In the present work, the microstructure, corrosion, and bioactivity of graphene oxide (GO) coating on the laser-modified and -unmodified surfaces of TiNb shape memory alloys (SMAs) were investigated. The surface morphology and chemical composition was examined using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The surface modification was carried out via a femtosecond laser with the aim to increase the surface roughness, and thus increase the adhesion property. FE-SEM analysis of the laser-treated Ti-30at.% Nb revealed the increase in surface roughness and oxygen/nitrogen containing groups on the Ti-30at.% Nb surface after being surface modified via a femtosecond laser. Furthermore, the thickness of GO was increased from 35μm to 45μm after the surface was modified. Potentiodynamic polarisation and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies revealed that both the GO and laser/GO-coated samples exhibited higher corrosion resistance than that of the uncoated TiNb SMA sample. However, the laser/GO-coated sample presented the highest corrosion resistance in SBF at 37°C. In addition, during soaking in the simulated body fluid (SBF), both the GO and laser/GO coating improved the formation of apatite layer. Based on the bioactivity results, the GO coating exhibited a remarkable antibacterial activity against gram-negative bacteria compared with the uncoated. In conclusion, the present results indicate that Ti-30at.% Nb SMAs may be promising alternatives to NiTi for certain biomedical applications.
Poly (citric acid)-grafted-MWCNT (PCA-g-MWCNT) was incorporated as nanofiller in polyethersulfone (PES) to produce hemodialysis mixed matrix membrane (MMM). Citric acid monohydrate was polymerized onto the surface of MWCNTs by polycondensation. Neat PES membrane and PES/MWCNTs MMMs were fabricated by dry-wet spinning technique. The membranes were characterized in terms of morphology, pure water flux (PWF) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein rejection. The grafting yield of PCA onto MWCNTs was calculated as 149.2%. The decrease of contact angle from 77.56° to 56.06° for PES/PCA-g-MWCNTs membrane indicated the increase in surface hydrophilicity, which rendered positive impacts on the PWF and BSA rejection of the membrane. The PWF increased from 15.8Lm(-2)h(-1) to 95.36Lm(-2)h(-1) upon the incorporation of PCA-g-MWCNTs due to the attachment of abundant hydrophilic groups that present on the MWCNTs, which have improved the affinity of membrane towards the water molecules. For protein rejection, the PES/PCA-g-MWCNTs MMM rejected 95.2% of BSA whereas neat PES membrane demonstrated protein rejection of 90.2%. Compared to commercial PES hemodialysis membrane, the PES/PCA-g-MWCNTs MMMs showed less flux decline behavior and better PWF recovery ratio, suggesting that the membrane antifouling performance was improved. The incorporation of PCA-g-MWCNTs enhanced the separation features and antifouling capabilities of the PES membrane for hemodialysis application.
Collagen is the most abundant extracellular matrix (ECM) protein in the human body, thus widely used in tissue engineering and subsequent clinical applications. This study aimed to extract collagen from ovine (Ovis aries) Achilles tendon (OTC), and to evaluate its physicochemical properties and its potential to fabricate thin film with collagen fibrils in a random or aligned orientation. Acid-solubilized protein was extracted from ovine Achilles tendon using 0.35M acetic acid, and 80% of extracted protein was measured as collagen. SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry analysis revealed the presence of alpha 1 and alpha 2 chain of collagen type I (col I). Further analysis with Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) confirms the presence of triple helix structure of col I, similar to commercially available rat tail col I. Drying the OTC solution at 37°C resulted in formation of a thin film with randomly orientated collagen fibrils (random collagen film; RCF). Introduction of unidirectional mechanical intervention using a platform rocker prior to drying facilitated the fabrication of a film with aligned orientation of collagen fibril (aligned collagen film; ACF). It was shown that both RCF and ACF significantly enhanced human dermal fibroblast (HDF) attachment and proliferation than that on plastic surface. Moreover, cells were distributed randomly on RCF, but aligned with the direction of mechanical intervention on ACF. In conclusion, ovine tendon could be an alternative source of col I to fabricate scaffold for tissue engineering applications.
