Displaying publications 41 - 58 of 58 in total

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  1. Flaherty GT, Lim Yap K
    J Travel Med, 2017 Sep 01;24(5).
    PMID: 28498914 DOI: 10.1093/jtm/tax024
    Evidence-based travel medicine requires that research priorities reflect the wide knowledge base of this discipline. Bibliometric analysis of articles published in Journal of Travel Medicine yielded the following results: epidemiology (6%, n = 105); immunology/vaccinology (8.5%, n = 148); pre-travel assessment/consultation (30.5%, n = 533); diseases contracted during travel (48.3%, n = 843); other clinical conditions associated with travel (6.8%, n = 119); post-travel assessment (5.2%, n = 91) and administrative and general travel medicine issues (6%, n = 105).
  2. Johnston N, Sandys N, Geoghegan R, O'Donovan D, Flaherty G
    J Travel Med, 2018 01 01;25(1).
    PMID: 29394388 DOI: 10.1093/jtm/tax092
    Background: Increasingly, medical students from developed countries are undertaking international medical electives in developing countries. Medical students understand the many benefits of these electives, such as the opportunity to develop clinical skills, to gain insight into global health issues and to travel to interesting regions of the world. However, they may be much less aware of the risk to their health and wellbeing while abroad. Compounding this problem, medical students may not seek advice from travel medicine practitioners and often receive inadequate or no information from their medical school prior to departure.

    Methods: The PubMed database was searched for relevant literature relating to the health of medical elective students. Combinations of the following key words were used as search terms: 'international health elective', 'medical student' and 'health risks'. Articles were restricted to those published in English from 1997 through June 2017. A secondary review of the reference lists of these articles was performed. The grey literature was also searched for relevant material.

    Results: This narrative literature review outlines the risks of clinical electives in resource-poor settings which include exposure to infectious illness, trauma, sexual health problems, excessive sun exposure, mental health issues and crime. Medical students may mitigate these health risks by being informed and well prepared for high-risk situations. The authors provide evidence-based travel advice which aims to improve pre-travel preparation and maximize student traveller safety. A safer and more enjoyable elective may be achieved if students follow road safety advice, take personal safety measures, demonstrate cultural awareness, attend to their psychological wellbeing and avoid risk-taking behaviours.

    Conclusion: This article may benefit global health educators, international elective coordinators and travel medicine practitioners. For students, a comprehensive elective checklist, an inventory of health kit items and useful web-based educational resources are provided to help prepare for electives abroad.

  3. Nakayama E, Tajima S, Kotaki A, Shibasaki KI, Itokawa K, Kato K, et al.
    J Travel Med, 2018 01 01;25(1).
    PMID: 29394382 DOI: 10.1093/jtm/tax072
    Background: Due to the huge 2-way human traffic between Japan and Chikungunya (CHIK) fever-endemic regions, 89 imported cases of CHIK fever were confirmed in Japan from January 2006 to June 2016. Fifty-four of 89 cases were confirmed virologically and serologically at the National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Japan and we present the demographic profiles of the patients and the phylogenetic features of 14 CHIK virus (CHIKV) isolates.

    Methods: Patients were diagnosed with CHIK fever by a combination of virus isolation, viral RNA amplification, IgM antibody-, IgG antibody-, and/or neutralizing antibody detection. The whole-genome sequences of the CHIKV isolates were determined by next-generation sequencing.

    Results: Prior to 2014, the source countries of the imported CHIK fever cases were limited to South and Southeast Asian countries. After 2014, when outbreaks occurred in the Pacific and Caribbean Islands and Latin American countries, there was an increase in the number of imported cases from these regions. A phylogenetic analysis of 14 isolates revealed that four isolates recovered from three patients who returned from Sri Lanka, Malaysia and Angola, belonged to the East/Central/South African genotype, while 10 isolates from 10 patients who returned from Indonesia, the Philippines, Tonga, the Commonwealth of Dominica, Colombia and Cuba, belonged to the Asian genotype.

    Conclusion: Through the phylogenetic analysis of the isolates, we could predict the situations of the CHIK fever epidemics in Indonesia, Angola and Cuba. Although Japan has not yet experienced an autochthonous outbreak of CHIK fever, the possibility of the future introduction of CHIKV through an imported case and subsequent local transmission should be considered, especially during the mosquito-active season. The monitoring and reporting of imported cases will be useful to understand the situation of the global epidemic, to increase awareness of and facilitate the diagnosis of CHIK fever, and to identify a future CHIK fever outbreak in Japan.

  4. Pereira RT, Malone CM, Flaherty GT
    J Travel Med, 2018 06 01;25(1).
    PMID: 29924349 DOI: 10.1093/jtm/tay042
    Background: Medical tourism has witnessed significant growth in recent years. The emerging trend towards international travel for cosmetic surgical interventions has not previously been reviewed. The current review aims to critically address the scale and impact of cosmetic surgical tourism and to delineate the complication profile of this form of medical tourism.

