Displaying publications 41 - 60 of 564 in total

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  1. Abdul Karim A, Azlan A, Ismail A, Hashim P, Abd Gani SS, Zainudin BH, et al.
    J Cosmet Dermatol, 2016 Sep;15(3):283-95.
    PMID: 27041391 DOI: 10.1111/jocd.12218
    OBJECTIVE: Cocoa pods are abundant waste materials of cocoa plantation, which are usually discarded onto plantation floors. However, due to poor plantation management, the discarded cocoa pods can create suitable breeding ground for Phytophthora palmivora, which is regarded as the causal agent of the black pod disease. On the other hand, cocoa pods potentially contain antioxidant compounds. Antioxidant compounds are related to the protection of skin from wrinkles and can be used as functional cosmetic ingredients. Therefore, in this study, cocoa pods were extracted and to be used as active ingredients for antiwrinkles.

    METHODS: The active compounds in cocoa pod extracts (CPE) were screened using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Fibroblast cells were used to determine the effective concentration of CPE to maintain the viability for at least 50% of the cells (EC50 ). The gel was tested by 12 panelists to determine the efficacy of CPE in gel form using Visioscan to reduce skin wrinkles and improve skin condition.

    RESULTS: CPE was detected to contain malic acid, procyanidin B1, rosmarinic acid, procyanidin C1, apigenin, and ellagic acid, all of which may contribute to functional cosmetic properties of CPE. The EC50 value of cocoa pod extracts was used to calculate the amount of CPE to be incorporated into gel so that the formulated product could reach an effective concentration of extract while being nonintoxicant to the skin cell. The results showed that CPE is potential ingredient to reduce wrinkles. Skin wrinkles reduced at 6.38 ± 1.23% with the application of the CPE gel within 3 weeks and significantly improved further (12.39 ± 1.59%) after 5 weeks. The skin hydration increased (3.181 ± 1.06%) after 3 weeks of the CPE gel application.

    CONCLUSION: Flavonoid compounds in CPE contributed to the functional cosmetic properties of CPE. The CPE which is nontoxic to skin cells help to reduce wrinkles on skin after 3 weeks of application. CPE can be used as the active ingredients in antiwrinkle products, and prolonged application may result in significant visual changes to the naked eyes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Survival/drug effects
  2. Ali NM, Yeap SK, Yusof HM, Beh BK, Ho WY, Koh SP, et al.
    J Sci Food Agric, 2016 Mar 30;96(5):1648-58.
    PMID: 26009985 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7267
    BACKGROUND: Mung bean and soybean have been individually reported previously to have antioxidant, cytotoxic and immunomodulatory effects, while fermentation is a well-known process to enhance the bioactive compounds that contribute to higher antioxidant, cytotoxic and immunomodulation effects. In this study, the free amino acids profile, soluble phenolic acids content, antioxidants, cytotoxic and immunomodulatory effects of fermented and non-fermented mung bean and soybean were compared.

    RESULTS: Fermented mung bean was recorded to have the highest level of free amino acids, soluble phenolic acids (especially protocatechuic acid) and antioxidant activities among all the tested products. Both fermented mung bean and soybean possessed cytotoxicity activities against breast cancer MCF-7 cells by arresting the G0/G1 phase followed by apoptosis. Moreover, fermented mung bean and soybean also induced splenocyte proliferation and enhanced the levels of serum interleukin-2 and interferon-γ.

    CONCLUSION: Augmented amounts of free amino acids and phenolic acids content after fermentation enhanced the antioxidants, cytotoxicity and immunomodulation effects of mung bean and soybean. More specifically, fermented mung bean showed the best effects among all the tested products. This study revealed the potential of fermented mung bean and soybean as functional foods for maintenance of good health.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Survival/drug effects
  3. Dambatta MS, Murni NS, Izman S, Kurniawan D, Froemming GR, Hermawan H
    Proc Inst Mech Eng H, 2015 May;229(5):335-42.
