Displaying publications 41 - 51 of 51 in total

  1. Hii SYF, Ali NA, Ahmad N, Amran F
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2017 Nov;66(11):1623-1627.
    PMID: 29048275 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.000611
    Melioidosis is an endemic infectious disease in Southeast Asia and northern Australia, caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei. However, the incidence rate in Malaysia is not well documented. The high mortality rate and broad range of clinical presentations require rapid and accurate diagnosis for appropriate treatment. This study compared the efficacy of in-house IgM and IgG ELISA methods using a local B. pseudomallei strain. The diagnostic accuracy of the in-house IgG ELISA was better than that of the IgM ELISA: sensitivity (IgG: 84.71 %, IgM: 76.14 %) and specificity (IgG: 93.64 %, IgM: 90.17 %); positive predictive value (IgG: 86.75 %, IgM: 79.76 %) and negative predictive value (IgG: 92.57 %, IgM: 89.66 %); likelihood ratio (LR) [IgG: 13.32, IgM: 7.75 (LR+); IgG: 0.16, IgM: 0.26 (LR-)], and was supported by the observation of the absorbance value in comparisons between culture and serology sampling. In-house IgG ELISA was shown to be useful as an early diagnostic tool for melioidosis.
  2. Noordin A, Sapri HF, Mohamad Sani NA, Leong SK, Tan XE, Tan TL, et al.
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2016 Dec;65(12):1476-1481.
    PMID: 27902380 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.000387
    The annual prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Malaysia has been estimated to be 30 % to 40 % of all S. aureus infections. Nevertheless, data on the antimicrobial resistance and genetic diversity of Malaysian MRSAs remain few. In 2009, we collected 318 MRSA strains from various wards of our teaching hospital located in Kuala Lumpur, the capital city of Malaysia, and performed antimicrobial susceptibility testing on these strains. The strains were then molecularly characterized via staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) mec and virulence gene (cna, sea, seb, sec, sed, see, seg, seh, sei, eta, etb, Panton-Valentine leukocidin and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1) typing; a subset of 49 strains isolated from the intensive care unit was also typed using PFGE. Most strains were found to be resistant to ciprofloxacin (92.5 %), erythromycin (93.4 %) and gentamicin (86.8 %). The majority (72.0 %) of strains were found to harbour SCCmec type III-SCCmercury with the presence of ccrC, and carried the sea+cna gene combination (49.3 %), with cna as the most prevalent virulence gene (94.0 %) detected. We identified four PFGE clusters, with pulsotype C (n=19) as the dominant example in the intensive care unit, where this pulsotype was found to be associated with carriage of SCCmec type III and the sea gene (P=0.05 and P=0.02, respectively). In summary, the dominant MRSA circulating in our hospital in 2009 was a clone that was ciprofloxacin, erythromycin and gentamicin resistant, carried SCCmec type III-SCCmercury with ccrC and also harboured the sea+cna virulence genes. This clone also appears to be the dominant MRSA circulating in major hospitals in Kuala Lumpur.
  3. Ahmad N, Ruzan IN, Abd Ghani MK, Hussin A, Nawi S, Aziz MN, et al.
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2009 Sep;58(Pt 9):1213-8.
    PMID: 19528158 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.011353-0
    Community-acquired meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) occurring among hospital isolates in Malaysia has not been reported previously. As CA-MRSA reported worldwide has been shown to carry SCCmec types IV and V, the aim of this study was to determine the SCCmec types of MRSA strains collected in Malaysia from November 2006 to June 2008. From a total of 628 MRSA isolates, 20 were SCCmec type IV, whilst the rest were type III. Further characterization of SCCmec type IV strains revealed 11 sequence types (STs), including ST22, with the majority being ST30/Panton-Valentine leukocidin positive. Eight out of nine CA-MRSA were ST30, one was ST80, and all were sensitive to co-trimoxazole and gentamicin. Five new STs designated ST1284, ST1285, ST1286, ST1287 and ST1288 were discovered, suggesting the emergence of novel clones of MRSA circulating in Malaysian hospitals. The discovery of the ST22 strain is a cause for concern because of its ability to replace existing predominant clones in certain geographical regions.
  4. Lim KT, Yeo CC, Yasin RM, Balan G, Thong KL
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2009 Nov;58(Pt 11):1463-9.
    PMID: 19589908 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.011114-0
    The emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae poses a serious antibiotic management problem as resistance genes are easily transferred from one organism to another. Fifty-one strains of K. pneumoniae isolated from sporadic cases in various hospitals throughout Malaysia were analysed by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, PCR detection of ESBL-encoding genes and DNA fingerprinting. Although 27 of the 51 K. pneumoniae strains were MDR (i.e. resistant to three or more classes of antibiotics), the majority of the strains (98 %) were sensitive to imipenem. PCR detection using ESBL gene-specific primers showed that 46 of the K. pneumoniae strains harboured bla(SHV), 19 harboured bla(CTX-M), 5 harboured bla(OXA-1) and 4 harboured bla(TEM-1). Class 1 integron-encoded intI1 integrase was detected in 21 of the 51 K. pneumoniae strains and amplification of the integron 5'CS region showed the presence of several known antibiotic resistance gene cassettes of various sizes. Results of conjugation and transformation experiments indicated that some of the ESBL-encoding genes (i.e. bla(SHV), bla(CTX-M) and bla(TEM-1)) were transmissible and were likely plasmid-encoded. DNA fingerprinting using PFGE and PCR-based methods indicated that the 51 K. pneumoniae strains were genetically diverse and heterogeneous.
  5. VasanthaKumari N, Alshrari AS, Rad EG, Moghaddam HG, van Belkum A, Alreshidi MA, et al.
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2009 Nov;58(Pt 11):1531-2.
    PMID: 19589902 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.011692-0
  6. Tay ST, Na SL, Chong J
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2009 Feb;58(Pt 2):185-91.
    PMID: 19141735 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.004242-0
    The genetic heterogeneity and antifungal susceptibility patterns of Candida parapsilosis isolated from blood cultures of patients were investigated in this study. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis generated 5 unique profiles from 42 isolates. Based on the major DNA fragments of the RAPD profiles, the isolates were identified as RAPD type P1 (29 isolates), P2 (6 isolates), P3 (4 isolates), P4 (2 isolates) and P5 (1 isolate). Sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene of the isolates identified RAPD type P1 as C. parapsilosis, P2 and P3 as Candida orthopsilosis, P4 as Candida metapsilosis, and P5 as Lodderomyces elongisporus. Nucleotide variations in ITS gene sequences of C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis were detected. Antifungal susceptibility testing using Etests showed that all isolates tested in this study were susceptible to amphotericin B, fluconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole. C. parapsilosis isolates exhibited higher MIC(50) values than those of C. orthopsilosis for all of the drugs tested in this study; however, no significant difference in the MICs for these two Candida species was observed. The fact that C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis were responsible for 23.8 and 4.8 % of the cases attributed to C. parapsilosis bloodstream infections, respectively, indicates the clinical relevance of these newly described yeasts. Further investigations of the ecological niche, mode of transmission and virulence of these species are thus essential.
  7. Fadzilah MN, Faizatul LJ, Hasibah MS, Sam IC, Bador MK, Gan GG, et al.
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2009 Jan;58(Pt 1):142-3.
    PMID: 19074667 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.004622-0
    A 17-year-old man with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia had fever and diarrhoea during a febrile neutropenic episode. A spiral-shaped, Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium was isolated from blood, and confirmed as Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens by 16S rRNA sequencing. The patient responded to imipenem.
  8. Peremalo T, Madhavan P, Hamzah S, Than L, Wong EH, Nasir MDM, et al.
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2019 Mar;68(3):346-354.
    PMID: 30724730 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.000940
    PURPOSE: Non-albicansCandida species have emerged as fungal pathogens that cause invasive infections, with many of these species displaying resistance to commonly used antifungal agents. This study was confined to studying the characteristics of clinical isolates of the C. rugosa complex and C. pararugosa species.

