Effects of phosphorus content (510 to 987 ppm) on the gelatinization and retrogradation of 6 potato cultivars (Benimaru, Hokkaikogane, Irish Cobbler, Konafubuki, Sakurafubuki, and Touya) were studied. Pasting properties were analyzed by RVA, thermal properties by DSC, and mechanical properties of the starch gels by TA. Phosphorus was positively correlated with swelling power (r= 0.84) and negatively correlated with solubility (r= 0.83). Phosphorus content showed significant effect on certain pasting properties of potato starch such as peak viscosity, breakdown, and setback. Phosphorus content showed a significant positive correlation with peak viscosity (r= 0.95) and breakdown (r= 0.90). Increasing concentration of phosphorus tends to decrease the setback. Phosphorus content had no influence on thermal properties and mechanical properties of potato starch gel.
The aim of this study was to model the radial growth rate and to assess aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus as a function of water activity (a(w) 0.82 to 0.92) and temperature (12 to 42 °C) on polished and brown rice. The growth of the fungi, expressed as colony diameter (mm) was measured daily, and the aflatoxins were analyzed using HPLC with a fluorescence detector. The growth rates were estimated using the primary model of Baranyi, which describes the change in colony radius as a function of time. Total of 2 secondary models were used to describe the combined effects of a(w) and temperature on the growth rates. The models were validated using independent experimental data. Linear Arrhenius-Davey model proved to be the best predictor of A. flavus growth rates on polished and brown rice followed by polynomial model. The estimated optimal growth temperature was around 30 °C. A. flavus growth and aflatoxins were not detected at 0.82 a(w) on polished rice while growth and aflatoxins were detected at this a(w) between 25 and 35 °C on brown rice. The highest amounts of toxins were formed at the highest a(w) values (0.90 to 0.92) at a temperature of 20 °C after 21 d of incubation on both types of rice. Nevertheless, the consistencies of toxin production within a wider range of a(w) values occurred between 25 to 30 °C. Brown rice seems to support A. flavus growth and aflatoxin production more than the polished rice.
The oxidative and thermal stability of low diglycerides palm oil produced via silica treatment (sPO) and enzymatic treatment (ePO) compared with standard quality palm oil (SQ) and premium quality palm oil (PQ) was investigated. Both of the oils displayed better oxidative stability compared with SQ as well as significantly higher (P < 0.05) thermal resistance and oxidative strength than SQ and PQ due to lower amounts of partial glycerides. Although the initial induction periods (IPs) of sPO and ePO were significantly lower compared with SQ and PQ, both the oils showed slower drops in their IP values. The darkening effect after frying was significantly (P < 0.05) slower in sPO compared with SQ, PQ, and ePO. Besides, there is no difference p > 0.05 in the rate of FFA formation between sPO and PQ. The anisidine value and peroxide values were lowest in sPO, followed by ePO, PQ, and SQ.
This study aimed to examine the variation in the metabolite profiles and nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory activity of Ajwa dates that were subjected to 2 drying treatments and different extraction solvents. (1)H NMR coupled with multivariate data analysis was employed. A Griess assay was used to determine the inhibition of the production of NO in RAW 264.7 cells treated with LPS and interferon-γ. The oven dried (OD) samples demonstrated the absence of asparagine and ascorbic acid as compared to the freeze dried (FD) dates. The principal component analysis showed distinct clusters between the OD and FD dates by the second principal component. In respect of extraction solvents, chloroform extracts can be distinguished by the absence of arginine, glycine and asparagine compared to the methanol and 50% methanol extracts. The chloroform extracts can be clearly distinguished from the methanol and 50% methanol extracts by first principal component. Meanwhile, the loading score plot of partial least squares analysis suggested that beta glucose, alpha glucose, choline, ascorbic acid and glycine were among the metabolites that were contributing to higher biological activity displayed by FD and methanol extracts of Ajwa. The results highlight an alternative method of metabolomics approach for determination of the metabolites that contribute to NO inhibitory activity.