    PMID: 25991712 DOI: 10.1177/0954411915584962
    This article reports the in vitro degradation and cytotoxicity assessment of Zn-3Mg alloy developed for biodegradable bone implants. The alloy was prepared using casting, and its microstructure was composed of Mg2Zn11 intermetallic phase distributed within a Zn-rich matrix. The degradation assessment was done using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectrometry. The cell viability and the function of normal human osteoblast cells were assessed using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium and alkaline phosphatase extracellular enzyme activity assays. The results showed that the degradation rate of the alloy was slower than those of pure Zn and pure Mg due to the formation of a high polarization resistance oxide film. The alloy was cytocompatible with the normal human osteoblast cells at low concentrations (<0.5 mg/mL), and its alkaline phosphatase activity was superior to pure Mg. This assessment suggests that Zn-3Mg alloy has the potential to be developed as a material for biodegradable bone implants, but the toxicity limit must be carefully observed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Survival/drug effects
  4. Wren AW, Hassanzadeh P, Placek LM, Keenan TJ, Coughlan A, Boutelle LR, et al.
    Macromol Biosci, 2015 Aug;15(8):1146-58.
    PMID: 25923463 DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201500109
    Silver (Ag) coated bioactive glass particles (Ag-BG) were formulated and compared to uncoated controls (BG) in relation to glass characterization, solubility and microbiology. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed a crystalline AgNP surface coating while ion release studies determined low Ag release (<2 mg/L). Cell culture studies presented increased cell viability (127 and 102%) with lower liquid extract (50 and 100 ml/ml) concentrations. Antibacterial testing of Ag-BG in E. coli, S. epidermidis and S. aureus significantly reduced bacterial cell viability by 60-90%. Composites of Ag-BG/CMC-Dex Hydrogels were formulated and characterized. Agar diffusion testing was conducted where Ag-BG/hydrogel composites produced the largest inhibition zones of 7 mm (E. coli), 5 mm (S. aureus) and 4 mm (S. epidermidis).
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Survival/drug effects*
  5. Asmawi AA, Salim N, Ngan CL, Ahmad H, Abdulmalek E, Masarudin MJ, et al.
    Drug Deliv Transl Res, 2019 04;9(2):543-554.
    PMID: 29691812 DOI: 10.1007/s13346-018-0526-4
    Docetaxel has demonstrated extraordinary anticancer effects on lung cancer. However, lack of optimal bioavailability due to poor solubility and high toxicity at its therapeutic dose has hampered the clinical use of this anticancer drug. Development of nanoemulsion formulation along with biocompatible excipients aimed for pulmonary delivery is a potential strategy to deliver this poorly aqueous soluble drug with improved bioavailability and biocompatibility. In this work, screening and selection of pharmaceutically acceptable excipients at their minimal optimal concentration have been conducted. The selected nanoemulsion formulations were prepared using high-energy emulsification technique and subjected to physicochemical and aerodynamic characterizations. The formulated nanoemulsion had mean particle size and ζ-potential in the range of 90 to 110 nm and - 30 to - 40 mV respectively, indicating high colloidal stability. The pH, osmolality, and viscosity of the systems met the ideal requirement for pulmonary application. The DNE4 formulation exhibited slow drug release and excellent stability even under the influence of extreme environmental conditions. This was further confirmed by transmission electron microscopy as uniform spherical droplets in nanometer range were observed after storage at 45 ± 1 °C for 3 months indicating high thermal stability. The nebulized DNE4 exhibited desirable aerosolization properties for pulmonary delivery application and found to be more selective on human lung carcinoma cell (A549) than normal cell (MRC-5). Hence, these characteristics make the formulation a great candidate for the potential use as a carrier system for docetaxel in targeting lung cancer via pulmonary delivery.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Survival/drug effects
  6. Kabir MF, Mohd Ali J, Abolmaesoomi M, Hashim OH
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2017 May 05;17(1):252.
