformed into value-added products. In the era of circular economy, the goal is to establish an economic system which aims to eliminate waste and ensure continual use of resources in a close-loop cycle. Biowaste collection is technically and economically practicable, hence it serves as a renewable carbon feedstock. Biowastes are commonly biotransformed into value-added materials such as bioethanol, bioplastics, biofuels, biohydrogen, biobutanol and biogas. This review reveals the recent developments on microbial transformation of biowastes into biotechnologically important products. This approach addresses measures taken globally to valorize waste to achieve low carbon economy. The sustainable use of these renewable resources is a positive approach towards waste management and promoting circular economy.
Rising of temperature in conjunction with acidification due to the anthropogenic climates has tremendously affected all aquatic life. Small changes in the surrounding environment could lead to physiological constraint in the individual. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the effects of warm water temperature (32 °C) and low pH (pH 6) on physiological responses and growth of hybrid grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus ♀ × Epinephelus lanceolatus ♂) juveniles for 25 days. Growth performance was significantly affected under warm water temperature and low-pH conditions. Surprisingly, the positive effect on growth was observed under the interactive effects of warm water and low pH exposure. Hybrid grouper exposed to the interactive stressor of warm temperature and low pH exhibited higher living cost, where HSI content was greatly depleted to about 2.3-folds than in normal circumstances. Overall, challenge to warm temperature and low pH induced protein mobilization as an energy source followed by glycogen and lipid to support basal metabolic needs.