Diabetes mellitus is normally characterized by chronic hyperglycemia associated with disturbances in the fat, carbohydrate, and protein metabolism. There is an increasing trend of using natural products instead of synthetic agents as alternative therapy for disorders due to their fewer side effects. In this study, antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of different Melicope lunu-ankenda (ML) ethanolic extracts were evaluated using inhibition of α-glucosidase and 2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging activity, respectively; whereas, proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1) H NMR) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (UHPLC-MS/MS) techniques were used for metabolite profiling of ML leaf extracts at different concentrations of ethanol and water. Sixty percent of ethanolic ML extract showed highest inhibitory effect against α-glucosidase enzyme (IC50 of 37 μg/mL) and DPPH scavenging activity (IC50 of 48 μg/mL). Antidiabetic effect of ML extracts was also evaluated in vivo and it was found that the high doses (400 mg/Kg BW) of ML extract exhibited high suppression in fasting blood glucose level by 62.75%. The metabolites responsible for variation among ML samples with variable ethanolic levels have been evaluated successfully using (1) H-NMR-based metabolomics. The principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares(PLS) analysis scores depicted clear and distinct separations into 4 clusters representing the 4 ethanolic concentrations by PC1 and PC2, with an eigenvalue of 69.9%. Various (1) H-NMR chemical shifts related to the metabolites responsible for sample difference were also ascribed. The main bioactive compounds identified attributing toward the separation included: isorhamnetin, skimmianine, scopoletin, and melicarpinone. Hence, ML may be used as promising medicinal plant for the development of new functional foods, new generation antidiabetic drugs, as a single entity phytomedicine or in combinational therapy.
A 16-wk feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of a prebiotic, isomaltooligosaccharide (IMO), a probiotic, PrimaLac®, and their combination as a synbiotic on the chemical compositions of egg yolks and the egg quality of laying hens. One hundred and sixty 16-wk-old Hisex Brown pullets were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments: (i) basal diet (control), (ii) basal diet + 1% IMO (PRE), (iii) basal diet + 0.1% PrimaLac® (PRO), and (iv) basal diet + 1% IMO + 0.1% PrimaLac® (SYN). PRE, PRO, or SYN supplementation not only significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the egg yolk cholesterol (24- and 28-wk-old) and total saturated fatty acids (SFA; 28-, 32-, and 36-wk-old), but also significantly (P < 0.05) increased total unsaturated fatty acids (UFA; 28-, 32-, and 36-wk-old), total omega 6 and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid levels in the eggs (28-wk-old). However, the total lipids, carotenoids, and tocopherols in the egg yolks were similar among all dietary treatments in the 24-, 28-, 32-, and 36-wk-old hens. Egg quality (Haugh unit, relative weights of the albumen and yolk, specific gravity, shell thickness, and yolk color) was not affected by PRE, PRO, or SYN supplementation. The results indicate that supplementations with IMO and PrimaLac® alone or in combination as a synbiotic might be useful for improving the cholesterol content and modifying the fatty acid compositions of egg yolk without affecting the quality of eggs from laying hens between 24 and 36 wk of age.
The ability of Leuconostoc mesenteroides DU15 to produce antifungal peptides that inhibit growth of Aspergillus niger was evaluated under optimum growth conditions of 30 °C for 48 h. The cell-free supernatant showed inhibitory activity against A. niger. Five novel peptides were isolated with the sequences GPFPL, YVPLF, LLHGVPLP, GPFPLEMTLGPT, and TVYPFPGPL as identified by de novo sequencing using PEAKS 6 software. Peptide LLHGVPLP was the only positively charged (cationic peptides) and peptide GPFPLEMTLGPT negatively charged (anionic), whereas the rest are neutral. The identified peptides had high hydrophobicity ratio and low molecular weights with amino acids sequences ranging from 5 to 12 residues. The mode of action of these peptides is observed under the scanning electron microscope and is due to cell lysis of fungi. This work reveals the potential of peptides from L. mesenteroides DU15 as natural antifungal preservatives in inhibiting the growth of A. niger that is implicated to the spoilage during storage.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different solvent and extraction temperatures on the free and bound phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of dried blackcurrant skins (DBS). Apart from acetic acid buffer solution, different solvent systems, including water, methanol, and mixtures of methanol/water, were also employed and the effects of solvent and temperature (30 and 50 °C) on the free and bound forms of anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acids, and flavonols yield were assessed. The results showed that among all solvents, acetic acid buffer resulted in the highest free anthocyanin content (1,712.3 ± 56.1 mg/100 g) (P
Kenaf belongs to the family Malvaceae noted for their economic and horticultural importance. Kenaf seed is a valuable component of kenaf plant. For several years, it has been primarily used as a cordage crop and secondarily as a livestock feed. The potential for using kenaf seeds as a source of food-based products has not been fully exploited. Consumers are becoming more interested in naturally healthy plant-based food products. Kenaf seed, the future crop with a rich source of essential nutrients and an excellent source of phytocompounds, might serve suitable roles in the production of value-added plant-based foods. At present kenaf seed and its value-added components have not been effectively utilized for both their nutritional and functional properties as either ingredient or major constituent of food products. This review focuses on the possible food applications of kenaf seed and its value-added components based on their nutritional composition and functional properties available in literature, with the purpose of providing an overview on the possible food applications of this underutilized seed. The review focuses on a brief introduction on kenaf plant, nutritional function, lipids and proteins composition and food applications of the seed. The review elaborately discusses the seed in terms of; bioactive components, antioxidants enrichment of wheat bread, antimicrobial agents, as edible flour, as edible oil and a source of protein in food system. The review closes with discussion on other possible food applications of kenaf seed. The need for food scientists and technologists to exploit this natural agricultural product as a value-added food ingredient is of great significance and is emphasized.