    PMID: 28476158 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-017-1761-9
    BACKGROUND: Melicope ptelefolia is a well-known herb in a number of Asian countries. It is often used as vegetable salad and traditional medicine to address various ailments. However, not many studies have been currently done to evaluate the medicinal benefits of M. ptelefolia (MP). The present study reports antioxidant, anti-proliferative, and apoptosis induction activities of MP leaf extracts.

    METHOD: Young MP leaves were dried, powdered and extracted sequentially using hexane (HX), ethyl acetate (EA), methanol (MeOH) and water (W). Antioxidant activity was evaluated using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assays. Anti-proliferative activity was evaluated through cell viability assay, using the following four human cancer cell lines: breast (HCC1937, MDA-MB-231), colorectal (HCT116) and liver (HepG2). The anti-proliferative activity was further confirmed through cell cycle and apoptosis assays, including annexin-V/7-aminoactinomycin D staining and measurements of caspase enzymes activation and inhibition.

    RESULT: Overall, MP-HX extract exhibited the highest antioxidant potential, with IC50 values of 267.73 ± 5.58 and 327.40 ± 3.80 μg/mL for ABTS and DPPH radical-scavenging assays, respectively. MP-HX demonstrated the highest CAA activity in Hs27 cells, with EC50 of 11.30 ± 0.68 μg/mL, while MP-EA showed EC50 value of 37.32 ± 0.68 μg/mL. MP-HX and MP-EA showed promising anti-proliferative activity towards the four cancer cell lines, with IC50 values that were mostly below 100 μg/mL. MP-HX showed the most notable anti-proliferative activity against MDA-MB-231 (IC50 = 57.81 ± 3.49 μg/mL) and HCT116 (IC50 = 58.04 ± 0.96 μg/mL) while MP-EA showed strongest anti-proliferative activity in HCT116 (IC50 = 64.69 ± 0.72 μg/mL). The anticancer potential of MP-HX and MP-EA were also demonstrated by their ability to induce caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death in all of the cancer cell lines tested. Cell cycle analysis suggested that both the MP-HX and MP-EA extracts were able to disrupt the cell cycle in most of the cancer cell lines.

    CONCLUSIONS: MP-HX and MP-EA extracts demonstrated notable antioxidant, anti-proliferative, apoptosis induction and cancer cell cycle inhibition activities. These findings reflect the promising potentials of MP to be a source of novel phytochemical(s) with health promoting benefits that are also valuable for nutraceutical industry and cancer therapy.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Survival/drug effects
  7. Sit NW, Chan YS, Lai SC, Lim LN, Looi GT, Tay PL, et al.
    J Mycol Med, 2018 Sep;28(3):561-567.
    PMID: 30060991 DOI: 10.1016/j.mycmed.2018.07.001
    OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to evaluate the antidermatophytic activity of 48 extracts obtained from medicinal plants (Cibotium barometz, Melastoma malabathricum, Meuhlenbeckia platyclada, Rhapis excelsa, Syzygium myrtifolium, Vernonia amygdalina) and marine algae (Caulerpa sertularioides, Kappaphycus alvarezii) against Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale (ATCC reference strains), and the cytotoxicity using African monkey kidney epithelial (Vero) cells. Active plant extracts were screened for the presence of phytochemicals and tested against clinical isolates of Trichophyton tonsurans.

    METHODS: Six different extracts (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol, methanol and water) were obtained from each plant or algae sample using sequential solvent extraction. The antidermatophytic activity for the extracts was assessed using a colourimetric broth microdilution method. The viability of Vero cells was measured by Neutral Red uptake assay.