Diopside was synthesized from biowaste (Eggshell) by sol-gel combustion method at low calcination temperature and the influence of two different fuels (urea, l-alanine) on the phase formation temperature, physical and biological properties of the resultant diopside was studied. The synthesized materials were characterized by heating microscopy, FTIR, XRD, BET, SEM and EDAX techniques. BET analysis reveals particles were of submicron size with porosity in the nanometer range. Bone-like apatite deposition ability of diopside scaffolds was examined under static and circulation mode of SBF (Simulated Body Fluid). It was noticed that diopside has the capability to deposit HAP (hydroxyapatite) within the early stages of immersion. ICP-OES analysis indicates release of Ca, Mg, Si ions and removal of P ions from the SBF, but in different quantities from diopside scaffolds. Cytocompatability studies on human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) revealed good cellular attachment on the surface of diopside scaffolds and formation of extracellular matrix (ECM). This study suggests that the usage of eggshell biowaste as calcium source provides an effective substitute for synthetic starting materials to fabricate bioproducts for biomedical applications.
Nanocomposites of zinc oxide loaded on a zeolite (Zeolite/ZnO NCs) were prepared using co-precipitation method. The ratio effect of ZnO wt.% to the Zeolite on the antibacterial activities was investigated. Various techniques were used for the nanocomposite characterization, including UV-vis, FTIR, XRD, EDX, FESEM and TEM. XRD patterns showed that ZnO peak intensity increased while the intensities of Zeolite peaks decreased. TEM images indicated a good distribution of ZnO-NPs onto the Zeolite framework and the cubic structure of the zeolite was maintained. The average particle size of ZnO-nanoparticles loaded on the surface of the Zeolite was in the range of 1-10nm. Moreover, Zeolite/ZnO NCs showed noticeable antibacterial activities against the tested bacteria; Gram- positive and Gram- negative bacteria, under normal light. The efficiency of the antibacterial increased with increasing the wt.% from 3 to 8 of ZnO NPs, and it reached 87% against Escherichia coli E266.
This paper presents the fabrication of a highly sensitive and selective glucose sensor based on cuprous oxide/graphene nanocomposites-modified glassy carbon electrode (Cu2O/graphene/GCE). The Cu2O/graphene nanocomposites were synthesized based on a simple and straightforward chemical reduction process in alkaline aqueous solution using sodium carbonate as reductant. The size and shape of Cu2O nanoparticles on graphene sheets can be controlled by changing the amount of graphene oxide added during reaction. The electrochemical properties of Cu2O/graphene/GCE in 0.1M phosphate buffer solution were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It was found that the pH, concentration of supporting electrolyte, and scan rate had very crucial effect on the sensitivity of prepared sensor towards glucose oxidation. At an applied potential of +0.50V, the Cu2O/graphene/GCE presented a high sensitivity of 1330.05μAmM(-1)cm(-2) and fast response (within 3s). The amperometric non-enzymatic glucose sensor developed had a linear relationship from 0.01mM to 3.0mM glucose and detection limit of 0.36μM. In the presence of ascorbic acid, uric acid, dopamine, chloride and citrate ion and other carbohydrates, the interferences were negligible. The proposed sensor was successfully applied for the determination of glucose concentration in real human blood samples.
Antibacterial coating is important to prevent the colonization of medical devices by biofilm forming bacteria that would cause infection and sepsis in patients. Current coating techniques such as immobilization of antimicrobial compounds, time-releasing antibiotic agents and silver nanoparticles, require multiple processing steps, and they have low efficacy and low stability. We proposed a single-step plasma polymerization of an essential oil known as carvone to produce a moderately hydrophobic antibacterial coating (ppCar) with an average roughness of <1nm. ppCar had a static water contact angle of 78°, even after 10days of air aging and it maintained its stability throughout 24h of LB broth immersion. ppCar showed promising results in the live-dead fluorescence assay and crystal violet assay. The biofilm assay showed an effective reduction of E. coli and S. aureus bacteria by 86% and 84% respectively. ppCar is also shown to rupture the bacteria membrane for its bactericidal effects. The cytotoxicity test indicated that the coating is not cytotoxic to the human cell line. This study would be of interest to researcher keen on producing a bacteria-resistance and biocompatible coating on different substrates in a cost-effective manner.
