Displaying publications 41 - 60 of 313 in total

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  1. Syva SH, Ampon K, Lasimbang H, Fatimah SS
    J Tissue Eng Regen Med, 2017 02;11(2):311-320.
    PMID: 26073746 DOI: 10.1002/term.2043
    Human amnion mesenchymal stem cells (HAMCs) show great differentiation and proliferation potential and also other remarkable features that could serve as an outstanding alternative source of stem cells in regenerative medicine. Recent reports have demonstrated various kinds of effective artificial niche that mimic the microenvironment of different types of stem cell to maintain and control their fate and function. The components of the stem cell microenvironment consist mainly of soluble and insoluble factors responsible for regulating stem cell differentiation and self-renewal. Extensive studies have been made on regulating HAMCs differentiation into specific phenotypes; however, the understanding of relevant factors in directing stem cell fate decisions in HAMCs remain underexplored. In this review, we have therefore identified soluble and insoluble factors, including mechanical stimuli and cues from the other supporting cells that are involved in directing HAMCs fate decisions. In order to strengthen the significance of understanding on the relevant factors involved in stem cell fate decisions, recent technologies developed to specifically mimic the microenvironments of specific cell lineages are also reviewed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials
  2. Sung TC, Liu CH, Huang WL, Lee YC, Kumar SS, Chang Y, et al.
    Biomater Sci, 2019 Oct 28.
    PMID: 31656967 DOI: 10.1039/c9bm00817a
    Current xeno-free and chemically defined methods for the differentiation of hPSCs (human pluripotent stem cells) into cardiomyocytes are not efficient and are sometimes not reproducible. Therefore, it is necessary to develop reliable and efficient methods for the differentiation of hPSCs into cardiomyocytes for future use in cardiovascular research related to drug discovery, cardiotoxicity screening, and disease modeling. We evaluated two representative differentiation methods that were reported previously, and we further developed original, more efficient methods for the differentiation of hPSCs into cardiomyocytes under xeno-free, chemically defined conditions. The developed protocol successively differentiated hPSCs into cardiomyocytes, approximately 90-97% of which expressed the cardiac marker cTnT, with beating speeds and sarcomere lengths that were similar to those of a healthy adult human heart. The optimal cell culture biomaterials for the cardiac differentiation of hPSCs were also evaluated using extracellular matrix-mimetic material-coated dishes. Synthemax II-coated and Laminin-521-coated dishes were found to be the most effective and efficient biomaterials for the cardiac differentiation of hPSCs according to the observation of hPSC-derived cardiomyocytes with high survival ratios, high beating colony numbers, a similar beating frequency to that of a healthy adult human heart, high purity levels (high cTnT expression) and longer sarcomere lengths similar to those of a healthy adult human heart.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials
  3. Sung TC, Li HF, Higuchi A, Kumar SS, Ling QD, Wu YW, et al.
    Biomaterials, 2020 02;230:119638.
    PMID: 31810728 DOI: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2019.119638
    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) were generated on several biomaterials from human amniotic fluid in completely xeno-free and feeder-free conditions via the transfection of pluripotent genes using a nonintegrating RNA Sendai virus vector. The effect of xeno-free culture medium on the efficiency of the establishment of human amniotic fluid stem cells from amniotic fluid was evaluated. Subsequently, the effect of cell culture biomaterials on the reprogramming efficiency was investigated during the reprogramming of human amniotic fluid stem cells into hiPSCs. Cells cultured in laminin-511, laminin-521, and Synthemax II-coated dishes and hydrogels having optimal elasticity that were engrafted with specific oligopeptides derived from vitronectin could be reprogrammed into hiPSCs with high efficiency. The reprogrammed cells expressed pluripotency proteins and had the capability to differentiate into cells derived from all three germ layers in vitro and in vivo. Human iPSCs could be generated successfully and at high efficiency (0.15-0.25%) in completely xeno-free conditions from the selection of optimal cell culture biomaterials.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials
  4. Sudesh K, Loo CY, Goh LK, Iwata T, Maeda M
    Macromol Biosci, 2007 Nov 12;7(11):1199-205.