    RESULTS: All the extracts (except the water extracts of V. amygdalina, C. sertularioides and K. alvarezii) showed antidermatophytic activity against Trichophyton spp. The minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) ranges for the plant extracts against T. rubrum and T. interdigitale are 0.0025-2.50 and 0.005-2.50mg/mL, respectively. The algae extracts exhibited lower potency against both species, showing MFC ranges of 0.08-2.50 and 0.31-2.50mg/mL, respectively. The ethanol and methanol extracts from the leaves of R. excelsa, and the methanol and water extracts from the leaves of S. myrtifolium were highly active (MFC<0.1mg/mL) and with high selectivity indices (SI>2.8) against reference strains of T. rubrum and T. interdigitale, and most of the clinical isolates of T. tonsurans. Phytochemical analysis indicates the presence of alkaloids, anthraquinones, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, phenolics and triterpenoids in the extracts.

    CONCLUSIONS: The medicinal plant extracts exhibited stronger antidermatophytic activity compared to the algae extracts. The leaves of R. excelsa and S. myrtifolium are potential sources of new antidermatophytic agents against Trichophyton spp.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Survival/drug effects
  8. Shokryazdan P, Jahromi MF, Liang JB, Sieo CC, Kalavathy R, Idrus Z, et al.
    J Food Sci, 2017 Nov;82(11):2734-2745.
    PMID: 29023714 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.13921
    Twelve previously isolated Lactobacillus strains were investigated for their in vitro bioactivities, including bile salt hydrolase (BSH), cholesterol-reducing and antioxidant activities, cytotoxic effects against cancer cells, enzyme activity, and biogenic amine production. Among them, only 4 strains showed relatively high BSH activity, whereas the rest exhibited low BSH activity. All 12 strains showed cholesterol-reducing and antioxidant activities, especially in their intact cells, which in most of the cases, the isolated strains were stronger in these activities than the tested commercial reference strains. None of the tested strains produced harmful enzymes (β-glucosidase and β-glucuronidase) or biogenic amines. Among the 12 strains, 3 strains were tested for their cytotoxic effects against 3 cancer cell lines, which exhibited strong cytotoxic effects, and they also showed selectivity in killing cancer cells when compared to normal cells. Hence, all 12 Lactobacillus strains could be considered good potential probiotic candidates because of their beneficial functional bioactivities.

    PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The Lactobacillus strains tested in this study could be considered good potential probiotic candidates for food/feed industry because of their beneficial functional bioactivities such as good cholesterol-reducing ability, high antioxidant activity, and good and selective cytotoxic effect against cancer cells.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Survival/drug effects
  9. Seow SL, Naidu M, Sabaratnam V, Vidyadaran S, Wong KH
    Int J Med Mushrooms, 2017;19(5):405-418.
    PMID: 28845770 DOI: 10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.v19.i5.30
    In Malaysia and China, the sclerotium of Lignosus rhinocerotis is used by local communities and traditional medicine practitioners as a general tonic and remedy to treat a variety of ailments, including inflammation-associated disorders. In this study, 10 samples from different preparations of L. rhinocerotis sclerotium, including a hot aqueous extract (HAE), an ethanol extract (EE), fractions from the HAE and EE, and crude polysaccharides, were tested for their in vitro cytotoxic and nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory activities in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)--stimulated BV2 microglia. Of the 10 samples tested, HAE was the least cytotoxic toward BV2 microglia, with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 176.23 ± 2.64 mg/mL at 24 hours of incubation and 20.01 ± 1.69 mg/ mL at 48 hours of incubation. The inhibition of NO production was explored by pretreatment of BV2 microglia with samples at 2 incubation time points (4 and 24 hours) before the stimulation by LPS for 24 hours. After 24 hours of pretreatment, 8 of the 10 samples inhibited NO production by 50% or more, and cytotoxic effects were not observed. Among the 8 active samples, 500 µg/mL of HAE, 250 µg/mL of an n-butanol fraction of the HAE, and 250 µg/mL of an ethyl acetate fraction of HAE showed maximum inhibition of NO production by 88.95%, 86.50%, and 85.93%, respectively. These results suggest that the L. rhinocerotis sclerotium may contain secondary metabolites that have the potential to inhibit NO production.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Survival/drug effects
  10. Ghanghoria R, Kesharwani P, Jain NK
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2017;17(18):1713-1724.