Recently, a modified form of a three-dimension (3D) porous poly(caprolactone-trifumarate) (PCLTF) scaffold has been produced using a fabrication technique that involves gelatin microparticles porogen leaching. This poly(caprolactone trifumarate-gelatin microparticles) (PCLTF-GMPs) scaffold has been shown to be biocompatible, more flowable clinically, and has a shorter degradation time as compared to its existing predecessors. In this report, a detailed characterization of this new scaffold was performed by testing its cytocompatibility, analyzing the surface topography, and understanding its thermal, physical and mechanical properties. The result showed that the PCLTF-GMPs has no critical cytotoxic effect. To confirm improvement, the surface properties were compared against the older version of PCLTF fabricated using salt porogen leaching. This PCLTF-GMPs scaffold showed no significant difference (unpaired t-test; p>0.05) in mechanical properties before and after gelatin leaching. However, it is mechanically weaker when compared to its predecessors. It has a high biodegradability rate of 16weeks. The pore size produced ranges from 40 to 300μm, and the RMS roughness is 613.7±236.9nm. These characteristics are condusive for osteoblast in-growth, as observed by the extension of filopodia across the macropores. Overall, this newly produced material has good thermal, physical and mechanical properties that complements its biocompatibility and ease of use.
The use of electrospinning process in fabricating tissue engineering scaffolds has received great attention in recent years due to its simplicity. The nanofibers produced via electrospinning possessed morphological characteristics similar to extracellular matrix of most tissue components. Porosity plays a vital role in developing tissue engineering scaffolds because it influences the biocompatibility performance of the scaffolds. In this study, maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) was mixed with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and subsequently electrospun to produce nanofibers. Five factors; nanoparticles content, voltage, flow rate, spinning distance, and rotating speed were varied to produce the electrospun nanofibrous mats with high porosity value. Empirical model was developed using response surface methodology to analyze the effect of these factors to the porosity. The results revealed that the optimum porosity (90.85%) was obtained using 5% w/v nanoparticle content, 35kV of voltage, 1.1ml/h volume flow rate of solution, 8cm spinning distance and 2455rpm of rotating speed. The empirical model was verified successfully by performing confirmation experiments. The properties of optimum PVA/γ-Fe2O3 nanofiber mats such as fiber diameter, mechanical properties, and contact angle were investigated. In addition, cytocompatibility test, in vitro degradation rate, and MTT assay were also performed. Results revealed that high porosity biodegradable γ-Fe2O3/polyvinyl alcohol nanofiber mats have low mechanical properties but good degradation rates and cytocompatibility properties. Thus, they are suitable for low load bearing biomedical application or soft tissue engineering scaffold.
The mechanical, thermal, and morphological properties of a 3D porous Pennisetum purpureum (PP)/polylactic acid (PLA) based scaffold were investigated. In this study, a scaffold containing P. purpureum and PLA was produced using the solvent casting and particulate leaching method. P. purpureum fibre, also locally known as Napier grass, is composed of 46% cellulose, 34% hemicellulose, and 20% lignin. PLA composites with various P. purpureum contents (10%, 20%, and 30%) were prepared and subsequently characterised. The morphologies, structures and thermal behaviours of the prepared composite scaffolds were characterised using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The morphology was studied using FESEM; the scaffold possessed 70-200μm-sized pores with a high level of interconnectivity. The moisture content and mechanical properties of the developed porous scaffolds were further characterised. The P. purpureum/PLA scaffold had a greater porosity factor (99%) and compression modulus (5.25MPa) than those of the pure PLA scaffold (1.73MPa). From the results, it can be concluded that the properties of the highly porous P. purpureum/PLA scaffold developed in this study can be controlled and optimised. This can be used to facilitate the construction of implantable tissue-engineered cartilage.
In this study, nanoporous titanate (NT) nanoparticle synthesized by the solvothermal method was used to modify polyamide layer of thin film composite membranes with the aim of improving membrane resistances against organic and inorganic fouling. Thin film nanocomposite membranes (NMs) were synthesized by adding mNTs (modified nanoparticles) into polyamide selective layer followed by characterization using different analytical instruments. The results of XPS and XRD confirmed the presence of mNTs in the polyamide layer of NMs, while FESEM, AFM, zeta potential and contact angle measurement further supported the changes in physical and chemical properties of the membrane surface upon mNTs incorporation. Results of fouling showed that NM1 (the membrane incorporated with 0.01w/v% mNTs) always demonstrated lower degree of flux decline compared to the control membrane when membranes were tested with organic, inorganic and multicomponent synthesized water, brackish water or seawater. Besides showing greater antifouling resistance, the NM also displayed significantly higher water flux compared to the control M membrane. The findings of this work confirmed the positive impact of mNTs in improving the properties of NM with respect to fouling mitigation and flux improvement.
