METHODS: Adult WKY male rats were randomly distributed in nine groups: intact control, diabetic control, diabetic + 625 mg/kg, 1.25 g/kg UD, diabetic + 100 mg/kg Metformin, diabetic + swimming, diabetic + swimming 625 mg/kg, 1.25 g/kg UD, and diabetic +100 mg/kg Metformin + swimming. The hearts of the animals were punctured, and blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis. The entire pancreas was exposed for histologic examination. The effect of UD on insulin secretion by RIN-5F cells in 6.25 or 12.5 mM glucose dose was examined. Glucose uptake by cultured L6 myotubes was determined.
RESULTS: The serum glucose concentration decreased, the insulin resistance and insulin sensitivity significantly increased in treated groups. These changes were more pronounced in the group that received UD extract and swimming training. Regeneration and less beta cell damage of Langerhans islets were observed in the treated groups. UD treatment increased insulin secretion in the RIN-5F cells and glucose uptake in the L6 myotubes cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Swimming exercises accompanied by consuming UD aqueous extracts effectively improved diabetic parameters, repaired pancreatic tissues in streptozotocin-induced diabetics in vivo, and increased glucose uptake or insulin in UD-treated cells in vitro.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A national health survey was conducted in Malaysia in 1996. A total of 18,397 subjects aged > or =30 years had post-challenge BG measurements taken. To test whether BG was consistent with a bimodal distribution, we fitted unimodal normal and skewed distribution as well a mixture of two normal distributions to the data by age and ethnic groups.
RESULTS: Age-specific prevalence of diabetes varied from 1.3 to 26.3%. In all ethnic/age groups, the bimodal model fitted the log BG data better (likelihood ratio tests, all P values <0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Bimodality in BG distribution is demonstrable even in populations with a very low prevalence of diabetes and obesity. Previous studies that found unimodality had failed to detect the second mode because of inadequate sample size, bias due to treatment of subjects with known diabetes, and inclusion of subjects with type 1 diabetes in the sample. Bimodality implies that diabetes is a distinct entity rather than an arbitrarily defined extreme end of a continuously distributed measurement.