    PMID: 17703476
    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) have attracted the attention of academia and industry because of their plastic-like properties and biodegradability. However, practical applications as a commodity material have not materialized because of their high production cost and unsatisfactory mechanical properties. PHAs are also believed to have high-value applications as an absorbable biomaterial for tissue engineering and drug-delivery devices because of their biocompatibility. However, research in these areas is still in its very early stages. The main problem faced by proponents of PHAs is the lack of a niche area where PHAs will be the most desired material in terms of its function during use rather than because of its eco-friendly virtues after use. Here, we report on the oil-absorbing property of PHA films and its potential applications. By comparing with some of the existing commercial products, the potential application of PHAs as cosmetic oil-blotting films is revealed for the first time. Besides having the ability to rapidly absorb and retain oil, PHA films also have a natural oil-indicator property, showing obvious changes in opacity following oil absorption. Surface analysis revealed that the surface structures such as porosity and smoothness exert great influence on the rapid oil-absorption properties of the PHA films. These newly discovered properties could be exploited to create a niche area for the practical applications of PHAs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/chemistry
  5. Sudesh K
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 May;59 Suppl B:55-6.
    PMID: 15468816
    Among the various biomaterials available for tissue engineering and therapeutic applications, microbial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) offer the most diverse range of thermal and mechanical properties. Of particular interest are the PHAs that contain 4-hydroxybutyrate such as poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB) and poly(4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(4HB)]. These polyesters can only be synthesized by a few types of bacteria, among which Comamonas acidovorans has the most efficient metabolic pathways to channel 4HB monomers. The resulting polyesters are bioabsorbable and are being developed as a new biomaterial for medical applications. By controlling the molar ratio of the monomers, it is possible to produce materials that are as tough and elastic as rubber.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials*
  6. Subhi H, Reza F, Husein A, Nurul AA
    J Conserv Dent, 2018 4 10;21(1):21-25.
    PMID: 29628642 DOI: 10.4103/JCD.JCD_86_17
    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity effects of experimental gypsum-based biomaterial prepared with various concentrations of chitosan (Gyp-CHT).

    Materials and Methods: The study was performed using cell viability assay for mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity in stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED), after 1, 2, and 3 days of exposure to the biomaterial extracts of varying concentrations. Differences in mean cell viability values were assessed by one-way analysis of variance, followed by Dunnett T3 post hoc test for multiple comparisons (P < 0.05).

    Results: The cell viability to Gyp-CHT in low extract concentrations was statistically similar to that of the control and different from that of high extract concentrations. Gyp-5% CHT showed the highest percentage of cell viability with 110.92%, 108.56%, and 109.11%. The cell viability showed a tendency toward increment with low extract concentration and no constant effect of CHT on cell viability toward higher or lower.

    Conclusions: Gyp-CHT biomaterial has no cytotoxic effects on the cultured SHED.

    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials
  7. Sosroseno W, Sugiatno E, Samsudin AR, Ibrahim F
    J Oral Implantol, 2008;34(4):196-202.
    PMID: 18780564 DOI: 10.1563/0.910.1
    The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the proliferation of a human osteoblast cell line (HOS cells) stimulated with hydroxyapatite (HA) may be regulated by nitric oxide (NO). The cells were cultured on the surface of HA. Medium or cells alone were used as controls. L-arginine, D-arginine, 7-NI (an nNOS inhibitor), L-NIL (an iNOS inhibitor), L-NIO (an eNOS inhibitor) or carboxy PTIO, a NO scavenger, was added in the HA-exposed cell cultures. The cells were also precoated with anti-human integrin alphaV antibody. The levels of nitrite were determined spectrophotometrically. Cell proliferation was assessed by colorimetric assay. The results showed increased nitrite production and cell proliferation by HA-stimulated HOS cells up to day 3 of cultures. Anti-integrin alphaV antibody, L-NIO, or carboxy PTIO suppressed, but L-arginine enhanced, nitrite production and cell proliferation of HA-stimulated HOS cells. The results of the present study suggest, therefore, that interaction between HA and HOS cell surface integrin alphaV molecule may activate eNOS to catalyze NO production which, in turn, may regulate the cell proliferation in an autocrine fashion.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology*
  8. Sopyan I, Fadli A, Mel M
    J Mech Behav Biomed Mater, 2012 Apr;8:86-98.