    PMID: 26891934 DOI: 10.2174/1389557516666160219122002
    The experimental models are of vital significance to provide information regarding biological as well as genetic factors that control the phenotypic characteristics of the disease and serve as the foundation for the development of rational intervention stratagem. This review highlights the importance of experimental models in the field of cancer management. The process of pathogenesis in cancer progression, invasion and metastasis can be successfully explained by employing clinically relevant laboratory models of the disease. Cancer cell lines have been used extensively to monitor the process of cancer pathogenesis process by controlling growth regulation and chemo-sensitivity for the evaluation of novel therapeutics in both in vitro and xenograft models. The experimental models have been used for the elaboration of diagnostic or therapeutic protocols, and thus employed in preclinical studies of bioactive agents relevant for cancer prevention. The outcome of this review should provide useful information in understanding and selection of various models in accordance with the stage of cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Survival/drug effects
  11. Pandey M, Mohamad N, Low WL, Martin C, Mohd Amin MC
    Drug Deliv Transl Res, 2017 02;7(1):89-99.
    PMID: 27815776 DOI: 10.1007/s13346-016-0341-8
    Burn wound management is a complex process because the damage may extend as far as the dermis which has an acknowledged slow rate of regeneration. This study investigates the feasibility of using hydrogel microparticles composed of bacterial cellulose and polyacrylamide as a dressing material for coverage of partial-thickness burn wounds. The microparticulate carrier structure and surface morphology were investigated by Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. The cytotoxicity profile of the microparticles showed cytocompatibility with L929 cells. Dermal irritation test demonstrated that the hydrogel was non-irritant to the skin and had a significant effect on wound contraction compared to the untreated group. Moreover, histological examination of in vivo burn healing samples revealed that the hydrogel treatment enhanced epithelialization and accelerated fibroblast proliferation with wound repair and intact skin achieved by the end of the study. Both the in vitro and in vivo results proved the biocompatibility and efficacy of hydrogel microparticles as a wound dressing material.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Survival/drug effects
  12. Ghassem M, Arihara K, Mohammadi S, Sani NA, Babji AS
    Food Funct, 2017 May 24;8(5):2046-2052.
    PMID: 28497137 DOI: 10.1039/c6fo01615d
    Edible bird's nest (EBN) is widely consumed as a delicacy and traditional medicine amongst the Chinese. In the present study, for the first time, the antioxidant properties of an EBN pepsin-trypsin hydrolysate of the swiftlet species Aerodramus fuciphagus and its ultrafiltration fractions were investigated. Thirteen peptides with molecular weights between 514.29 and 954.52 Da were identified in the EBN fraction with the use of mass spectrometry. Two novel pentapeptides Pro-Phe-His-Pro-Tyr and Leu-Leu-Gly-Asp-Pro, corresponding to f134-138 and f164-168 of cytochrome b of A. fuciphagus, indicated the highest ORAC values of 14.95 and 14.32 μM of TE μM(-1) peptide, respectively. Both purified peptides showed resistance against simulated gastrointestinal proteases. In addition, both peptides had no in vitro cytotoxicity on human lung MRC-5 cells and prevented human liver carcinoma HepG2 cellular damage caused by hydroxyl radicals. Therefore, it is suggested that EBN protein hydrolysates are a good source of natural antioxidants and could be applied as nutraceutical compounds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Survival/drug effects
  13. Arbain NH, Salim N, Masoumi HRF, Wong TW, Basri M, Abdul Rahman MB
    Drug Deliv Transl Res, 2019 04;9(2):497-507.