Liver damage is a common liver disorder, which could induce liver cancer. Oral antioxidant is one of the effective treatments to prevent and alleviate liver damage. In this study, three flavonoids namely myricetin, isoquercitrin, and isorhamnetin were isolated and identified from Laba garlic. The isolated compounds were investigated on the protective effects against H2 O2 -induced oxidative damages in hepatic L02 cells and apoptosis inducing mechanism in hepatic cancer cells HepG2 by using MTT assay, flow cytometry and western blotting analysis. Myricetin, isoquercitrin, and isorhamnetin showed proliferation inhibition on HepG2 cells with IC50 value of 44.32 ± 0.213 µM, 49.68 ± 0.192 µM, and 54.32 ± 0.176 µM, respectively. While they showed low toxicity on normal cell lines L02. They could significantly alleviate the oxidative damage towards L02 cells (P < 0.05), via inhibiting the morphological changes in mitochondria and upholding the integrity of mitochondrial structure and function. The fluorescence intensity of L02 cells pre-treated with myricetin, isoquercitrin, and isorhamnetin (100 µM) was 89.23 ± 1.26%, 89.35 ± 1.43% and 88.97 ± 0.79%, respectively. Moreover, the flavonoids could induce apoptosis in HepG2 cells via Bcl-2/Caspase pathways, where it could up-regulate the expression of Bax and down-regulate the expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, pro-Caspase-3, and pro-Caspase-9 proteins in a dose dependent manner. Overall, the results suggested that the flavonoids from Laba garlic might be a promising candidate for the treatment of various liver disorders. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Flavonoids from Laba garlic showed selective toxicity towards HepG2 cells in comparison to L02 cells via regulating Bcl-2/caspase pathway. Additionally, the isolated flavonoids expressively barred the oxidative damage induced by H2 O2 in L02 cells. These results suggested that the flavonoids from laba garlic could be a promising agent towards the development of functional foods.
A process for enhancing textural and cooking properties of fresh rice flour-soy protein isolate noodles (RNS) to match those of yellow alkaline noodles (YAN) was developed by incorporating microbial transglutaminase (RNS-MTG), glucono-δ-lactone (RNS-GDL), and both MTG and GDL into the RNS noodles (RNS-COM). The formation of γ-glutamyl-lysine bonds in RNS-COM and RNS-MTG was shown by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Scanning electron microscope showed that compared to others, the structure of RNS-COM was denser, smoother with extensive apparent interconnectivity of aggregates. The optimum cooking time was in the order: YAN > RNS-COM > RNS-MTG > RNS-GDL > RN (rice flour noodles); tensile strength was in the order: YAN > RNS-COM > RNS-MTG > RNS-GDL > RN; and elasticity were in the order: YAN > RNS-COM > RNS-MTG, RNS-GDL > RN. Overall, RNS-COM showed similar textural and structural breakdown parameters as compared to those of YAN. Changes in microstructures and improvement of RNS-COM in certain properties were likely due to enhanced crosslinking of proteins attributed to MTG- and GDL-induced cold gelation of proteins at reduced pH value. It is possible to use the combination of MTG and GDL to improve textural and mechanical properties of RNS comparable to those of YAN. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Combined MTG and GDL yield rice flour noodles with improved textural properties. The restructured rice flour noodles have the potential to replace yellow alkaline noodles.