    PMID: 22402156 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2011.10.012
    This report presents physical characterization and cell culture test of porous alumina-hydroxyapatite (HA) composites fabricated through protein foaming-consolidation technique. Alumina and HA powders were mixed with yolk and starch at an adjusted ratio to make slurry. The resulting slip was poured into cylindrical shaped molds and followed by foaming and consolidation via 180 °C drying for 1 h. The obtained green bodies were burned at 600 °C for 1 h, followed by sintering at temperatures of 1200-1550 °C for 2 h. Porous alumina-HA bodies with 26-77 vol.% shrinkage, 46%-52% porosity and 0.1-6.4 MPa compressive strength were obtained. The compressive strength of bodies increased with the increasing sintering temperatures. The addition of commercial HA in the body was found to increase the compressive strength, whereas the case is reverse for sol-gel derived HA. Biocompatibility study of porous alumina-HA was performed in a stirred tank bioreactor using culture of Vero cells. A good compatibility of the cells to the porous microcarriers was observed as the cells attached and grew at the surface of microcarriers at 8-120 cultured hours. The cell growth on porous alumina microcarrier was 0.015 h(-1) and increased to 0.019 h(-1) for 0.3 w/w HA-to-alumina mass ratio and decreased again to 0.017 h(-1) for 1.0 w/w ratio.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/toxicity; Biocompatible Materials/chemistry*
  9. Soon G, Pingguan-Murphy B, Akbar SA
    J Mech Behav Biomed Mater, 2017 04;68:26-31.
    PMID: 28135639 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2017.01.028
    This study utilizes the technique of self-assembly to fabricate arrays of nanoislands on (001)-oriented yttria-stabilized zirconia single crystal substrates with miscut of 10° toward <110> direction. These self-assembled nanostructures were annealed at 1100°C for 5h upon doping with 10mol% gadolinium-doped ceria (GDC) by powder-suspension based method. X-Ray diffraction result showed that the miscut substrate after doping GDC was in the cubic phase. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) illustrates that the nanopatterned material contains all the elements from the GDC source and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrate. It also demonstrates a higher surface roughness and a more hydrophilic surface. The nanostructured materials were subsequently used for an in vitro study using a human fetal osteoblastic cell line (hFOB). An improved spreading, enhanced cell proliferation and up-regulated alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) were observed on the nanopatterned substrates compared to the control substrates. Calcium deposits, which were stained positively by Alizarin Red S, appeared to be more abundant on the nanopatterned surfaces on day 7. The overall findings suggest that post fabrication treatment with surface modification such as creating a nanostructure (e.g. nanopatterns) can improve biocompatibility.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials
  10. Soheilmoghaddam M, Wahit MU, Tuck Whye W, Ibrahim Akos N, Heidar Pour R, Ali Yussuf A
    Carbohydr Polym, 2014 Jun 15;106:326-34.
    PMID: 24721086 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2014.02.085
    Bionanocomposite films based on regenerated cellulose (RC) and incorporated with zeolite at different concentrations were fabricated by dissolving cellulose in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (EMIMCl) ionic liquid using a simple green method. The interactions between the zeolite and the cellulose matrix were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectra. Mechanical properties of the nanocomposite films significantly improved as compared with the pure regenerated cellulose film, without the loss of extensibility. Zeolite incorporation enhanced the thermal stability and char yield of the nanocomposites. The scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed that zeolite was uniformly dispersed in the regenerated cellulose matrix. In vitro cytotoxicity test demonstrated that both RC and RC/zeolite nanocomposite films are cytocompatible. These results indicate that the prepared nanocomposites have potential applications in biodegradable packaging, membranes and biomedical areas.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/chemistry
  11. Sohail M, Mudassir, Minhas MU, Khan S, Hussain Z, de Matas M, et al.
    Drug Deliv Transl Res, 2019 04;9(2):595-614.