    PMID: 29541999 DOI: 10.1007/s13346-018-0509-5
    Bioavailability of quercetin, a flavonoid potentially known to combat cancer, is challenging due to hydrophobic nature. Oil-in-water (O/W) nanoemulsion system could be used as nanocarrier for quercertin to be delivered to lung via pulmonary delivery. The novelty of this nanoformulation was introduced by using palm oil ester/ricinoleic acid as oil phase which formed spherical shape nanoemulsion as measured by transmission electron microscopy and Zetasizer analyses. High energy emulsification method and D-optimal mixture design were used to optimize the composition towards the volume median diameter. The droplet size, polydispersity index, and zeta potential of the optimized formulation were 131.4 nm, 0.257, and 51.1 mV, respectively. The formulation exhibited high drug entrapment efficiency and good stability against phase separation and storage at temperature 4 °C for 3 months. It was discovered that the system had an acceptable median mass aerodynamic diameter (3.09 ± 0.05 μm) and geometric standard deviation (1.77 ± 0.03) with high fine particle fraction (90.52 ± 0.10%), percent dispersed (83.12 ± 1.29%), and percent inhaled (81.26 ± 1.28%) for deposition in deep lung. The in vitro release study demonstrated that the sustained release pattern of quercetin from naneomulsion formulation up to 48 h of about 26.75% release and it was in adherence to Korsmeyer's Peppas mechanism. The cytotoxicity study demonstrated that the optimized nanoemulsion can potentially induce cyctotoxicity towards A549 lung cancer cells without affecting the normal cells. These results of the study suggest that nanoemulsion is a potential carrier system for pulmonary delivery of molecules with low water solubility like quercetin.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Survival/drug effects
  14. Chew MT, Bradley DA, Suzuki M, Matsufuji N, Murakami T, Jones B, et al.
    J. Radiat. Res., 2019 Mar 01;60(2):178-188.
    PMID: 30624699 DOI: 10.1093/jrr/rry099
    The effects of the charged ion species 4He, 12C and 20Ne on glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) T98G, U87 and LN18 cell lines were compared with the effects of 200 kVp X-rays (1.7 keV/μm). These cell lines have different genetic profiles. Individual GBM relative biological effectiveness (RBE) was estimated in two ways: the RBE10 at 10% survival fraction and the RBE2Gy after 2 Gy doses. The linear quadratic model radiosensitivity parameters α and β and the α/β ratio of each ion type were determined as a function of LET. Mono-energetic 4He, 12C and 20Ne ions were generated by the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Chiba, Japan. Colony-formation assays were used to evaluate the survival fractions. The LET of the various ions used ranged from 2.3 to 100 keV/μm (covering the depth-dose plateau region to clinically relevant LET at the Bragg peak). For U87 and LN18, the RBE10 increased with LET and peaked at 85 keV/μm, whereas T98G peaked at 100 keV/μm. All three GBM α parameters peaked at 100 keV/μm. There is a statistically significant difference between the three GBM RBE10 values, except at 100 keV/μm (P < 0.01), and a statistically significant difference between the α values of the GBM cell lines, except at 85 and 100 keV/μm. The biological response varied depending on the GBM cell lines and on the ions used.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Survival/drug effects
  15. Tieng FYF, Latifah SY, Md Hashim NF, Khaza'ai H, Ahmat N, Gopalsamy B, et al.
    Molecules, 2019 Jul 18;24(14).