    Methods: Articles published in the English language on the PubMed database that were relevant to surgical tourism and the complications of elective surgical procedures abroad were examined. Reference lists of articles identified were further scrutinized. The search terms used included combinations of 'surgery abroad', 'cosmetic surgery abroad', 'cosmetic surgery tourism', 'cosmetic surgery complications' and 'aesthetic tourism'.

    Results: This article critically reviews the epidemiology of cosmetic surgical tourism and its associated economic factors. Surgical complications of selected procedures, including perioperative complications, are described. The implications for travel medicine practice are considered and recommendations for further research are proposed.

    Conclusion: This narrative literature review focuses on the issues affecting travellers who obtain cosmetic surgical treatment overseas. There is a lack of focus in the travel medicine literature on the non-surgery-related morbidity of this special group of travellers. Original research exploring the motivation and pre-travel preparation, including the psychological counselling, of cosmetic surgical tourists is indicated.

  5. Flaherty GT, Chen B, Avalos G
    J Travel Med, 2017 Sep 01;24(6).
    PMID: 28922821 DOI: 10.1093/jtm/tax059
    The purpose of this study was to examine the principal travel health priorities of travellers. The most frequently selected travel health concerns were accessing medical care abroad, dying abroad, insect bites, malaria, personal safety and travel security threats. The travel health risks of least concern were culture shock, fear of flying, jet lag and sexually transmitted infections. This study is the first to develop a hierarchy of self-declared travel health risk priorities among travellers.
  6. Chang L, Lim BCW, Flaherty GT, Torresi J
    J Travel Med, 2019 Sep 02;26(6).
    PMID: 31066446 DOI: 10.1093/jtm/taz034
    BACKGROUND: With the advent of highly active antiretroviral drugs for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) it has become possible for people with HIV to travel to destinations that may place them at risk of a number of infectious diseases. Prevention of infections by vaccination is therefore of paramount importance for these travellers. However, vaccine responsiveness in HIV-positive individuals is not infrequently reduced compared to HIV-negative individuals. An understanding of the expected immune responses to vaccines in HIV-positive travellers is therefore important in planning the best approach to a pretravel consultation.

    METHODS: A PubMed search was performed on HIV or acquired immune deficiency syndrome together with a search for specific vaccines. Review of the literature was performed to develop recommendations on vaccinations for HIV-positive travellers to high-risk destinations.

    RESULTS: The immune responses to several vaccines are reduced in HIV-positive people. In the case of vaccines for hepatitis A, hepatitis B, influenza, pneumococcus, meningococcus and yellow fever there is a good body of data in the literature showing reduced immune responsiveness and also to help guide appropriate vaccination strategies. For other vaccines like Japanese encephalitis, rabies, typhoid fever, polio and cholera the data are not as robust; however, it is still possible to gain some understanding of the reduced responses seen with these vaccines.

    CONCLUSION: This review provides a summary of the immunological responses to commonly used vaccines for the HIV-positive travellers. This information will help guide travel medicine practitioners in making decisions about vaccination and boosting of travellers with HIV.

  7. Wong J, Abdul Aziz ABZ, Chaw L, Mahamud A, Griffith MM, Ying-Ru LO, et al.
    J Travel Med, 2020 May 05.
    PMID: 32365178 DOI: 10.1093/jtm/taaa066
    We report early findings from COVID-19 cases in Brunei suggesting a remarkably high proportion of asymptomatic (12%) and presymptomatic (30%) cases. This proportion was even higher in imported cases. These have implications for measures to prevent onward local transmission and should prompt reconsideration of current testing protocols and safe de-escalation of social distancing measures.
  8. Flaherty GT, Leong SW, Finn Y, Sulaiman LH, Noone C
    J Travel Med, 2020 Jul 07.
    PMID: 32634210 DOI: 10.1093/jtm/taaa110
    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the awareness of travellers with diabetes about the health effects of international travel. This study aimed to design and validate a questionnaire to examine the travel health knowledge, attitudes and practices of people living with type 1 diabetes.

    METHODS: A set of 74 items based on a conceptual framework analysis underwent revision and its content validity was established. Items were grouped into three domains. A development study was conducted to establish evidence regarding their factorial structure. A construct validation study was then conducted in which the retained items were tested in an independent sample using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA).

    RESULTS: Four factors emerged from our development study and were labelled as Pre-travel Preparation-Insect Bites, Pre-travel Preparation-Consultation, Insulin and Glycaemic Control, and Travel Risk Behaviour. A CFA confirmed the factorial structure identified in the development study in an independent sample. Each factor loading had a significant (p 

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