    PMID: 29611113 DOI: 10.1007/s13346-018-0512-x
    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory disease of the colon that severely affects the quality of life of patients and usually responds well to anti-inflammatory agents for symptomatic relief; however, many patients need colectomy, a surgical procedure to remove whole or part of the colon. Though various types of pharmacological agents have been employed for the management of UC, the lack of effectiveness is usually predisposed to various reasons including lack of target-specific delivery of drugs and insufficient drug accumulation at the target site. To overcome these glitches, many researchers have designed and characterized various types of versatile polymeric biomaterials to achieve target-specific delivery of drugs via oral route to optimize their targeting efficiency to the colon, to improve drug accumulation at the target site, as well as to ameliorate off-target effects of chemotherapy. Therefore, the aim of this review was to summarize and critically discuss the pharmaceutical significance and therapeutic feasibility of a wide range of natural and synthetic biomaterials for efficient drug targeting to colon and rationalized treatment of UC. Among various types of biomaterials, natural and synthetic polymer-based hydrogels have shown promising targeting potential due to their innate pH responsiveness, sustained and controlled release characteristics, and microbial degradation in the colon to release the encapsulated drug moieties. These characteristic features make natural and synthetic polymer-based hydrogels superior to conventional pharmacological strategies for the management of UC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/administration & dosage*
  12. Siow KS, Abdul Rahman AS, Ng PY, Majlis BY
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2020 Feb;107:110225.
    PMID: 31761201 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2019.110225
    Role of sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) groups in promoting cell adhesion or commonly known as biocompatibility, is well established, but their role in reducing bacterial attachment and growth is less explored or not well-understood. Natural sulfur-based compounds, i.e. sulfide, sulfoxide and sulfinic groups, have shown to inhibit bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. Hence, we mimicked these surfaces by plasma polymerizing thiophene (ppT) and air-plasma treating this ppT to achieve coatings with S of similar oxidation states as natural compounds (ppT-air). In addition, the effects of these N and S groups from ppT-air were also compared with the biocompatible amine-amide from n-heptylamine plasma polymer. Crystal violet assay and live and dead fluorescence staining of E. coli and S. aureus showed that all the N and S coated surfaces generated, including ppHA, ppT and ppT-air, produced similarly potent, growth reduction of both bacteria by approximately 65% at 72 h compared to untreated glass control. The ability of osteogenic differentiation in Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSCs) were also used to test the cell biocompatibility of these surfaces. Alkaline phosphatase assay and scanning electron microscopy imaging of these WJ-MSCs growths indicated that ppHA, and ppT-air were cell-friendly surfaces, with ppHA showing the highest osteogenic activity. In summary, the N and S containing surfaces could reduce bacteria growth while promoting mammalian cell growth, thus serve as potential candidate surfaces to be explored further for biomaterial applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology; Biocompatible Materials/chemistry*
  13. Siew EL, Rajab NF, Osman AB, Sudesh K, Inayat-Hussain SH
    J Biomed Mater Res A, 2009 Dec;91(3):786-94.
    PMID: 19051306 DOI: 10.1002/jbm.a.32290
    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are naturally occurring biopolyesters that have great potential in the medical field. However, the leachables resulting from sterilization process of the biomaterials may exert toxic effect including genetic damage. Here, we demonstrate that although gamma-irradiation of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-50 mol % 4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] did not cause any change in the morphology by scanning electron microscopy, there was a significant degradation of this copolymer where the molecular weight was reduced by 37% after sterilization indicating the generation of leachables. Therefore, further investigation on the ability of the extract of this poststerilized copolymer to induce mutagenic effect was performed using Ames test (S. typhimurium strains TA1535 and TA1537) and umu test (S. typhimurium strain TA1535/pSK1002). Additionally, the capability of the extract to induce clastogenic effect was determined using Chinese hamster lung V79 fibroblast cells. Our results showed that with and without the presence of S9 metabolic activation, no mutagenic effects were observed in both Ames and umu tests when treated with P(3HB-co-4HB) extract. Similarly, treatment of P(3HB-co-4HB) extract in V79 fibroblast cells showed no significant production of micronuclei when compared with the positive control (Mitomycin C). Together, these results indicate that leachables of poststerilized P(3HB-co-4HB) cause no mutagenic and clastogenic effects.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/chemistry*
  14. Siew EL, Rajab NF, Osman AB, Sudesh K, Inayat-Hussain SH
    J Biomed Mater Res A, 2007 May;81(2):317-25.