    PMID: 31323836 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24142619
    Breast cancer is the most common and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women. It has two distinctive hallmarks: rapid abnormal growth and the ability to invade and metastasize. During metastasis, cancer cells are thought to form actin-rich protrusions, called invadopodia, which degrade the extracellular matrix. Current breast cancer treatments, particularly chemotherapy, comes with adverse effects like immunosuppression, resistance development and secondary tumour formation. Hence, naturally-occurring molecules claimed to be less toxic are being studied as new drug candidates. Ampelopsin E, a natural oligostilbene extracted from Dryobalanops species, has exhibited various pharmacological properties, including anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. However, there is yet no scientific evidence of the effects of ampelopsin E towards metastasis. Scratch assay, transwell migration and invasion assays, invadopodia and gelatin degradation assays, and ELISA were used to determine the effects of ampelopsin E towards the invasiveness of MDA-MB-231 cells. Strikingly in this study, ampelopsin E was able to halt migration, transmigration and invasion in MDA-MB-231 cells by reducing formation of invadopodia and its degradation capability through significant reduction (p < 0.05) in expression levels of PDGF, MMP2, MMP9 and MMP14. In conclusion, ampelopsin E reduced the invasiveness of MDA-MB-231 cells and was proven to be a potential alternative in treating TNBC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Survival/drug effects
  16. Nair RS, Morris A, Billa N, Leong CO
    AAPS PharmSciTech, 2019 Jan 10;20(2):69.
    PMID: 30631984 DOI: 10.1208/s12249-018-1279-6
    Curcumin-loaded chitosan nanoparticles were synthesised and evaluated in vitro for enhanced transdermal delivery. Zetasizer® characterisation of three different formulations of curcumin nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) showed the size ranged from 167.3 ± 3.8 nm to 251.5 ± 5.8 nm, the polydispersity index (PDI) values were between 0.26 and 0.46 and the zeta potential values were positive (+ 18.1 to + 20.2 mV). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images supported this size data and confirmed the spherical shape of the nanoparticles. All the formulations showed excellent entrapment efficiency above 80%. FTIR results demonstrate the interaction between chitosan and sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) and confirm the presence of curcumin in the nanoparticle. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies of Cu-NPs indicate the presence of curcumin in a disordered crystalline or amorphous state, suggesting the interaction between the drug and the polymer. Drug release studies showed an improved drug release at pH 5.0 than in pH 7.4 and followed a zero order kinetics. The in vitro permeation studies through Strat-M® membrane demonstrated an enhanced permeation of Cu-NPs compared to aqueous curcumin solution (p ˂ 0.05) having a flux of 0.54 ± 0.03 μg cm-2 h-1 and 0.44 ± 0.03 μg cm-2 h-1 corresponding to formulations 5:1 and 3:1, respectively. The cytotoxicity assay on human keratinocyte (HaCat) cells showed enhanced percentage cell viability of Cu-NPs compared to curcumin solution. Cu-NPs developed in this study exhibit superior drug release and enhanced transdermal permeation of curcumin and superior percentage cell viability. Further ex vivo and in vivo evaluations will be conducted to support these findings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Survival/drug effects
  17. Tham SY, Loh HS, Mai CW, Fu JY
    Int J Mol Sci, 2019 Jan 16;20(2).
    PMID: 30654580 DOI: 10.3390/ijms20020372
    Malignancy often arises from sophisticated defects in the intricate molecular mechanisms of cells, rendering a complicated molecular ground to effectively target cancers. Resistance toward cell death and enhancement of cell survival are the common adaptations in cancer due to its infinite proliferative capacity. Existing cancer treatment strategies that target a single molecular pathway or cancer hallmark fail to fully resolve the problem. Hence, multitargeted anticancer agents that can concurrently target cell death and survival pathways are seen as a promising alternative to treat cancer. Tocotrienols, a minor constituent of the vitamin E family that have previously been reported to induce various cell death mechanisms and target several key survival pathways, could be an effective anticancer agent. This review puts forward the potential application of tocotrienols as an anticancer treatment from a perspective of influencing the life or death decision of cancer cells. The cell death mechanisms elicited by tocotrienols, particularly apoptosis and autophagy, are highlighted. The influences of several cell survival signaling pathways in shaping cancer cell death, particularly NF-κB, PI3K/Akt, MAPK, and Wnt, are also reviewed. This review may stimulate further mechanistic researches and foster clinical applications of tocotrienols via rational drug designs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Survival/drug effects
  18. Abd Hamid H, Mutazah R, Yusoff MM, Abd Karim NA, Abdull Razis AF
    Food Chem Toxicol, 2017 Oct;108(Pt B):451-457.