β-Tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) has attracted much attention as an artificial bone substitute owing to its biocompatibility and osteoconductivity. In this study, osteoconductivity of β-TCP bone substitute was enhanced without using growth factors or cells. Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), which is known to possess the highest solubility among calcium phosphates, was coated on β-TCP granules by exposing their surface with acidic calcium phosphate solution. The amount of coated DCPD was regulated by changing the reaction time between β-TCP granules and acidic calcium phosphate solution. Histomorphometry analysis obtained from histological results revealed that the approximately 10mol% DCPD-coated β-TCP granules showed the largest new bone formation compared to DCPD-free β-TCP granules, approximately 2.5mol% DCPD-coated β-TCP granules, or approximately 27mol% DCPD-coated β-TCP granules after 2 and 4weeks of implantation. Based on this finding, we demonstrate that the osteoconductivity of β-TCP granules could be improved by coating their surface with an appropriate amount of DCPD.
Hydrothermally synthesized TiO2nanotubes (TNTs) were first used as a filler for chitosan scaffold for reinforcement purpose. Chitosan-TNTs (CTNTs) scaffolds prepared via direct blending and freeze drying retained cylindrical structure and showed enhanced compressive modulus and reduced degradation rate compared to chitosan membrane which experienced severe shrinkage after rehydration with ethanol. Macroporous interconnectivity with pore size of 70-230μm and porosity of 88% were found in CTNTs scaffolds. Subsequently, the functionalization of CTNTs scaffolds with CaCl2solutions (0.5mM-40.5mM) was conducted at physiological pH. The adsorption isotherm of Ca2+ions onto CTNTs scaffolds fitted well with Freundlich isotherm. CTNTs scaffolds with Ca2+ions showed high biocompatibility by promoting adhesion, proliferation and early differentiation of MG63 in a non-dose dependent manner. CTNTs scaffolds with Ca2+ions can be an alternative for bone regeneration.
Novel alginate-arabic gum (AG) gel membrane coated alginate-ghatti gum (GG) modified montmorillonite (MMT) composite matrices were developed for intragastric flurbiprofen (FLU) delivery by combining floating and mucoadhesion mechanisms. The clay-biopolymer composite matrices containing FLU as core were accomplished by ionic-gelation technique. Effects of polymer-blend (alginate:GG) ratios and crosslinker (CaCl2) concentrations on drug entrapment efficiency (DEE, %) and cumulative drug release after 8h (Q8h, %) were studied to optimize the core matrices by a 32factorial design. The optimized matrices (F-O) demonstrated DEE of 91.69±1.43% and Q8hof 74.96±1.56% with minimum errors in prediction. The alginate-AG gel membrane enveloped optimized matrices (F-O, coated) exhibited superior buoyancy, better ex vivo mucoadhesion and slower drug release rate. The drug release profile of FLU-loaded uncoated and coated optimized matrices was best fitted in Korsmeyer-Peppas model with anomalous diffusion and case-II transport driven mechanism, respectively. The uncoated and coated matrices containing FLU were also characterized for drug-excipients compatibility, drug crystallinity, thermal behaviour and surface morphology. Thus, the newly developed alginate-AG gel membrane coated alginate-GG modified MMT composite matrices are appropriate for intragastric delivery of FLU over an extended period of time with improved therapeutic benefits.
Tissue engineering (TE) is an advanced principle to develop a neotissue that can resemble the original tissue characteristics with the capacity to grow, to repair and to remodel in vivo. This research proposed the optimization and development of nanofiber based scaffold using the new mixture of maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) filled poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA)/thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) for tissue engineering heart valve (TEHV). The chemical, structural, biological and mechanical properties of nanofiber based scaffold were characterized in terms of morphology, porosity, biocompatibility and mechanical behaviour. Two-level Taguchi experimental design (L8) was performed to optimize the electrospun mats in terms of elastic modulus using uniaxial tensile test where the studied parameters were flow rate, voltage, percentage of maghemite nanoparticles in the content, solution concentration and collector rotating speed. Each run was extended with an outer array to consider the noise factors. The signal-to-noise ratio analysis indicated the contribution percent as follow; Solution concentration>voltage>maghemite %>rotating speed>flow rate. The optimum elastic modulus founded to be 28.13±0.37MPa in such a way that the tensile strain was 31.72% which provided desirability for TEHV. An empirical model was extracted and verified using confirmation test. Furthermore, an ultrafine quality of electrospun nanofibers with 80.32% porosity was fabricated. The MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay and cell attachment using human aortic smooth muscle cells exhibited desirable migration and proliferation over the electrospun mats. The interaction between blood content and the electrospun mats indicated a mutual adaption in terms of clotting time and hemolysis percent. Overall, the fabricated scaffold has the potential to provide the required properties of aortic heart valve.