    PMID: 17120221
    Among the various biomaterials available for tissue engineering and therapeutic applications, microbial polyhydroxyalkanoates offer the most diverse range of thermal and mechanical properties. In this study, the biocompatibility of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB); containing 50 mol % of 4-hydroxybutyrate] copolymer produced by Delftia acidovorans was evaluated. The cytotoxicity, mode of cell death, and genotoxicity of P(3HB-co-4HB) extract against V79 and L929 fibroblast cells were assessed using MTT assay, acridine orange/propidium iodide staining, and alkaline comet assay, respectively. Our results demonstrate that P(3HB-co-4HB) treated on both cell lines were comparable with clinically-used Polyglactin 910, where more than 60% of viable cells were observed following 72-h treatment at 200 mg/mL. Further morphological investigation on the mode of cell death showed an increase in apoptotic cells in a time-dependent manner in both cell lines. On the other hand, P(3HB-co-4HB) at 200 mg/mL showed no genotoxic effects as determined by alkaline comet assay following 72-h treatment. In conclusion, our study indicated that P(3HB-co-4HB) compounds showed good biocompatibility in fibroblast cells suggesting that it has potential to be used for future medical applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology*; Biocompatible Materials/toxicity
  15. Shirazi FS, Mehrali M, Oshkour AA, Metselaar HS, Kadri NA, Abu Osman NA
    J Mech Behav Biomed Mater, 2014 Feb;30:168-75.
    PMID: 24316872 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2013.10.024
    The focus of this study is to investigate the effect of Al2O3 on α-calcium silicate (α-CaSiO3) ceramic. α-CaSiO3 was synthesized from CaO and SiO2 using mechanochemical method followed by calcinations at 1000°C. α-CaSiO3 and alumina were grinded using ball mill to create mixtures, containing 0-50w% of Al2O3 loadings. The powders were uniaxially pressed and followed by cold isostatic pressing (CIP) in order to achieve greater uniformity of compaction and to increase the shape capability. Afterward, the compaction was sintered in a resistive element furnace at both 1150°C and 1250°C with a 5h holding time. It was found that alumina reacted with α-CaSiO3 and formed alumina-rich calcium aluminates after sintering. An addition of 15wt% of Al2O3 powder at 1250°C were found to improve the hardness and fracture toughness of the calcium silicate. It was also observed that the average grain sizes of α-CaSiO3 /Al2O3 composite were maintained 500-700nm after sintering process.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/chemistry*
  16. Sharifzadeh G, Hosseinkhani H
    Adv Healthc Mater, 2017 Dec;6(24).
    PMID: 29057617 DOI: 10.1002/adhm.201700801
    Recent advances and applications of biomolecule-responsive hydrogels, namely, glucose-responsive hydrogels, protein-responsive hydrogels, and nucleic-acid-responsive hydrogels are highlighted. However, achieving the ultimate purpose of using biomolecule-responsive hydrogels in preclinical and clinical areas is still at the very early stage and calls for more novel designing concepts and advance ideas. On the way toward the real/clinical application of biomolecule-responsive hydrogels, plenty of factors should be extensively studied and examined under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. For example, biocompatibility, biointegration, and toxicity of biomolecule-responsive hydrogels should be carefully evaluated. From the living body's point of view, biocompatibility is seriously depended on the interactions at the tissue/polymer interface. These interactions are influenced by physical nature, chemical structure, surface properties, and degradation of the materials. In addition, the developments of advanced hydrogels with tunable biological and mechanical properties which cause no/low side effects are of great importance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/chemistry*
  17. Sharif Hossain ABM, Uddin MM, Fawzi M, Veettil VN
    Data Brief, 2018 Apr;17:1245-1252.
    PMID: 29845096 DOI: 10.1016/j.dib.2018.02.053
    The nano-cellulose derived nano-biofilm keeps a magnificent role in medical, biomedical, bioengineering and pharmaceutical industries. Plant biomaterial is naturally organic and biodegradable. This study has been highlighted as one of the strategy introducing biomass based nano-bioplastic (nanobiofilm) to solve dependency on petroleum and environment pollution because of non-degradable plastic. The data study was carried out to investigate the nano-biopolymer (nanocellulose) based nano-biofilm data from corn leaf biomass coming after bioprocess technology without chemicals. Corn leaf biomass was used to produce biodegradable nano-bioplastic for medical and biomedical and other industrial uses. Data on water absorption, odor, pH, cellulose content, shape and firmness, color coating and tensile strength test have been exhibited under standardization of ASTM (American standard for testing and materials). Moreover, the chemical elements of nanobiofilm like K+, CO3--, Cl-, Na+ showed standard data using the EN (166).