    PMID: 27725206 DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2016.10.004
    Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk. has a wide spectrum of pharmacological effects and has been used to treat wounds, colic diarrhoea, heartburns, abscesses and gynaecopathy. The potential antiproliferative activities of R. tomentosa extracts from different solvents were evaluated in vitro on HepG2, MCF-7 and HT 29 cell lines while antioxidant activity was monitored by radical scavenging assay (DPPH), copper reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) and β-carotene bleaching assay. Extracts from R. tomentosa show the viability of the cells in concentration-dependent manner. According to the IC50 obtained, the ethyl acetate extracts showed significant antiproliferative activity on HepG2 (IC50 11.47 ± 0.280 μg/mL), MCF-7 (IC50 2.68 ± 0.529 μg/mL) and HT 29 (IC50 16.18 ± 0.538 μg/mL) after 72 h of treatment. Bioassay guided fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract led to the isolation of lupeol. Methanol extracts show significant antioxidant activities in DPPH (EC50 110.25 ± 0.005 μg/ml), CUPRAC (EC50 53.84 ± 0.004) and β-carotene bleaching (EC50 58.62 ± 0.001) due to the presence of high total flavonoid and total phenolic content which were 110.822 ± 0.017 mg butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)/g and 190.467 ± 0.009 mg gallic acid (GAE)/g respectively. Taken together, the results extracts show the R. tomentosa as a potential source of antioxidant and antiproliferative efficacy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Survival/drug effects*
  19. Abdullah R, Alhusainy W, Woutersen J, Rietjens IM, Punt A
    Food Chem Toxicol, 2016 Jun;92:104-16.
    PMID: 27016491 DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2016.03.017
    Aristolochic acids are naturally occurring nephrotoxins. This study aims to investigate whether physiologically based kinetic (PBK) model-based reverse dosimetry could convert in vitro concentration-response curves of aristolochic acid I (AAI) to in vivo dose response-curves for nephrotoxicity in rat, mouse and human. To achieve this extrapolation, PBK models were developed for AAI in these different species. Subsequently, concentration-response curves obtained from in vitro cytotoxicity models were translated to in vivo dose-response curves using PBK model-based reverse dosimetry. From the predicted in vivo dose-response curves, points of departure (PODs) for risk assessment could be derived. The PBK models elucidated species differences in the kinetics of AAI with the overall catalytic efficiency for metabolic conversion of AAI to aristolochic acid Ia (AAIa) being 2-fold higher for rat and 64-fold higher for mouse than human. Results show that the predicted PODs generally fall within the range of PODs derived from the available in vivo studies. This study provides proof of principle for a new method to predict a POD for in vivo nephrotoxicity by integrating in vitro toxicity testing with in silico PBK model-based reverse dosimetry.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Survival/drug effects*
  20. Tang HW, Abbasiliasi S, Murugan P, Tam YJ, Ng HS, Tan JS
    Biosci Biotechnol Biochem, 2020 Sep;84(9):1913-1920.
    PMID: 32448058 DOI: 10.1080/09168451.2020.1770572
    The aims of this study were to compare the effectiveness of different drying methods and to investigate the effects of adding a series of individual protectant such as skim milk, sucrose, maltodextrin, and corn starch for preserving Lactobacillus acidophilus FTDC 3081 cells during spray and freeze-drying and storage at different temperatures. Results showed a remarkable high survival rate of 70-80% immediately after spray- and freeze-drying in which the cell viability retained at the range of 109 to 1010 CFU/mL. After a month of storage, maltodextrin showed higher protective ability on both spray- and freeze-dried cells as compared to other protective agents at 4°C, 25°C, and 40°C. A complete loss in viability of spray-dried L. acidophilus FTDC 3081 was observed after a month at 40°C in the absence of protective agent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Survival/drug effects
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