In this work, binary Zn-0.5Al and ternary Zn-0.5Al-xMg alloys with various Mg contents were investigated as biodegradable materials for implant applications. Compared with Zn-0.5Al (single phase), Zn-0.5Al-xMg alloys consisted of the α-Zn and Mg2(Zn, Al)11 with a fine lamellar structure. The results also revealed that ternary Zn-Al-Mg alloys presented higher micro-hardness value, tensile strength and corrosion resistance compared to the binary Zn-Al alloy. In addition, the tensile strength and corrosion resistance increased with increasing the Mg content in ternary alloys. The immersion tests also indicated that the corrosion rates in the following order Zn-0.5Al-0.5Mg
In this study, nanohybrid materials consisting of graphene oxide (GO), β‑cyclodextrin (CD) and poly(amido amine) dendrimer (DEN) were successfully prepared by covalent bonding. GO-CD and GO-CD-DEN were found to be potential nanocarriers for anticancer drugs including chemotherapeutics (doxorubicin (DOX), camptothecin (CPT)) and photosensitizer (protoporphyrin IX (PpIX)). GO-CD possessed 1.2 times higher DOX-loading capacity than GO due to inclusion of additional DOX to the CD. The drug loading on GO-CD-DEN increased in the order: DOX
A novel approach in the design of a safe, high performance hemodialysis membrane is of great demand. Despite many advantages, the employment of prodigious nanomaterials in hemodialysis membrane is often restricted by their potential threat to health. Hence, this work focusses on designing a biocompatible polyethersulfone (PES) hemodialysis membrane embedded with poly (citric acid)-grafted-multi walled carbon nanotubes (PCA-g-MWCNTs). Two important elements which could assure the safety of the nanocomposite membrane, i.e. (i) dispersion stability and (ii) leaching of MWCNTs were observed. The results showed the improved dispersion stability of MWCNTs in water and organic solvent due to the enriched ratio of oxygen-rich groups which subsequently enhanced membrane separation features. It was revealed that only 0.17% of MWCNTs was leached out during the membrane fabrication process (phase inversion) while no leaching was detected during permeation. In terms of biocompatibility, PES/PCA-g-MWCNT nanocomposite membrane exhibited lesser C3 and C5 activation (189.13 and 5.29ng/mL) and proteins adsorption (bovine serum albumin=4.5μg/cm2, fibrinogen=15.95μg/cm2) as compared to the neat PES membrane, while keeping a normal blood coagulation time. Hence, the PES/PCA-g-MWCNT nanocomposite membrane is proven to have the prospect of becoming a safe and high performance hemodialysis membrane.
Curcumin derivatives have been well-documented due to their natural antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities. Curcuminoids have also gained widespread recognition due to their wide range of other activities which include anti-infective, anti-mutagenic, anticancer, anti-coagulant, antiarthrititc, and wound healing potential. Despite of having a wide range of activities, the inherent physicochemical characteristics (poor water solubility, low bioavailability, chemical instability, photodegradation, rapid metabolism and short half-life) of curcumin derivatives limit their pharmaceutical significance. Aiming to overcome these pharmaceutical issues and improving therapeutic efficacy of curcuminoids, newer strategies have been attempted in recent years. These advanced techniques include polymeric nanoparticles, nanocomposite hydrogels, nanovesicles, nanofibers, nanohybrid scaffolds, nanoconjugates, nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs), nanoemulsion, polymeric micelles and polymeric blend films. Incorporation of curcumin in these delivery systems has shown improved solubility, transmembrane permeability, long-term stability, improved bioavailability, longer plasma half-life, target-specific delivery, and upgraded therapeutic efficacy. In this review, a range of in vitro and in vivo studies have been critically discussed to explore the pharmaceutical significance and therapeutic viability of the advanced delivery systems to improve antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial efficacies of curcumin and its derivatives.