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials
  18. Sharif Hossain ABM, Uddin MM, Veettil VN, Fawzi M
    Data Brief, 2018 Apr;17:162-168.
    PMID: 29877503 DOI: 10.1016/j.dib.2017.12.046
    The nanocellulose derived biodegradable plant biomaterial as nano-coating can be used in the medical, biomedical cosmetics, and bioengineering products. Bio-plastic and some synthetic derived materials are edible and naturally biodegradable. The study was conducted to investigate edible nano-biopolymer based nano-coating of capsules and drugs or other definite biomedical materials from corn leaf biomass. Corn leaf biomass was used as an innovative sample to produce edible nano-coating bioplastic for drug and capsule coating and other industrial uses. The data show the negligible water 0.01% absorbed by bio-plastic nanocoating. Odor represented by burning test was under the completely standard based on ASTM. Moreover, data on color coating, tensile strength, pH, cellulose content have been shown under standard value of ASTM (American standard for testing and materials) standard. In addition to that data on the chemical element test like K+,


    CO


    3


    -
    -


    , Cl-, Na+ exhibited positive data compared to the synthetic plastic in the laboratory using the EN (166)) standardization. Therefore, it can be concluded that both organic (cellulose and starch) based edible nano-coating bioplastic may be used for drug and capsule coating as biomedical and medical components in the pharmaceutical industries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials
  19. Shamsuria O, Fadilah AS, Asiah AB, Rodiah MR, Suzina AH, Samsudin AR
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 May;59 Suppl B:174-5.
    PMID: 15468874
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxicity of biomaterials; Hydroxyapatite (HA), Natural coral (NC) and Polyhydroxybutarate (PHB). Three different materials used in this study; HA (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2), NC (CaCO3) and PHB (Polymer) were locally produced by the groups of researcher from Universiti Sains Malaysia. The materials were separately extracted in the complete culture medium (100mg/ml) for 72h and introduced to the osteoblast cells CRL-1543. The viability of osteoblast CRL-1543 cultivated with these extraction materials after 72h incubation period was compared to negative control with neutral red assay by using spectrophotometer at 540nm. The results showed the non-cytotoxicity of the materials. After 72h of incubation period, HA showed 123% viable cells, NC was 99.43% and PHB was 176.75%. In this study, cytotoxicity test dealt mainly with the substances that leached out from the biomaterial. The results obtained showed that the materials were not toxic and also promoted cells growth in the sense of biofunctionality.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/toxicity*
  20. Shahar FS, Hameed Sultan MT, Lee SH, Jawaid M, Md Shah AU, Safri SNA, et al.
    J Mech Behav Biomed Mater, 2019 11;99:169-185.
    PMID: 31357064 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2019.07.020
    Since ancient Egypt, orthosis was generally made from wood and then later replaced with metal and leather which are either heavy, bulky, or thick decreasing comfort among the wearers. After the age of revolution, the manufacturing of products using plastics and carbon composites started to spread due to its low cost and form-fitting feature whereas carbon composite were due to its high strength/stiffness to weight ratio. Both plastic and carbon composite has been widely applied into medical devices such as the orthosis and prosthesis. However, carbon composite is also quite expensive, making it the less likely material to be used as an Ankle-Foot Orthosis (AFO) material whereas plastics has low strength. Kenaf composite has a high potential in replacing all the current materials due to its flexibility in controlling the strength to weight ratio properties, cost-effectiveness, abundance of raw materials, and biocompatibility. The aim of this review paper is to discuss on the possibility of using kenaf composite as an alternative material to fabricate orthotics and prosthetics. The discussion will be on the development of orthosis since ancient Egypt until current era, the existing AFO materials, the problems caused by these materials, and the possibility of using a Kenaf fiber composite as a replacement of the current materials. The results show that Kenaf composite has the potential to be used for fabricating an AFO due to its tensile strength which is almost similar to polypropylene's (PP) tensile strength, and the cheap raw material compared to other type of materials.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/chemistry
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