This study aimed to produce sourdough bread using an encapsulated kombucha sourdough starter culture without the addition of baker's yeast. The bioactive metabolites of kombucha sourdough starter and sourdough starter without kombucha were identified using 1 H-NMR analysis with multivariate analysis. The physical properties, including loaf volume, specific loaf volume, firmness, and water activity were determined following standard methods. The shelf life and consumer acceptability of the bread were also being evaluated. The principal component analyses showed the presence of 15 metabolites in kombucha sourdough starter. The major compounds that contributed to the differences from sourdough starter without kombucha were alpha-aminobutyric acid, alanine, acetic acid, riboflavin, pyridoxine, anserine, tryptophan, gluconic acid, and trehalose. The encapsulated kombucha sourdough starter increased the loaf volume (976.7 ± 25.2 mL) and specific loaf volume (4.38 ± 0.12 mL/g) compared to yeast bread. Thus, significant (P
In a commercial oyster mushroom farm, from 300 g of the total harvest, only the cap and stem of the fruiting body parts are harvested (200 g) while the unused lower section called fruiting-body-base (FBB) is discarded (50 g). A new antioxidative FBB flour (FBBF) conversion to mixed-ratio chicken patty was recently developed which converts 16.67% of FBB into an edible flour. At the initial stage, pretreatments of FBBF were optimized at particle size (106 µm) and citric acid concentration (0.5 g/100 mL) to improve flour antioxidant responses. Such pretreatments boosted total phenolic content (2.31 ± 0.53 mg GAE/g) and DPPH (51.53 ± 1.51%) of pretreated FBBF. Mixed-ratio chicken patty containing FBBF (10%, 20%, 30%) significantly (P
Probiotics may be used to enhance the functionality and nutritional values of fermented sausages. This study aims to evaluate the physicochemical and sensory properties of beef sausages fermented by lactic acid bacteria of Lactobacillus plantarum IIA-2C12 and L. acidophilus IIA-2B4. These strains were isolated from beef cattle and have shown to display probiotic features. While the nutrient contents were not affected by the probiotics, the pH, texture, and color varied among the sausages. Further analysis on fatty acids showed different profiles of saturated (C14:0, C17:0, and C20:0) and unsaturated (C14:1, C18:1n9c, C18:2n6c, and C22:6n3) fatty acids in sausages with probiotics. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry further revealed some flavor development compounds including acid, alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic, ketones, sulfur, hydrocarbons and terpenes, varied among the sausages. Hedonic test showed no difference in the preference toward aroma, texture, and color for untrained panelists.
The objective of this research was to study the oxidative stability and antioxidant properties of microencapsulated kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed oil (MKSO) produced by co-extrusion technology upon accelerated storage. The combination of sodium alginate, high methoxyl pectin, and chitosan were used as shell materials. The oxidative stability of the kenaf seed oil was determined by iodine value, peroxide value, p-Anisidine value, total oxidation (TOTOX), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay, and free fatty acid content. Total phenolic content, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) cation radical-scavenging assay and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay were used to examine the antioxidant properties of oils. Oxidative stability tests showed that bulk kenaf seed oil (BKSO) was oxidized significantly higher (P < 0.05) than MKSO. The total increment of TOTOX value of BKSO was 165.93% significantly higher (P < 0.05) than MKSO. Co-extrusion technology has shown to be able to protect kenaf seed oil against lipid oxidation and delay the degradation of natural antioxidants that present in oil during storage.
Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed oil-in-water nanoemulsions stabilized by complexation of beta-cyclodextrin with sodium caseinate and Tween 20 have been shown to have higher bioaccessibility of vitamin E and total phenolic content than nonemulsified kenaf seed oil in the previous in vitro gastrointestinal digestion study. However, its oral bioavailability was unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the rate of in vivo oral bioavailability of kenaf seed oil-in-water nanoemulsions in comparison with nonemulsified kenaf seed oil and kenaf seed oil macroemulsions during the 180 min of gastrointestinal digestion. Kenaf seed oil macroemulsions were produced by using conventional method. Kenaf seed oil-in-water nanoemulsions had shown improvement in the rate of absorption. At 180 min of digestion time, the total α-tocopherol bioavailability of kenaf seed oil nanoemulsions was increased by 1.7- and 1.4-fold, compared to kenaf seed oil and macroemulsion, respectively. Kenaf seed oil-in-water nanoemulsions were stable in considerably wide range of pH (>5 and <3), suggesting that it can be fortified into beverages within this pH range PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The production of kenaf seed oil-in-water nanoemulsions had provided a delivery system to encapsulate the kenaf seed oil, as well as enhanced the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of kenaf seed oil. Therefore, kenaf seed oil-in-water nanoemulsions exhibit a great potential application in nutraceutical fields.
Commodities originating from tropical and subtropical climes are prone to chilling injury (CI). This injury could affect the quality and marketing potential of mango after harvest. This will later affect the quality of the produce and subsequent consumer acceptance. In this study, the appearance of CI symptoms in mango was evaluated non-destructively using multispectral imaging. The fruit were stored at 4 °C to induce CI and 12 °C to preserve the quality of the control samples for 4 days before they were taken out and stored at ambient temperature for 24 hr. Measurements using multispectral imaging and standard reference methods were conducted before and after storage. The performance of multispectral imaging was compared using standard reference properties including moisture content (MC), total soluble solids (TSS) content, firmness, pH, and color. Least square support vector machine (LS-SVM) combined with principal component analysis (PCA) were used to discriminate CI samples with those of control and before storage, respectively. The statistical results demonstrated significant changes in the reference quality properties of samples before and after storage. The results also revealed that multispectral parameters have a strong correlation with the reference parameters of L* , a* , TSS, and MC. The MC and L* were found to be the best reference parameters in identifying the severity of CI in mangoes. PCA and LS-SVM analysis indicated that the fruit were successfully classified into their categories, that is, before storage, control, and CI. This indicated that the multispectral imaging technique is feasible for detecting CI in mangoes during postharvest storage and processing.
PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This paper demonstrates a fast, easy, and accurate method of identifying the effect of cold storage on mango, nondestructively. The method presented in this paper can be used industrially to efficiently differentiate different fruits from each other after low temperature storage.
The valorization of guava waste requires compositional and functional studies. We tested three byproducts of guava purée processing, namely refiner, siever, and decanter. We analyzed the chemical composition and quantified the prebiotic activity score and selected carbohydrates; we also determined the water holding (WHC), oil holding (OHC), cation exchange capacities, bile acid binding, and glucose dialysis retardation (GDR) of the solid fraction and the antioxidative and α-amylase inhibitory capacities (AIC) of the ethanolic extract. Refiner contained 7.7% lipid, 7.08% protein and a relatively high phytate content; it had a high prebiotic activity score and possessed the highest binding capacity with deoxycholic acid. Siever contained high levels of low molecular weight carbohydrates and total tannin but relatively low crude fiber and cellulose contents. It had the highest binding with chenodeoxycholic acid (74.8%), and exhibited the highest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity. Decanter was rich in cellulose and had a high prebiotic activity score. The WHC and OHC values of decanter were within a narrow range and also exhibited the highest binding with cholic acid (86.6%), and the highest values of GDR and AIC. The refiner waste could be included in animal feed but requires further processing to reduce the high phytate levels. All three guava byproducts had the potential to be a source of antioxidant dietary fiber (DF), a finding that warrants further in vivo study.
PRACTICAL APPLICATION: To differing extents, the guava byproducts exhibited useful physicochemical binding properties and so possessed the potential for health-promoting activity. These byproducts could also be upgraded to other marketable products so the manufacturers of processed guava might be able to develop their businesses sustainably by making better use of them.
Kenaf seed oil has been suggested to be used as nutritious edible oil due to its unique fatty acid composition and nutritional value. The objective of this study was to optimize the bleaching parameters of the chemical refining process for kenaf seed oil, namely concentration of bleaching earth (0.5 to 2.5% w/w), temperature (30 to 110 °C) and time (5 to 65 min) based on the responses of total oxidation value (TOTOX) and color reduction using response surface methodology. The results indicated that the corresponding response surface models were highly statistical significant (P < 0.0001) and sufficient to describe and predict TOTOX value and color reduction with R2 of 0.9713 and 0.9388, respectively. The optimal parameters in the bleaching stage of kenaf seed oil were: 1.5% w/w of the concentration of bleaching earth, temperature of 70 °C, and time of 40 min. These optimum parameters produced bleached kenaf seed oil with TOTOX value of 8.09 and color reduction of 32.95%. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) between experimental and predicted values, indicating the adequacy of the fitted models.
The objective of this study was to determine the possible source of predominant Bacillus licheniformis contamination in a whey protein concentrate (WPC) 80 manufacturing plant. Traditionally, microbial contaminants of WPC were believed to grow on the membrane surfaces of the ultrafiltration plant as this represents the largest surface area in the plant. Changes from hot to cold ultrafiltration have reduced the growth potential for bacteria on the membrane surfaces. Our recent studies of WPCs have shown the predominant microflora B. licheniformis would not grow in the membrane plant because of the low temperature (10 °C) and must be growing elsewhere. Contamination of dairy products is mostly due to bacteria being released from biofilm in the processing plant rather from the farm itself. Three different reconstituted WPC media at 1%, 5%, and 20% were used for biofilm growth and our results showed that B. licheniformis formed the best biofilm at 1% (low solids). Further investigations were done using 3 different media; tryptic soy broth, 1% reconstituted WPC80, and 1% reconstituted WPC80 enriched with lactose and minerals to examine biofilm growth of B. licheniformis on stainless steel. Thirty-three B. licheniformis isolates varied in their ability to form biofilm on stainless steel with stronger biofilm in the presence of minerals. The source of biofilms of thermo-resistant bacteria such as B. licheniformis is believed to be before the ultrafiltration zone represented by the 1% WPC with lactose and minerals where the whey protein concentration is about 0.6%.