    METHODOLOGY: Seven isolates of the C. rugosa complex and one isolate of C. pararugosa were obtained from two tertiary referral hospitals in Malaysia. Their antifungal susceptibilities, biofilm, proteinase, phospholipase, esterase and haemolysin activities were characterized. Biofilms were quantified using crystal violet (CV) and tetrazolium (XTT) reduction assays at 1.5, 6, 18, 24, 48 and 72 h.Results/Key findings. The E-test antifungal tests showed that both species have elevated MICs compared to C. albicans and C. tropicalis. The highest biomass was observed in one of the C. rugosa isolates (0.237), followed by C. pararugosa (0.206) at 18 h of incubation. However, the highest bioactivity was observed in the C. rugosa ATCC 10571 strain at 24 h (0.075), followed by C. pararugosa at 48 h (0.048) and the same C. rugosa strain at 24 h (0.046), with P<0.05. All isolates exhibited high proteinase activity (+++) whereas six isolates showed very strong esterase activity (++++). All the isolates were alpha haemolytic producers. None of the isolates exhibited phospholipase activity.

    CONCLUSION: Elevated MICs were shown for the C. rugosa complex and C. pararugosa for commonly used antifungal drugs. Further studies to identify virulence genes involved in the pathogenesis and genes that confer reduced drug susceptibility in these species are proposed.

  9. Che Hamzah AM, Yeo CC, Puah SM, Chua KH, A Rahman NI, Abdullah FH, et al.
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2019 Sep;68(9):1299-1305.
    PMID: 31140965 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.000993
    The spread of multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a public health concern. The inducible macrolide-lincosamide-streptogrammin B (iMLSB ) phenotype (or inducible clindamycin resistance) is associated with false clindamycin susceptibility in routine laboratory testing and may lead to treatment failure. Tigecycline resistance remains rare in S. aureus worldwide. This study aims to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of clinical isolates of S. aureus obtained from the main tertiary hospital in Terengganu state, Malaysia, from July 2016 to June 2017. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of 90 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and 109 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates were determined by disc diffusion with the iMLSB phenotype determined by D-test. Multidrug resistance (MDR) and the iMLSB phenotype were more prevalent in MRSA (84.4 and 46.7  %, respectively) compared to MSSA isolates. All five tigecycline-resistant isolates were MRSA. The high incidence of MDR and the iMLSB phenotype and the emergence of tigecycline resistance in the Terengganu S. aureus isolates warrants continuous vigilance.
Contact Us

Please provide feedback to Administrator (tengcl@gmail.com)

External Links